Hygienic Quality (hygienic + quality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Judgement of hygienic quality of roughage in horse stables in Switzerland

B. Wichert
Summary In 46 horse farms all over Switzerland, the hygienic quality of the roughage (including silages) was investigated. Therefore, a macroscopic examination as well as the microbial counts (bacteria, yeasts and moulds) was carried out. Further, the contents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON) were determined. In all roughages, the dry matter (DM) content was measured and in silages additionally the pH was measured. Predominantly, the straw showed a lower hygienic quality than hay and silages. The LPS contents were significantly higher in straw than those in hay samples. The macroscopic examination and the microbial counts showed a tendency in the same direction. Eight straw samples and one hay sample with DON contamination were found. The silages showed a DM content with a median of 65.8%. The pH of those silages was between 4.3 and 5.9. Despite the high values of DM and pH, the silages showed mainly a high hygienic quality. In total, the hygienic standard of straw was worse than that of hay. This should be taken into account also in straw used as bedding as much as the hygienic quality of hay. [source]

Comparison of methods for determining the numbers and species distribution of coliform bacteria in well water samples

R.M. Niemi
R.M. NIEMI, M.P. HEIKKILÄ, K. LAHTI, S. KALSO AND S.I. NIEMELÄ. 2001. Aims: Enumeration of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli is the most widely used method in the estimation of hygienic quality of drinking water. The yield of target bacteria and the species composition of different populations of coliform bacteria may depend on the method. Three methods were compared. Methods and Results:,Three membrane filtration methods were used for the enumeration of coliform bacteria in shallow well waters. The yield of confirmed coliform bacteria was highest on Differential Coliform agar, followed by LES Endo agar. Differential Coliform agar had the highest proportion of typical colonies, of which 74% were confirmed as belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. Of the typical colonies on Lactose Tergitol 7 TTC agar, 75% were confirmed as Enterobacteriaceae, whereas 92% of typical colonies on LES Endo agar belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae. LES Endo agar yielded many Serratia strains, Lactose Tergitol 7 TTC agar yielded numerous strains of Rahnella aquatilis and Enterobacter, whereas Differential Coliform agar yielded the widest range of species. Conclusions: The yield of coliform bacteria varied between methods. Each method compared had a characteristic species distribution of target bacteria and a typical level of interference of non-target bacteria. Identification with routine physiological tests to distinct species was hampered by the slight differences between species. High yield and sufficient selectivity are difficult to achieve simultaneously, especially if the target group is diverse. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results showed that several aspects of method performance should be considered, and that the target group must be distinctly defined to enable method comparisons. [source]


ABSTRACT Drying is one of the common methods of food preservation and is carried out on untreated/unblanched and treated/blanched chili pepper using sun, solar and hot-air drying. The drying curves generated from the three methods showed that drying of treated/blanched pepper was faster than that of untreated/unblanched pepper. The drying rate period observed for all the methods and samples was the falling rate drying regime. This suggests that the blanching pretreatment assisted water loss and thus decreased the resistance to water loss at the surface of the product. The drying time of the dried pepper varied from 27 h for hot-air drying to 144.5 h for sun drying respectively. The values of moisture diffusivity coefficient ranged from 2.163 × 10,9 m2/s for hot-air drying to 1.125 × 10,9 m2/s for sun drying. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS A common method of preserving pepper, a vegetable with versatile use, is drying and this is done by sun, solar and oven-drying methods. Climatic variations of sun and solar drying make it unsuitable for large-scale production. Hot-air drying is thus considered as an alternative drying method because it decreases drying time and improves the hygienic quality of the dried product. Pretreating pepper by blanching increases its rate of drying. The effect of each drying method on the drying rate, equilibrium moisture content and moisture diffusivity coefficient were used to compare the drying methods. Hot-air drying had the lowest drying time whereas pretreated samples also dried faster. The effective moisture diffusivity of oven dried samples as well as pretreated samples were highest. This indicates that oven drying reduces drying time and can be used to dry pepper samples for large-scale production. [source]

The bacterial quality of red meat and offal in Casablanca (Morocco)

Nozha Cohen
Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the bacteriological quality of beef (n = 52), lamb (n = 52) and beef offal (n = 52) marketed in Casablanca, Morocco. Meat and offal samples (n = 156), were collected randomly from butcheries, supermarkets, and slaughterhouses. Two sampling periods were considered, one during the hot season and the second one during the cold season. The samples were analyzed for the presence of the following bacteria: Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that counts of the aerobic plate count, and fecal coliforms were particularly high in all the samples analyzed. E. coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and C. perfringens were detected in 37.8, 16, and 4.5% of the meat samples, respectively. Neither Salmonella nor L. monocytogenes were isolated from meat samples. Approximately 26.9% of beef, 34.6% of lamb and 28.8% of beef offal samples contained bacteria above the maximum limits established by the Moroccan regulatory standards for meat and meat products. Seasonality and the distribution location significantly (p < 0.05) affected bacterial populations: the hot season and butcheries appeared to be cases where the highest populations of bacteria in meat were observed. These high levels of microbiological contamination attest the poor hygienic quality of meat and offal, possibly due to uncontrolled processing, storage, and handling of these products. [source]