Hydroxylated Metabolites (hydroxylated + metabolite)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interaction of tributyltin with hepatic cytochrome P450 and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase systems of fish: In vitro studies

Yolanda Morcillo
Abstract Hepatic microsomes of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) were preincubated in the presence of a concentration range of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) chloride, and the interactions of TBT with cytochrome P450 and uridine diphosphate,glucuronyl transferase systems were investigated. The enzyme systems were examined in terms of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O -deethylase (EROD) activity and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolism and in terms of glucuronidation of testosterone and 17,-estradiol, respectively. Ethoxyresorufin O -deethylase and BaP hydroxylase (BPH) activities of both fish species were progressively inhibited by increasing concentrations of TBT, and the effects were more pronounced for EROD than for BPH (maximal inhibition at 100 ,M TBT for EROD and 250,500 ,M TBT for BPH). Hydroxylated metabolites of BaP (3-hydroxy-, 7,8-dihydrodiol, and 9,10-dihydrodiol), representing 95% of the total metabolites formed, were reduced up to 75 % in the presence of 100 to 500 ,M TBT, whereas the formation of other metabolites was less affected. This may alter BaP toxicity and carcinogenicity. Overall, the results were consistent with a specific inhibitory effect of TBT on CYP1A in the two fish species. Additionally, the conjugation of testosterone was significantly inhibited (20%) at low TBT doses (5 ,M), with no effect on the glucuronidation of estradiol. [source]

Enantioselective analysis of ketamine and its metabolites in equine plasma and urine by CE with multiple isomer sulfated ,-CD

Regula Theurillat
Abstract CE with multiple isomer sulfated ,-CD as the chiral selector was assessed for the simultaneous analysis of the enantiomers of ketamine and metabolites in extracts of equine plasma and urine. Different lots of the commercial chiral selector provided significant changes in enantiomeric ketamine separability, a fact that can be related to the manufacturing variability. A mixture of two lots was found to provide high-resolution separations and interference-free detection of the enantiomers of ketamine, norketamine, dehydronorketamine, and an incompletely identified hydroxylated metabolite of norketamine in liquid/liquid extracts of the two body fluids. Ketamine, norketamine, and dehydronorketamine could be unambiguously identified via HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts and using LC-MS and LC-MS/MS with 1,mmu mass discrimination. The CE assay was used to characterize the stereoselectivity of the compounds' enantiomers in the samples of five ponies anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and treated with intravenous continuous infusion of racemic ketamine. The concentrations of the ketamine enantiomers in plasma are equal, whereas the urinary amount of R -ketamine is larger than that of S -ketamine. Plasma and urine contain higher S - than R -norketamine levels and the mean S -/R -enantiomer ratios of dehydronorketamine in plasma and urine are lower than unity and similar. [source]

Metabolism of the major Echinacea alkylamide N -isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z -tetraenamide by human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes

F. Toselli
Abstract Echinacea preparations are used for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. The phytochemicals believed responsible for the immunomodulatory properties are the alkylamides found in ethanolic extracts, with one of the most abundant being the N -isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z -tetraenamide (1). In this study, we evaluated the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of this alkylamide using recombinant P450s, human liver microsomes and pure synthetic compound. Epoxidation, N -dealkylation and hydroxylation products were detected, with different relative amounts produced by recombinant P450s and microsomes. The major forms showing activity toward the metabolism of 1 were CYP1A1, CYP1A2 (both producing the same epoxide and N -dealkylation product), CYP2A13 (producing two epoxides), and CYP2D6 (producing two epoxides and an hydroxylated metabolite). Several other forms showed less activity. In incubations with human liver microsomes and selective inhibitors, CYP2E1 was found to be principally responsible for producing the dominant, hydroxylation product, whereas CYP2C9 was the principal source of the epoxides and CYP1A2 was responsible for the dealkylation product. In summary, in this study the relative impacts of the main human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s on the metabolism of a major Echinacea alkylamide have been established and the metabolites formed have been identified. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

In vitro Metabolism of Genistein and Tangeretin by Human and Murine Cytochrome P450s

Vibeke M. Breinholt
Analysis of the metabolic profile from incubations with genistein and human liver microsomes revealed the production of five different metabolites, of which three were obtained in sufficient amounts to allow a more detailed elucidation of the structure. One of these metabolites was identified as orobol, the 3,-hydroxylated metabolite of genistein. The remaining two metabolites were also hydroxylated metabolites as evidenced by LC/MS. Orobol was the only metabolite formed after incubation with CYP1A2. The two major product peaks after incubation of tangeretin with human microsomes were identical with 4,-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone and 5,6-dihydroxy-4,,7,8-trimethoxyflavone, previously identified in rat urine in our laboratory. By comparison with UV spectra and LC/MS fragmentation patterns of previously obtained standards, the remaining metabolites eluting after 14, 17 and 20 min. were found to be demethylated at the 4,,7-, 4,,6-positions or hydroxylated at the 3,- and demethylated at the 4,-positions, respectively. Metabolism of tangeretin by recombinant CYP1A2, 3A4, 2D6 and 2C9 resulted in metabolic profiles that qualitatively were identical to those observed in the human microsomes. Inclusion of the CYP1A2 inhibitor fluvoxamine in the incubation mixture with human liver microsomes resulted in potent inhibition of tangeretin and genistein metabolism. Other isozymes-selective CYP inhibitors had only minor effects on tangeretin or genistein metabolism. Overall the presented observations suggest major involvement of CYP1A2 in the hepatic metabolism of these two flavonoids. [source]

Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in human liver and adipose tissue

Daiva Meironyte Guvenius
Abstract A method for analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) was developed and adopted to the previously described method for determination of PCBs and methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO2 -PCBs) in human liver and adipose tissue. The concentrations of OH-PCBs (14 congeners), MeSO2 -PCBs (24 congeners), and PCBs (17 congeners) in five paired samples of human liver and adipose tissue are reported. The sum of OH-PCB congeners was higher in liver (7,175 ng/g lipids) than in adipose tissue (0.3,9 ng/g lipids). In both liver and adipose tissue, 2,2,,3,4,4,,5,-hexachloro-3,-biphenylol (3,-OH-CB138) and 2,2,,3,3,,4,5,-hexachloro-4,-biphenylol (4,-OH-CB130) were the predominant hydroxylated PCB metabolites. The sum of OH-PCB congeners were of the same order of magnitude as those of methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCB in the same samples, 12 to 358 ng/g lipids and 2 to 9 ng/g lipids in liver and adipose tissue, respectively. The levels of PCBs were similar in liver and adipose tissue, 459 to 2,085 ng/g lipids and 561 to 2,343 ng/g lipids, respectively. The sum of OH-PCBs and the sum of MeSO2 -PCBs correlated to the sum of PCBs. The determined PCB metabolites constituted 3 to 26% of total PCB concentration in the liver and 0.3 to 0.8% of total PCBs in the adipose tissue samples. [source]

The 15N-CPMAS spectra of simazine and its metabolites: measurements and quantum chemical calculations

A. E. Berns
Summary DFT calculations are a powerful tool to support NMR studies of xenobiotics such as decomposition studies in soil. They can help interpret spectra of bound residues, for example, by predicting shifts for possible model bonds. The described bound-residue models supported the hypothesis of a free amino side chain already suspected by comparison with the experimental data of the standards. No match was found between the calculated shifts of amide bondings of the amino side chains (free or substituted) and the experimental NMR shifts of a previous study. In the present paper, first-principles quantum chemical calculations were used to support and check the interpretation of the 15N cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (15N-CPMAS NMR) spectra of simazine and its metabolites. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed using Gaussian 03 and the nuclear magnetic shielding tensors were calculated using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and B3LYP/6,311+G(2d,p) model chemistry. Good agreement was reached between the calculated and measured chemical shifts of the core nitrogens and the lactam and lactim forms of the hydroxylated metabolites could be clearly distinguished. The calculated spectra showed that these metabolites exist preferentially in the lactam form, an important fact when considering the possible interactions of such hydroxylated metabolites with the soil matrix. Although the calculated bound-residue models in the present study only partly matched the experimental data, they were nevertheless useful in helping to interpret the experimental NMR results of a previous study. To get a better match between the calculated and the measured shifts of the side-chain nitrogens the calculations need to be further developed, taking into account the influence of neighbouring molecules in the solid state. Altogether, quantum chemical calculations are very helpful in the interpretation of NMR spectra. In the future, they can also be very useful for the prediction of NMR shifts, in particular when it is not possible to measure the metabolites due to a lack of material or in cases where practical experiments cannot be conducted. [source]

Evidence that both 1,,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24-hydroxylated D3 enhance human osteoblast differentiation and mineralization

M. van Driel
Abstract Vitamin D plays a major role in the regulation of mineral homeostasis and affects bone metabolism. So far, detailed knowledge on the vitamin D endocrine system in human bone cells is limited. Here we investigated the direct effects of 1,,25-(OH)2D3 on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Also, we studied the impact of 24-hydroxylation, generally considered as the first step in the degradation pathway of vitamin D, as well as the role of the nuclear and presumed membrane vitamin D receptor (VDR). For this we used a human osteoblast cell line (SV-HFO) that has the potency to differentiate during culture forming a mineralized extracellular matrix in a 3-week period. Transcriptional analyses demonstrated that both 1,,25-(OH)2D3 and the 24-hydroxylated metabolites 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and 1,,24R,25-(OH)3D3 induced gene transcription. All metabolites dose-dependently increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OC) production (protein and RNA), and directly enhanced mineralization. 1,,24R,25-(OH)3D3 stimulated ALP activity and OC production most potently, while for mineralization it was equipotent to 1,,25-(OH)2D3. The nuclear VDR antagonist ZK159222 almost completely blocked the effects of all metabolites. Interestingly, 1,,25-(OH)2D3, an inhibitor of membrane effects of 1,,25-(OH)2D3 in the intestine, induced gene transcription and increased ALP activity, OC expression and mineralization. In conclusion, not only 1,,25-(OH)2D3, but also the presumed 24-hydroxylated "degradation" products stimulate differentiation of human osteoblasts. 1,,25-(OH)2D3 as well as the 24-hydroxylated metabolites directly enhance mineralization, with the nuclear VDR playing a central role. The intestinal antagonist 1,,25-(OH)2D3 acts in bone as an agonist and directly stimulates mineralization in a nuclear VDR-dependent way. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 922,935, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Phosphonium labeling for increasing metabolomic coverage of neutral lipids using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,

Hin-Koon Woo
Mass spectrometry has become an indispensable tool for the global study of metabolites (metabolomics), primarily using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). However, many important classes of molecules such as neutral lipids do not ionize well by ESI and go undetected. Chemical derivatization of metabolites can enhance ionization for increased sensitivity and metabolomic coverage. Here we describe the use of tris(2,4,6,-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium acetic acid (TMPP-AA) to improve liquid chromatography (LC)/ESI-MS detection of hydroxylated metabolites (i.e. lipids) from serum extracts. Cholesterol which is not normally detected from serum using ESI is observed with attomole sensitivity. This approach was applied to identify four endogenous lipids (hexadecanoyl-sn-glycerol, dihydrotachysterol, octadecanol, and alpha-tocopherol) from human serum. Overall, this approach extends the types of metabolites which can be detected using standard ESI-MS instrumentation and demonstrates the potential for targeted metabolomics analysis. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Metabolism of olaquindox in rat liver microsomes: structural elucidation of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry,

Zhaoying Liu
Olaquindox (N -(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl-2-quinoxalincarboxamide-1,4-dioxide) is a growth-promoting feed additive for food-producing animals. Its toxicity is closely related to the metabolism. The complete metabolic pathways of olaquindox are not revealed. To improve studies of the metabolism and toxicity of olaquindox, its biotransformation in rat liver microsomes and the structure of its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/MS-ITTOF) were investigated. When olaquindox was incubated with an NADPH-generating system and rat liver microsomes, ten metabolites (M1,M10) were detected. The structures of these metabolites were identified from mass spectra and comparison of their changes in their accurate molecular masses and fragment ions with those of the parent drug. With the high resolution and good mass accuracy achieved by this technique, the elemental compositions of the metabolites and their fragment ions were exactly determined. The results indicate that the N,,,O group reduction is the main metabolic pathway of olaquindox metabolism in rat liver microsomes, because abundant 1-desolaquindox (M2), 4-desolaquindox (M1) and bisdesoxyolaquindox (M9) were produced during the incubation step. Seven other minor metabolites were revealed which were considered to be hydroxylation metabolites, based on the position of the quinoxaline ring or 3-methyl group and a carboxylic acid derivative on the side chain at position 2 of the quinoxaline ring. Among the identified metabolites, five new hydroxylated metabolites (M3,M7) were found for the first time in rat liver microsomes. This work will conduce to complete clarification of olaquindox metabolism, and improve the in vivo metabolism of olaquindox in food animals. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neuroanatomy of the Subadult and Fetal Brain of the Atlantic White-sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from in Situ Magnetic Resonance Images

Eric W. Montie
Abstract This article provides the first anatomically labeled, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -based atlas of the subadult and fetal Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) brain. It differs from previous MRI-based atlases of cetaceans in that it was created from images of fresh, postmortem brains in situ rather than extracted, formalin-fixed brains. The in situ images displayed the classic hallmarks of odontocete brains: fore-shortened orbital lobes and pronounced temporal width. Olfactory structures were absent and auditory regions (e.g., temporal lobes and inferior colliculi) were enlarged. In the subadult and fetal postmortem MRI scans, the hippocampus was identifiable, despite the relatively small size of this structure in cetaceans. The white matter tracts of the fetal hindbrain and cerebellum were pronounced, but in the telencephalon, the white matter tracts were much less distinct, consistent with less myelin. The white matter tracts of the auditory pathways in the fetal brains were myelinated, as shown by the T2 hypointensity signals for the inferior colliculus, cochlear nuclei, and trapezoid bodies. This finding is consistent with hearing and auditory processing regions maturing in utero in L. acutus, as has been observed for most mammals. In situ MRI scanning of fresh, postmortem specimens can be used not only to study the evolution and developmental patterns of cetacean brains but also to investigate the impacts of natural toxins (such as domoic acid), anthropogenic chemicals (such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and their hydroxylated metabolites), biological agents (parasites), and noise on the central nervous system of marine mammal species. Anat Rec, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Quantitative determination of alkylated quaternary amines and their n -hydroxylated metabolites in an enzyme incubation matrix by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

Victoria E. Holmes
Abstract A simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for studying the in vitro metabolism of the long-chain quaternary ammonium compounds dodecyltrimethylamine, tetradecyltrimethylamine and hexadecyltrimethylamine. Samples were prepared from the biological matrix by a simple protein precipitation stage. The separation was performed using a BDS Hypersil C8 3 m particle size (100 3 mm i.d.) column with a fast gradient separation (60% B to 100% B) using a mobile phase of 10 mm aqueous ammonium acetate (pH 4.0, with 0.06% triethylamine; (A),acetonitrile (B) at 0.7 mL min,1. To minimize contamination of the MS source a switching value was used to divert the solvent front to waste. Decylammonium bromide was used as the internal standard and analytes were identified and quantified by positive ion electrospray selected ion monitoring of their intact molecular cations. The assay had a limit of quantitation of 0.25 m (6.25 pmol on column) and was linear over the range 0.25,100 m assay concentration for this series of long-chain quaternary amines. The precision of intra- and inter-day assays was better than 19% and the accuracy was between 93 and 109%. The method was used to assess the in vitro metabolism of the quaternary amines by wild-type cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP4A1 and mutants in an artifical membrane system. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Human cytochromes mediating gepirone biotransformation at low substrate concentrations

David J. Greenblatt
Abstract Biotransformation of gepirone to 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (1-PP) and 3'-OH-gepirone, as well as two other hydroxylated metabolites, was studied in vitro using a human liver microsomal preparation and heterologously expressed human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The focus was on a low range of gepirone concentrations (1000 nM and below). Liver microsomes formed 1-PP and 3'-OH-gepirone with similar reaction velocities. Two other hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH- and 5-OH-gepirone) were also formed, but pure reference standards were not available for purposes of quantitative analysis. The CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole completely eliminated 1-PP formation, reduced 3'-OH-gepirone formation to less than 20% of control, and reduced 2-OH-gepirone formation to 7% of control. All metabolites were formed by expressed CYP3A4; however, CYP2D6 formed 3'-OH- and 5-OH-gepirone, but not 1-PP or 2-OH-gepirone. Based on estimated relative abundances of the two isoforms in human liver, CYP3A4 was predicted to account for more than 95% of net clearance of gepirone in vivo at low concentrations approaching the therapeutic range. CYP2D6 would account for less than 5% of net clearance. The findings are consistent with previous in vitro studies of gepirone using higher substrate concentrations. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

CYP3A inductive potential of the rifamycins, rifabutin and rifampin, in the rabbit

Allan Weber
Abstract Rifabutin is effective in the treatment and prevention of Mycobacterium avium infection in people with HIV infection. Rifabutin is structurally related to another rifamycin, rifampin, a well-known inducer of the human P-450 isoform 3A. The rabbit isoform CYP3A6 and the human isoform CYP3A4 have similar P-450 predominance and substrate specificity and are both induced by rifampin. Our goal was to predict the CYP3A induction capacity of rifabutin and to determine if ex vivo CYP3A induction potential of rifamycins is predictive of that obtained in vivo. We determined the in vivo and ex vivo CYP3A6 induction by 4 days of treatment with rifabutin (100 mg/kg), rifampin (100 mg/kg), or vehicle (DMSO) in the rabbit. The ex vivo measures were CYP3A6 activity (N-demethylation of erythromycin and hydroxylation of triazolam) and CYP3A content in rabbit hepatic microsomes preparations. The in vivo measures were oral clearance of triazolam and its formation clearance to its hydroxylated metabolites, , -hydroxytriazolam and 4-hydroxytriazolam. Rifampin increased CYP3A6 activity by 2- to 3-fold in hepatic microsomes compared to vehicle. Rifabutin increased CYP3A content 1.7-fold, but did not significantly increase microsomal CYP3A6 activity. Oral triazolam clearance and formation clearances to the two hydroxylated metabolites were 2- to 3-fold greater in rabbits treated with rifampin. These clearances were unaffected by rifabutin administration. Ex vivo enzyme activities correlated with in vivo changes in clearance of triazolam and the formation clearance to its hydroxylated metabolites. Rifabutin is a weaker inducer of CYP3A6 than rifampin. These data suggest that ex vivo enzyme activity is a viable approach to predict in vivo inductive potential of CYP3A inducers. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]