Hydroxylase-positive Neurons (hydroxylase-positive + neuron)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Olfactory bulb hypoplasia in Prokr2 null mice stems from defective neuronal progenitor migration and differentiation

Haydn M. Prosser
Abstract New neurons are added on a daily basis to the olfactory bulb (OB) of a mammal, and this phenomenon exists throughout its lifetime. These new cells are born in the subventricular zone and migrate to the OB via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). To examine the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 (Prokr2) in neurogenesis, we created a Prokr2 null mouse, and report a decrease in the volume of its OB and also a decrease in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells. There is disrupted architecture of the OB, with the glomerular layer containing terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) -positive nuclei and also a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in this layer. In addition, there are increased numbers of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts in the RMS and increased PSA-NCAM (polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule) -positive neuronal progenitors around the olfactory ventricle, indicating their detachment from homotypic chains is compromised. Finally, in support of this, Prokr2-deficient cells expanded in vitro as neurospheres are incapable of migrating towards a source of recombinant human prokineticin 2 (PROK2). Together, these findings suggest an important role for Prokr2 in OB neurogenesis. [source]

Minocycline attenuates hypoxia,ischemia-induced neurological dysfunction and brain injury in the juvenile rat

Lir-Wan Fan
Abstract To investigate whether minocycline provides long-lasting protection against neonatal hypoxia,ischemia-induced brain injury and neurobehavioral deficits, minocycline was administered intraperitoneally in postnatal day 4 Sprague,Dawley rats subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by exposure to hypoxia (8% oxygen for 15 min). Brain injury and myelination were examined on postnatal day 21 (P21) and tests for neurobehavioral toxicity were performed from P3 to P21. Hypoxic,ischemic insults resulted in severe white matter injury, enlarged ventricles, deficits in the hippocampus, reduction in numbers of mature oligodendrocytes and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, damage to axons and dendrites, and impaired myelination, as indicated by the decrease in myelin basic protein immunostaining in the P21 rat brain. Hypoxic,ischemic insult also significantly affected physical development (body weight gain and eye opening) and neurobehavioral performance, including sensorimotor and locomotor function, anxiety and cognitive ability in the P21 rat. Treatments with minocycline significantly attenuated the hypoxia,ischemia-induced brain injury and improved neurobehavioral performance. The protection of minocycline was associated with its ability to reduce microglial activation. The present results show that minocycline has long-lasting protective effects in the neonatal rat brain in terms of both hypoxia,ischemia-induced brain injury and the associated neurological dysfunction. [source]

GDNF enhances the synaptic efficacy of dopaminergic neurons in culture

Marie-JosÚe Bourque
Abstract Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. GDNF also causes an enhancement of dopamine release by a mechanism which is presently unclear. Using isolated dopaminergic neurons of the rat ventral tegmental area in culture, we have tested the hypothesis that GDNF regulates the establishment and functional properties of synaptic terminals. Previous studies have shown that single dopaminergic neurons in culture can co-release glutamate in addition to dopamine, leading to the generation of a fast excitatory autaptic current via glutamate receptors. Using excitatory autaptic currents as an assay for the activity of synapses established by identified dopaminergic neurons, we found that chronically applied GDNF produced a threefold increase in the amplitude of excitatory autaptic currents. This action was specific for dopaminergic neurons because GDNF had no such effect on ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons. The enhancement of excitatory autaptic current amplitude caused by GDNF was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of spontaneous miniature excitatory autaptic currents. These observations confirmed a presynaptic locus of change. We identified synaptic terminals by using synapsin-1 immunofluorescence. In single tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, the number of synapsin-positive puncta which represent putative synaptic terminals was found to be approximately doubled in GDNF-treated cells at 5, 10 and 15 days in culture. The number of such morphologically identified terminals in isolated GABAergic neurons was unchanged by GDNF. These results suggest that one mechanism through which GDNF may enhance dopamine release is through promoting the establishment of new functional synaptic terminals. [source]

P2X2, P2X2,2 and P2X5 receptor subunit expression and function in rat thoracolumbar sympathetic neurons

H. Schńdlich
The present study investigated the pharmacological properties of excitatory P2X receptors and P2X2 and P2X5 receptor subunit expression in rat-cultured thoracolumbar sympathetic neurons. In patch-clamp recordings, ATP (3,1000 Ám; applied for 1 s) induced inward currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,,4,-disulfonate (PPADS; 30 Ám) counteracted the ATP response. In contrast to ATP, ,,,-meATP (30 Ám; for 1 s) was virtually ineffective. Prolonged application of ATP (100 Ám; 10 s) induced receptor desensitization in a significant proportion of sympathetic neurons in a manner typical for P2X2,2 splice variant-mediated responses. Using single-cell RT-PCR, P2X2, P2X2,2 and P2X5 mRNA expression was detectable in individual tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons; coexpression of both P2X2 isoforms was not observed. Laser scanning microscopy revealed both P2X2 and P2X5 immunoreactivity in virtually every TH-positive neuron. P2X2 immunoreactivity was largely distributed over the cell body, whereas P2X5 immunoreactivity was most distinctly located close to the nucleus. In summary, the present study demonstrates the expression of P2X2, P2X2,2 and P2X5 receptor subunits in rat thoracolumbar neurons. The functional data in conjunction with a preferential membranous localization of P2X2/P2X2,2 compared with P2X5 suggest that the excitatory P2X responses are mediated by P2X2 and P2X2,2 receptors. Apparently there exist two types of P2X2 receptor-bearing sympathetic neurons: one major population expressing the unspliced isoform and another minor population expressing the P2X2,2 splice variant. [source]