Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Hydroxylase

  • aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase
  • hydrocarbon hydroxylase
  • lysyl hydroxylase
  • phenylalanine hydroxylase
  • tryptophan hydroxylase

  • Terms modified by Hydroxylase

  • hydroxylase activity
  • hydroxylase deficiency
  • hydroxylase expression
  • hydroxylase gene
  • hydroxylase immunoreactivity
  • hydroxylase inhibitor
  • hydroxylase phosphorylation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Low frequency of Parkin, Tyrosine Hydroxylase, and GTP Cyclohydrolase I gene mutations in a Danish population of early-onset Parkinson's Disease

    J. M. Hertz
    Autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) with early-onset may be caused by mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2). We have ascertained 87 Danish patients with an early-onset form of PD (age at onset ,40 years, or ,50 years if family history is positive) in a multicenter study in order to determine the frequency of PARK2 mutations. Analysis of the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene (GCH1) and the tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH), mutated in dopa-responsive dystonia and juvenile PD, have also been included. Ten different PARK2 mutations were identified in 10 patients. Two of the patients (2.3%) were found to have homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations, and eight of the patients (9.2%) were found to be heterozygous. A mutation has been identified in 10.4% of the sporadic cases and in 15.0% of cases with a positive family history of PD. One patient was found to be heterozygous for both a PARK2 mutation and a missense mutation (A6T) in TH of unknown significance. It cannot be excluded that both mutations contribute to the phenotype. No other putative disease causing TH or GCH1 mutations were found. In conclusion, homozygous, or compound heterozygous PARK2 mutations, and mutations in GCH1 and TH, are rare even in a population of PD patients with early-onset of the disease. [source]

    Molecular basis of Refsum disease: Sequence variations in Phytanoyl-CoA Hydroxylase (PHYH) and the PTS2 receptor (PEX7),

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2004
    Gerbert A. Jansen
    Abstract Refsum disease has long been known to be an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by the accumulation of phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) caused by an ,-oxidation deficiency of this branched chain fatty acid in peroxisomes. The mechanism of phytanic acid ,-oxidation and the enzymes involved had long remained mysterious, but they have been resolved in recent years. This has led to the resolution of the molecular basis of Refsum disease. Interestingly, Refsum disease is genetically heterogeneous; two genes, PHYH (also named PAHX) and PEX7, have been identified to cause Refsum disease, as reviewed in this work. Hum Mutat 23:209-218, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CYP3A4 is a Human Microsomal Vitamin D 25-Hydroxylase,

    Ram P Gupta
    Abstract The human hepatic microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase protein and gene have not been identified with certainty. Sixteen hepatic recombinant microsomal enzymes were screened for 25-hydroxylase activity; 11 had some 25-hydroxylase activity, but CYP3A4 had the highest activity. In characterized liver microsomes, 25-hydroxylase activity correlated significantly with CYP3A4 testosterone 6,-hydroxylase activity. Activity in pooled liver microsomes was inhibited by known inhibitors of CYP3A4 and by an antibody to CYP3A2. Thus, CYP3A4 is a hepatic microsomal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Introduction: Studies were performed to identify human microsomal vitamin D-25 hydroxylase. Materials and Methods: Sixteen major hepatic microsomal recombinant enzymes derived from cytochrome P450 cDNAs expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells were screened for 25-hydroxylase activity with 1,-hydroxyvitamin D2 [1,(OH)D2], 1,-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1,(OH)D3], vitamin D2, and vitamin D3 as substrates. Activity was correlated with known biological activities of enzymes in a panel of 12 characterized human liver microsomes. The effects of known inhibitors and specific antibodies on activity also were determined. Results: CYP3A4, the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver and intestine, had 7-fold greater activity than that of any of the other enzymes with 1,(OH)D2 as substrate. CYP3A4 25-hydroxylase activity was four times higher with 1,(OH)D2 than with 1,(OH)D3 as substrate, was much less with vitamin D2, and was not detected with vitamin D3. 1,(OH)D2 was the substrate in subsequent experiments. In a panel of characterized human liver microsomes, 25-hydroxylase activity correlated with CYP3A4 testosterone 6,-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.93, p < 0.001) and CYP2C91 diclofenac 4,-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.65, p < 0.05), but not with activity of any of the other enzymes. Activity in recombinant CYP3A4 and pooled liver microsomes was dose-dependently inhibited by ketoconazole, troleandomycin, isoniazid, and ,-naphthoflavone, known inhibitors of CYP3A4. Activity in pooled liver microsomes was inhibited by antibodies to CYP3A2 that are known to inhibit CYP3A4 activity. Conclusion: CYP3A4 is a vitamin D 25-hydroxylase for vitamin D2 in human hepatic microsomes and hydroxylates both 1,(OH)D2 and 1,(OH)D3. [source]

    Metyrapone-Induced Glucocorticoid Depletion Modulates Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Phenylethanolamine N -Methyltransferase Gene Expression in the Rat Adrenal Gland by a Noncholinergic Transsynaptic Activation

    C. Laborie
    Abstract The hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the sympathetic nervous system are anatomically and functionally interconnected and hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis contribute to the regulation of catecholaminergic systems. To investigate the role of glucocorticoids on activity of the adrenal gland, we analysed plasma and adrenal catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N -methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA expression in rats injected with metyrapone or dexamethasone. Metyrapone-treated rats had significantly lower epinephrine and higher norepinephrine production than control rats. Metyrapone increased TH protein synthesis and TH mRNA expression whereas its administration did not affect PNMT mRNA expression. Dexamethasone restored plasma and adrenal epinephrine concentrations and increased PNMT mRNA levels, which is consistent with an absolute requirement of glucocorticoids for PNMT expression. Adrenal denervation completely abolished the metyrapone-induced TH mRNA expression. Blockage of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotinic or muscarinic receptor antagonists did not prevent the metyrapone-induced rise in TH mRNA. Finally, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) adrenal content was not affected by metyrapone. These results provide evidence that metyrapone-induced corticosterone depletion elicits transsynaptic TH activation, implying noncholinergic neurotransmission. This may involve neuropeptides other than PACAP. [source]

    Temporal and Spatial Distribution of the Cannabinoid Receptors (CB1, CB2) and Fatty Acid Amide Hydroxylase in the Rat Ovary

    P. Bagavandoss
    Abstract Although the effects of ,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on ovarian physiology have been known for many decades, its mechanism of action in the rat ovary remains poorly understood. The effects of THC and endocannabinoids on many cell types appear to be mediated through the G-protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors. Evidence also suggests that the concentration of the endocannabinoid anandamide is regulated by cellular fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Therefore, we examined the rat ovary for the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors and FAAH. The CB1 receptor was present in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), the granulosa cells of antral follicles, and the luteal cells of functional corpus luteum (CL). The granulosa cells of small preantral follicles, however, did not express the CB1 receptor. Western analysis also demonstrated the presence of a CB1 receptor. In both preantral and antral follicles, the CB2 receptor was detected only in the oocytes. In the functional CL, the CB2 receptor was detected in the luteal cells. FAAH was codistributed with CB2 receptor in both oocytes and luteal cells. FAAH was also present in the OSE, subepithelial cords of the tunica albuginea (TA) below the OSE, and in cells adjacent to developing preantral follicles. Western analysis also demonstrated the presence of FAAH in oocytes of both preantral and antral follicles. Our observations provide potential explanation for the effects of THC on steroidogenesis in the rat ovary observed by earlier investigators and a role for FAAH in the regulation of ovarian anandamide. Anat Rec 293:1425,1432, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A New Non-Azole Inhibitor of ABA 8,-Hydroxylase: Effect of the Hydroxyl Group Substituted for Geminal Methyl Groups in the Six-Membered Ring.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 38 2006
    Yoshiharu Araki
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Ataxic mutant mice with defects in Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit gene: morphological and functional abnormalities in cerebellar cortical neurons

    Kazuhiko Sawada
    ABSTRACT This review summarizes recent studies in the morphological and functional abnormalities of cerebella in three ataxic mutant mice, i.e. tottering mouse, leaner mouse, and rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN). These mutants carry mutations in the Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit gene, and become useful models for human neurological diseases such as episodic ataxia type-2, familial hemiplegic migraine, and spinocerebellar ataxia type-6. All three mutants exhibited altered morphology of the Purkinje cells, ectopic synaptic contacts between granule cell axons (parallel fibers) and Purkinje cell dendritic spines and abnormal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in Purkinje cells. In leaner mice, Purkinje cell loss was observed in alternating sagittal compartments of the cerebellar cortex corresponding to the Zebrin II-negative zones. The mutated Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit was highly expressed in granule and Purkinje cells, and the P-type Ca2+ currents in Purkinje cells were selectively reduced in the mutant mice. Therefore, we concluded that altered Ca2+ currents through the mutated Ca2+ channel ,1A subunit might be involved in the functional and morphological abnormalities in granule and Purkinje cells, and might result in expressions of behavioral phenotypes including ataxia. Increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor and cholecystokinin in some climbing and mossy fibers were observed in RMN. These neuropeptides modulated the excitability of granule and Purkinje cells, indicating the possible expression of ataxic symptoms. [source]

    Role for retinoid signaling in left,right asymmetric digestive organ morphogenesis

    Kristen Lipscomb
    Abstract The looping events that establish left,right asymmetries in the vertebrate gut tube are poorly understood. Retinoic acid signaling is known to impact left,right development in multiple embryonic contexts, although its role in asymmetric digestive organ morphogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that the genes for retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH2) and a retinoic acid hydroxylase (CYP26A1) are expressed in complementary patterns in the Xenopus gut during looping. A late-stage chemical genetic assessment reveals that agonists and antagonists of retinoid signaling generate abnormal gut looping topologies, digestive organ heterotaxias, and intestinal malrotations. Accessory organ deformities commonly associated with intestinal malrotation in humans, such as annular pancreas, pancreas divisum, and extrahepatic biliary tree malformations, are also induced by distinct retinoid receptor agonists. Thus, late-stage retinoic acid signaling is likely to play a critical role in asymmetric gut tube morphogenesis and may underlie the etiology of several clinically relevant defects in the digestive system. Developmental Dynamics 235:2266,2275, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ontogeny of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in mid- and forebrain: Neuromeric pattern and novel positive regions

    Faustino Marín
    Abstract Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines and, thus, critical in determining the catecholaminergic phenotype. In this study, we have examined the expression of TH mRNA by in situ hybridization in the embryonic mouse forebrain and midbrain and have mapped its localization according to the neuromeric pattern. We find that early in embryonic development, 10 to 12 days post coitum (dpc), TH mRNA is expressed in ample continuous regions of the neuroepithelium, extending across several neuromeres. However, from 12.5 dpc onward, the expression becomes restricted to discrete regions, which correspond to the dopaminergic nuclei (A8 to A15). In addition to these nuclei previously described, TH mRNA is also observed in regions that do not express this enzyme according to immunohistochemical studies. This difference in relation to protein expression pattern is consequent with the known posttranscriptional regulation of TH expression. The most representative example of a novel positive region is the conspicuous mRNA expression in both medial and lateral ganglionic eminences. This result agrees with reports describing the capacity of striatal stem cells (that is, located at the lateral ganglionic eminence) to become dopaminergic in vitro. Other regions include the isthmic mantle layer and the early floor plate of the midbrain,caudal forebrain. On the whole, the expression map we have obtained opens new perspectives for evolutionary/comparative studies, as well as for therapeutic approaches looking for potentially dopaminergic cells. Developmental Dynamics 234:709,717, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effects of retinoic acid upon eye field morphogenesis and differentiation

    Gerald W. Eagleson
    Abstract This study describes a whole embryo and embryonic field analysis of retinoic acid's (RA) effects upon Xenopus laevis forebrain development and differentiation. By using in situ and immunohistochemical analysis of pax6, Xbf1, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), gene expression during eye field, telencephalon field, and retinal development was followed with and without RA treatment. These studies indicated that RA has strong effects upon embryonic eye and telencephalon field development with greater effects upon the ventral development of these organ fields. The specification and determination of separate eye primordia occurred at stage-16 when the prechordal plate reaches its most anterior aspect in Xenopus laevis. Differentiation of the dopaminergic cells within the retina was also affected in a distinct dorsoventral pattern by RA treatment, and cell type differentiation in the absence of distinct retinal laminae was also observed. It was concluded that early RA treatments affected organ field patterning by suppression of the upstream elements required for organ field development, and RA's effects upon cellular differentiation occur downstream to these organ determinants' expression within a distinct dorsoventral pattern. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The migratory behavior of immature enteric neurons

    M.M. Hao
    Abstract While they are migrating caudally along the developing gut, around 10%,20% of enteric neural crest-derived cells start to express pan-neuronal markers and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We used explants of gut from embryonic TH-green fluorescence protein (GFP) mice and time-lapse microscopy to examine whether these immature enteric neurons migrate and their mode of migration. In the gut of E10.5 and E11.5 TH-GFP mice, around 50% of immature enteric neurons (GFP+ cells) migrated, with an average speed of around 15 ,m/h. This is slower than the speed at which the population of enteric neural crest-derived cells advances along the developing gut, and hence neuronal differentiation seems to slow, but not necessarily halt, the caudal migration of enteric neural crest cells. Most migrating immature enteric neurons migrated caudally by extending a long-leading process followed by translocation of the cell body. This mode of migration is different from that of non-neuronal enteric neural crest-derived cells and neural crest cells in other locations, but resembles that of migrating neurons in many regions of the developing central nervous system (CNS). In migrating immature enteric neurons, a swelling often preceded the movement of the nucleus in the direction of the leading process. However, the centrosomal marker, pericentrin, was not localized to either the leading process or swelling. This seems to be the first detailed report of neuronal migration in the developing mammalian peripheral nervous system. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009. [source]

    Intrastriatal administration of human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoprotein 120 reduces glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor levels and causes apoptosis in the substantia nigra

    Rachel L. Nosheny
    Abstract Uninfected neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) degenerate in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients through an unknown etiology. The HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) causes apoptotic neuronal cell death in the rodent striatum, but its primary neurotoxic mechanism is still under investigation. Previous studies have shown that gp120 causes neurotoxicity in the rat striatum by reducing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and BDNF are neurotrophic factors crucial for the survival of dopaminergic neurons of the SN, we investigated whether gp120 reduces GDNF and BDNF levels concomitantly to induce apoptosis. Rats received a microinjection of gp120 or vehicle into the striatum and were sacrificed at various time intervals. GDNF but not BDNF immunoreactivity was decreased in the SN by 4 days in gp120-treated rats. In these animals, a significant increase in the number of caspase-3- positive neurons, both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and -negative, was observed. Analysis of TH immunoreactivity revealed fewer TH-positive neurons and fibers in a medial and lateral portion of cell group A9 of the SN, an area that projects to the striatum, suggesting that gp120 induces retrograde degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons. We propose that dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system associated with HIV may be caused by a reduction of neurotrophic factor expression by gp120. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

    Synaptic plasticity and functionality at the cone terminal of the developing zebrafish retina

    Oliver Biehlmaier
    Abstract Previous studies have analyzed photoreceptor development, some inner retina cell types, and specific neurotransmitters in the zebrafish retina. However, only minor attention has been paid to the morphology of the synaptic connection between photoreceptors and second order neurons even though it represents the transition from the light sensitive receptor to the neuronal network of the visual system. Here, we describe the appearance and differentiation of pre- and postsynaptic elements at cone synapses in the developing zebrafish retina together with the maturation of the directly connecting second order neurons and a dopaminergic third order feedback-neuron from the inner retina. Zebrafish larvae were examined at developmental stages from 2 to 7dpf (days postfertilization) and in the adult. Synaptic maturation at the photoreceptor terminals was examined with antibodies against synapse associated proteins. The appearance of synaptic plasticity at the so-called spinule-type synapses between cones and horizontal cells was assessed by electron microscopy, and the maturation of photoreceptor downstream connection was identified by immunocytochemistry for GluR4 (AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit), protein kinase ,1 (mixed rod-cone bipolar cells), and tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic interplexiform cells). We found that developing zebrafish retinas possess first synaptic structures at the cone terminal as early as 3.5dpf. Morphological maturation of these synapses at 3.5,4dpf, together with the presence of synapse associated proteins at 2.5dpf and the maturation of second order neurons by 5dpf, indicate functional synaptic connectivity and plasticity between the cones and their second order neurons already at 5dpf. However, the mere number of spinules and ribbons at 7dpf still remains below the adult values, indicating that synaptic functionality of the zebrafish retina is not entirely completed at this stage of development. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 56: 222,236, 2003 [source]

    Early and transient ontogenetic expression of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the rat mesencephalon: Correlation with tyrosine hydroxylase expression

    F. Brischoux
    Abstract The ontogeny of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression has been analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the mesencephalon of the rat central nervous system, and compared to the pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase- (TH-) expression. CART-producing neurons were first detected on the embryonic day 11 (E11) in the ventral mesencephalic vesicle. These neurons are among the first cells of the mantle layer to differentiate. From E13, a complementary pattern of distribution was observed, dividing the mantle layer into an external TH zone and an internal CART zone. Many TH-positive neurons were found to migrate from the neuroepithelium through the area containing the CART-immunoreactive neurons to settle more laterally. These TH cells exhibited prominent leading and trailing dendrites in the immediate vicinity of CART perikarya. On E16, the number of CART neurons appeared to diminish, and they were confined near the ventricle and around the fasciculus retroflexus. On E18 and E20, only the Edinger-Westphal nucleus exhibited a strong CART staining as described in the adult brain. Thus, the very early detection of CART during prenatal ontogeny led us to speculate that this peptide might have a role in the development of specific regions of the rat brain. In particular, our observations suggest that CART-expressing neurons might help the migration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 52: 221,229, 2002 [source]

    Dopamine and sensory tissue development in Drosophila melanogaster

    Wendi Neckameyer
    Abstract Dopamine is an important signaling molecule in the nervous system; it also plays a vital role in the development of diverse non-neuronal tissues in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The current study demonstrates that males depleted of dopamine as third instar larvae (via inhibition of the biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase) demonstrated abnormalities in courtship behavior as adults. These defects were suggestive of abnormalities in sensory perception and/or processing. Electroretinograms (ERGs) of eyes from adults depleted of dopamine for 1 day as third instar larvae revealed diminished or absent on- and off-transients. These sensory defects were rescued by the addition of L -DOPA in conjunction with tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition during the larval stage. Depletion of dopamine in the first or second larval instar was lethal, but this was not due to a general inhibition of proliferative cells. To establish that dopamine was synthesized in tissues destined to become part of the adult sensory apparatus, transgenic lines were generated containing 1 or 4 kb of 5, upstream sequences from the Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase gene (DTH) fused to the E. coli ,-galactosidase reporter. The DTH promoters directed expression of the reporter gene in discrete and consistent patterns within the imaginal discs, in addition to the expected expression in gonadal, brain, and cuticular tissues. The ,-galactosidase expression colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase protein. These results are consistent with a developmental requirement for dopamine in the normal physiology of adult sensory tissues. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 47: 280,294, 2001 [source]

    Isolation and properties of methanesulfonate-degrading Afipia felis from Antarctica and comparison with other strains of A. felis

    S. Azra Moosvi
    Summary Three novel strains of methylotrophic Afipia felis were isolated from several locations on Signy Island, Antarctica, and a fourth from estuary sediment from the River Douro, Portugal. They were identified as strains of the ,-2 proteobacterium A. felis by 16S rRNA gene sequence, analysis., Two, strains, tested, were, shown to contain the fdxA gene, diagnostic for A. felis. All strains grew with methanesulfonate (and two strains with dimethylsulfone) as sole carbon substrate. Growth on methanesulfonate required methanesulfonate monooxygenase (MSAMO), using NADH as the reductant and stimulated by reduced flavin nucleotides and Fe(II). Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from an Antarctic strain showed a typical msmA gene for the ,-hydroxylase of MSAMO, and both Antarctic and Portuguese strains contained mxaF, the methanol dehydrogenase large subunit gene. This is the first report of methanesulfonate-degrading bacteria from the Antarctic and of methylotrophy in Afipia, and the first description of any bacterium able to use both methanesulfonate and dimethylsulfone. In contrast, the type strain of A. felis DSM 7326T was not methylotrophic, but grew in defined mineral medium with a wide range of single simple organic substrates. Free-living Afipia strains occurring widely in the natural environment may be significant as methylotrophs, degrading C1 -sulfur compounds, including the recalcitrant organosulfur compound methanesulfonate. [source]

    Stable augmentation of activated sludge with foreign catabolic genes harboured by an indigenous dominant bacterium

    Kazuya Watanabe
    Summary Comamonas sp. rN7 is a phenol-degrading bacterium that represents the dominant catabolic population in activated sludge. The present study examined the utility of this bacterium for establishing foreign catabolic genes in phenol-digesting activated sludge. The phc genes coding for phenol hydroxylase and its transcriptional regulators of C. testosteroni R5 were integrated into the chromosome of strain rN7. The specific phenol-oxygenating activity of a resultant transformant designated rN7(R503) was three times higher than the activity of strain rN7, and the phc genes were stably inherited by rN7(R503) grown in a non-selective laboratory medium. Inoculation of phenol-acclimatized activated sludge with rN7(R503) resulted in a high phenol-oxygenating activity and improved resistance to phenol-shock loading compared to sludge inoculated with either no cells, rN7 or R5. Quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the phc genes were retained in the rN7(R503)-inoculated sludge at a density of more than 108 copies per ml of mixed liquor for more than 35 days, whereas those in the R5-inoculated sludge disappeared rapidly. No transfer of the phc genes to other indigenous populations was apparent in the rN7(R503)-harbouring sludge. From these results, we concluded that the phenol treatment of the activated sludge was enhanced by the phc genes harboured by the rN7(R503) population. This study suggests a possible bioaugmentation strategy for stably utilizing foreign catabolic genes in natural ecosystems. [source]

    Comparative hepatic activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and concentrations of organohalogens and their hydroxylated analogues in captive greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris),

    Jonathan Verreault
    Abstract A captive study was performed with Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed a naturally organohalogen-contaminated diet (Greenland minke whale [Balaenoptera acutorostrata] blubber; exposed group) or a control diet (pork fat; control group). The catalytic activity of major xenobiotic-metabolizing phase I and II hepatic microsomal enzymes was assessed. Relative to control dogs, ethoxyresorufin- O -deethylase (EROD) activity in exposed dogs was twofold higher (p = 0.001). Testosterone hydroxylation yielded 6,- and 16,-hydroxy (OH) testosterone and androstenedione, with higher rates of production (23,27%; p , 0.03) in the exposed individuals. In the exposed dogs, epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity was 31% higher (p = 0.02) relative to the control dogs, whereas uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) activity was not different (p = 0.62). When the exposed and control dogs were combined, the summed (,) plasma concentrations of OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were predicted by plasma ,PCB concentrations and EROD activity (p , 0.04), whereas testosterone hydroxylase, EH, and UDPGT activities were not significant predictors of these concentrations. Consistent results were found for individual OH-PCB congeners and their theoretical precursor PCBs (e.g., 4-OH-CB-187 and CB-183, and 4-OH-CB-146 and CB-146) and for EROD activity. No association was found between ,OH,polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and ,PBDE plasma concentrations, or between potential precursor-metabolite pairs, and the enzyme activities. The present results suggest that liver microsomal EROD activity and plasma PCB concentrations have a greater (e.g., relative to EH activity) predictive power for the occurrence of plasma OH-PCB residues in sledge dogs. These results also suggest that plasma OH-PBDEs likely are not products of cytochrome P450-mediated transformation but, rather, are accumulated via the diet. [source]

    Interaction of tributyltin with hepatic cytochrome P450 and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase systems of fish: In vitro studies

    Yolanda Morcillo
    Abstract Hepatic microsomes of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) were preincubated in the presence of a concentration range of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) chloride, and the interactions of TBT with cytochrome P450 and uridine diphosphate,glucuronyl transferase systems were investigated. The enzyme systems were examined in terms of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O -deethylase (EROD) activity and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolism and in terms of glucuronidation of testosterone and 17,-estradiol, respectively. Ethoxyresorufin O -deethylase and BaP hydroxylase (BPH) activities of both fish species were progressively inhibited by increasing concentrations of TBT, and the effects were more pronounced for EROD than for BPH (maximal inhibition at 100 ,M TBT for EROD and 250,500 ,M TBT for BPH). Hydroxylated metabolites of BaP (3-hydroxy-, 7,8-dihydrodiol, and 9,10-dihydrodiol), representing 95% of the total metabolites formed, were reduced up to 75 % in the presence of 100 to 500 ,M TBT, whereas the formation of other metabolites was less affected. This may alter BaP toxicity and carcinogenicity. Overall, the results were consistent with a specific inhibitory effect of TBT on CYP1A in the two fish species. Additionally, the conjugation of testosterone was significantly inhibited (20%) at low TBT doses (5 ,M), with no effect on the glucuronidation of estradiol. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Altered architecture and functional consequences of the mesolimbic dopamine system in cannabis dependence

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Saturnino Spiga
    ABSTRACT Cannabinoid withdrawal produces a hypofunction of mesencephalic dopamine neurons that impinge upon medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the forebrain. After chronic treatment with two structurally different cannabinoid agonists, ,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55 940 (CP) rats were withdrawn spontaneously and pharmacologically with the CB1 antagonist SR141716A (SR). In these two conditions, evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons revealed significant morphometrical reductions in the ventrotegmental area but not substantia nigra pars compacta of withdrawn rats. Similarly, confocal analysis of Golgi,Cox-stained sections of the nucleus accumbens revealed a decrease in the shell, but not the core, of the spines' density of withdrawn rats. Administration of the CB1 antagonist SR to control rats, provoked structural abnormalities reminiscent of those observed in withdrawal conditions and support the regulatory role of cannabinoids in neurogenesis, axonal growth and synaptogenesis by acting as eu-proliferative signals through the CB1 receptors. Further, these measures were incorporated into a realistic computational model that predicts a strong reduction in the excitability of morphologically altered MSN, yielding a significant reduction in action potential output. These pieces of evidence support the tenet that withdrawal from addictive compounds alters functioning of the mesolimbic system and provide direct morphological evidence for functional abnormalities associated with cannabinoid dependence at the level of dopaminergic neurons and their postsynaptic counterpart and are coherent with recent hypothesis underscoring a hypodopaminergic state as a distinctive feature of the ,addicted brain'. [source]

    GENETIC STUDY: Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene and alcohol use among college students

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2008
    Paul Gacek
    ABSTRACT Genes that regulate serotonin activity are regarded as promising predictors of heavy alcohol use. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) plays an important role in serotonergic neurotransmission by serving as the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis in the midbrain and serotonergic neurons. Despite the link between TPH2 and serotonergic function, TPH2's role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-use disorders remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine whether a variation in the TPH2 gene is associated with risky alcohol consumption. Specifically, this study examined whether the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism predicted alcohol consumption among college students. In two successive years, 351 undergraduates were asked to record their alcohol use each day for 30 days using an Internet-based electronic diary. Participants' DNA was collected and polymerase chain reaction genotyping was performed. Results show that alcohol consumption was not associated with the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism alone, or the interaction of TPH2 with two other candidate polymorphisms (TPH1 C218A and the SLC6A4 tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR), or negative life events. In conclusion, this study supports recent null findings relating TPH2 to drinking outcomes. It also extends these findings by showing null interactions with the TPH1 C218A polymorphism, the SLC6A4 tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and environmental stressors in predicting sub-clinical alcohol use among Caucasian American young adults. [source]

    PPAR-gamma-mediated neuroprotection in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Nicoletta Schintu
    Abstract Rosiglitazone is a commonly prescribed insulin-sensitizing drug with a selective agonistic activity on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-,). PPAR-, can modulate inflammatory responses in the brain, and agonists might be beneficial in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we used a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid (MPTPp) mouse model of progressive Parkinson's disease (PD) to assess the therapeutic efficacy of rosiglitazone on behavioural impairment, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Mice chronically treated with MPTPp displayed typical features of PD, including impairment of motor and olfactory functions associated with partial loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), decrease of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content and dynorphin (Dyn) mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen (CPu), intense microglial and astroglial response in the SNc and CPu. Chronic rosiglitazone, administered in association with MPTPp, completely prevented motor and olfactory dysfunctions and loss of TH-positive cells in the SNc. In the CPu, loss of striatal DA was partially prevented, whereas decreases in DOPAC content and Dyn were fully counteracted. Moreover, rosiglitazone completely inhibited microglia reactivity in SNc and CPu, as measured by CD11b immunostaining, and partially inhibited astroglial response assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity. Measurement of striatal MPP+ levels 2, 4, 6 h and 3 days after chronic treatment indicated that MPTP metabolism was not altered by rosiglitazone. The results support the use of PPAR-, agonists as a putative anti-inflammatory therapy aimed at arresting PD progression, and suggest that assessment in PD clinical trials is warranted. [source]

    Light regulation of retinal dopamine that is independent of melanopsin phototransduction

    M. A. Cameron
    Abstract Light-dependent release of dopamine (DA) in the retina is an important component of light-adaptation mechanisms. Melanopsin-containing inner retinal photoreceptors have been shown to make physical contacts with DA amacrine cells, and have been implicated in the regulation of the local retinal environment in both physiological and anatomical studies. Here we determined whether they contribute to photic regulation of DA in the retina as assayed by the ratio of DA with its primary metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and by c-fos induction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labelled DA amacrine cells. Light treatment (,0.7 log W/m2 for 90 min) resulted in a substantial increase in DA release (as revealed by an increase in the DOPAC : DA ratio), as well as widespread induction of nuclear c-fos in DA amacrine cells in wild-type mice and in mice lacking melanopsin (Opn4,/,). Light-induced DA release was also retained in mice lacking rod phototransduction (Gnat1,/,), although the magnitude of this response was substantially reduced compared with wild-types, as was the incidence of light-dependent nuclear c-fos in DAergic amacrines. By contrast, the DAergic system of mice lacking both rods and cones (rd/rd cl) showed no detectable light response. Our data suggest that light regulation of DA, a pivotal retinal neuromodulator, originates primarily with rods and cones, and that melanopsin is neither necessary nor sufficient for this photoresponse. [source]

    Premotor sympathetic neurons of conditioned fear in the rat

    Pascal Carrive
    Abstract Conditioned fear to context, a pure form of psychological stress, is associated with sympathetically mediated changes including a marked hypertension. To identify the possible premotor sympathetic neurons mediating these changes, we conducted double-immunolabelling experiments combining fear-induced Fos with retrograde tracing from the thoracic cord (T2-L1). Presympathetic groups showing the greatest increase in the proportion of spinally projecting cells double-labelled with Fos compared with resting controls were the perifornical area (PeF; 22.7% vs. 0.4%) and paraventricular nucleus (Pa; 10.5% vs. 0.2%) in the hypothalamus, and the A5 noradrenergic group (33.6% vs. 0.2%) in the pons. In contrast, there was only a small increase in the presympathetic groups of the rostral ventral medulla, including the lateral paragigantocellular group (LPGi; 4.3% vs. 0.5%), raphe magnus and pallidus (1.1% vs. 0.6% and 1.8% vs. 0.5%), and the vasopressor group of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; 1.9% vs. 0.8%). PeF, Pa, A5 and LPGi accounted for 21, 15, 16 and 6% of all the double-labelled cells, respectively, and RVLM for only 1%. Double-immunolabelling of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed that many A5 neurons were activated (19%) and that practically no C1 neurons in RVLM were (1.3%). The results suggest that the main premotor sympathetic drive of the fear response comes from hypothalamic (PeF and Pa) and A5 neurons that project directly to the thoracic cord and bypass medullary presympathetic groups, and that the vasopressor premotor sympathetic neurons of the RVLM are unlikely to mediate the hypertensive pressure response of contextual fear. [source]

    Glutamatergic neurons are present in the rat ventral tegmental area

    Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
    Abstract The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is thought to play an important role in reward function. Two populations of neurons, containing either dopamine (DA) or ,-amino butyric acid (GABA), have been extensively characterized in this area. However, recent electrophysiological studies are consistent with the notion that neurons that utilize neurotransmitters other than DA or GABA are likely to be present in the VTA. Given the pronounced phenotypic diversity of neurons in this region, we have proposed that additional cell types, such as those that express the neurotransmitter glutamate may also be present in this area. Thus, by using in situ hybridization histochemistry we investigated whether transcripts encoded by genes for the two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGluT1 or VGluT2, were expressed in the VTA. We found that VGluT2 mRNA but not VGluT1 mRNA is expressed in the VTA. Neurons expressing VGluT2 mRNA were differentially distributed throughout the rostro-caudal and medio-lateral aspects of the VTA, with the highest concentration detected in rostro-medial areas. Phenotypic characterization with double in situ hybridization of these neurons indicated that they rarely co,expressed mRNAs for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, marker for DAergic neurons) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, marker for GABAergic neurons). Based on the results described here, we concluded that the VTA contains glutamatergic neurons that in their vast majority are clearly non-DAergic and non-GABAergic. [source]

    Neurochemical identification of stereotypic burst-firing neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus using juxtacellular labelling methods

    Mihály Hajós
    Abstract Recent electrophysiological studies have discovered evidence of heterogeneity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in the mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Of particular interest is a subpopulation of putative 5-HT neurons that display many of the electrophysiological properties of presumed 5-HT-containing neurons (regular and slow firing of single spikes with a broad waveform) but fire spikes in short, stereotyped bursts. In the present study we investigated the chemical identity of these neurons in rats utilizing in vivo juxtacellular labelling methods. Of ten dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons firing short stereotyped bursts within an otherwise regular firing pattern, all exhibited immunoreactivity for either 5-HT (n = 6) or the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH; n = 2) or both (n = 2). Supporting pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the burst firing DRN neurons demonstrated equal sensitivity to 5-HT1A agonism and ,1 -adrenoceptor antagonism to single spiking DRN neurons that we have previously identified as 5-HT-containing. Collectively these data provide direct evidence that DRN neurons that exhibit stereotyped burst firing activity are 5-HT containing. The presence of multiple types of electrophysiologically distinct midbrain 5-HT neurons is discussed. [source]

    Two populations of glutamatergic axons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus defined by the vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2

    Kathryn G. Commons
    Abstract Most glutamatergic neurons in the brain express one of two vesicular glutamate transporters, vGlut1 or vGlut2. Cortical glutamatergic neurons highly express vGlut1, whereas vGlut2 predominates in subcortical areas. In this study immunohistochemical detection of vGlut1 or vGlut2 was used in combination with tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) to characterize glutamatergic innervation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of the rat. Immunofluorescence labeling of both vGlut1 and vGlut2 was punctate and homogenously distributed throughout the DRN. Puncta labeled for vGlut2 appeared more numerous then those labeled for vGlut1. Ultrastructural analysis revealed axon terminals containing vGlut1 and vGlut2 formed asymmetric-type synapses 80% and 95% of the time, respectively. Postsynaptic targets of vGlut1- and vGlut2-containing axons differed in morphology. vGlut1-labeled axon terminals synapsed predominantly on small-caliber (distal) dendrites (42%, 46/110) or dendritic spines (46%, 50/110). In contrast, vGlut2-containing axons synapsed on larger caliber (proximal) dendritic shafts (> 0.5 µm diameter; 48%, 78/161). A fraction of both vGlut1- or vGlut2-labeled axons synapsed onto TPH-containing dendrites (14% and 34%, respectively). These observations reveal that different populations of glutamate-containing axons innervate selective dendritic domains of serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons, suggesting they play different functional roles in modulating excitation within the DRN. [source]

    A modified MPTP treatment regime produces reproducible partial nigrostriatal lesions in common marmosets

    Mahmoud M. Iravani
    Abstract Standard MPTP treatment regimens in primates result in >,85% destruction of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the onset of marked motor deficits that respond to known symptomatic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). The extent of nigral degeneration reflects the late stages of PD rather than events occurring at its onset. We report on a modified MPTP treatment regimen that causes nigral dopaminergic degeneration in common marmosets equivalent to that occurring at the time of initiation of motor symptoms in man. Subcutaneous administration of MPTP 1 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days caused a reproducible 60% loss of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, which occurred mainly in the calbindin-D28k -poor nigrosomes with a similar loss of TH-immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the caudate nucleus and the putamen. The animals showed obvious motor abnormalities with reduced bursts of activity and the onset of motor disability. However, the loss of striatal terminals did not reflect early PD because a greater loss of TH-ir occurred in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen and a marked reduction in TH-ir occurred in striatal patches compared to the matrix. Examination of striatal fibres following a partial MPTP lesion showed a conspicuous increase in the number and the diameter of large branching fibres in the putaminal and to some extent caudatal matrix, pointing to a possible compensatory sprouting of dopaminergic terminals. In addition, these partially lesioned animals did not respond to acute treatment with L-DOPA. This primate partial lesions model may be useful for examining potential neuroprotective or neurorestorative agents for PD. [source]

    Somatodendritic autoreceptor regulation of serotonergic neurons: dependence on l -tryptophan and tryptophan hydroxylase-activating kinases

    Rong-Jian Liu
    Abstract The somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptor has been considered a major determinant of the output of the serotonin (5-HT) neuronal system. However, recent studies in brain slices from the dorsal raphe nucleus have questioned the relevance of 5-HT autoinhibition under physiological conditions. In the present study, we found that the difficulty in demonstrating 5-HT tonic autoinhibition in slice results from in vitro conditions that are unfavorable for sustaining 5-HT synthesis. Robust, tonic 5-HT1A autoinhibition can be restored by reinstating in vivo 5-HT synthesizing conditions with the initial 5-HT precursor l -tryptophan and the tryptophan hydroxylase co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). The presence of tonic autoinhibition under these conditions was revealed by the disinhibitory effect of a low concentration of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635. Neurons showing an autoinhibitory response to l -tryptophan were confirmed immunohistochemically to be serotonergic. Once conditions for tonic autoinhibition had been established in raphe slice, we were able to show that 5-HT autoinhibition is critically regulated by the tryptophan hydroxylase-activating kinases calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase A (PKA). In addition, at physiological concentrations of l -tryptophan, there was an augmentation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition when the firing of 5-HT cells activated with increasing concentrations of the ,1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Increased calcium influx at higher firing rates, by activating tryptophan hydroxylase via CaMKII and PKA, can work together with tryptophan to enhance negative feedback control of the output of the serotonergic system. [source]

    Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons intrinsic to the human striatum express the transcription factor Nurr1

    Martine Cossette
    Abstract The putative dopaminergic (DA) neurons intrinsic to human striatum were studied to determine their similarity with DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The comparison was based on morphological features and on the presence or absence of Nurr1, an orphan receptor of the nuclear receptor family that is essential for the expression of DA phenotype by developing SNpc neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN; a neuronal marker) and in situ hybridization for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and/or Nurr1 were applied to post-mortem tissue obtained from seven normal individuals. On one hand, the TH-positive multipolar neurons in the human striatum, which were subdivided into three groups according to their size and pattern of dendritic arborization, were found to be morphologically similar to TH-positive neurons of the SNpc. The distribution frequency of striatal TH-positive neurons, according to their diameter, closely matches the frequency observed for multipolar TH-positive cells in the SNpc. On the other hand, the proportion of neurons expressing Nurr1 and TH mRNA transcripts on single striatal section was similar to the proportion of TH-immunoreactive neurons observed on adjacent sections. More importantly, in each striatum analysed, virtually all cells that stained for TH also expressed NeuN and Nurr1. This study provides novel data that confirm the existence of DA neurons intrinsic to the human striatum. It also provides the first evidence for the existence of striking morphological and chemical similarities between the DA neurons present at striatal level and those that populate the SNpc. [source]