Hydroxyl Radical Scavenger (hydroxyl + radical_scavenger)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Use of intravenous lidocaine to prevent reperfusion injury and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Benjamin H. Cassutto DVM
Abstract Objective: The objective of this article is to review the human and veterinary literature and provide evidence for the potential beneficial effects of intravenous (IV) lidocaine hydrochloride in preventing post-ischemic,reperfusion injury, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Human data synthesis: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent that has been used for years in human and veterinary medicine for the treatment of ventricular dysrhythmias associated with blunt cardiac trauma, myocardial ischemia, and cardiac surgery. More recently, the drug has been touted as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and has been used to prevent reperfusion dysrhythmias after treatment of myocardial infarction, cross-clamping of the aorta, and in trauma medicine. Veterinary data synthesis: Although no clinical experiments with prophylactic intravenous lidocaine exist in veterinary medicine, there is a large body of evidence from experimental animals that support the use of lidocaine as a Na+/Ca2+ channel blocker, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenger, inflammatory modulator, and potent inhibitor of granulocyte functions. Lidocaine is being used in some clinical situations in an attempt to prevent the SIRS in veterinary trauma patients.a,b Conclusions: A large body of experimental evidence exists supporting the use of lidocaine as an anti-oxidant and inflammatory modulator useful in preventing reperfusion injury. With the lack of cost-effective and safe treatments for reperfusion injury in veterinary and human trauma medicine, the use of IV lidocaine to prevent the ensuing inflammatory response and MODS makes it an attractive addition to existing treatments. Therefore, it is essential that prospective clinical trials involving lidocaine as a treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury be performed in companion animals to demonstrate its safety and efficacy. [source]

Inhibitory effects of echinoisoflavanone and sophoraisoflavanone D in Sophora chrysophylla SEEM on copper ion-induced protein oxidative modification of mouse brain homogenate in vitro

Shizuo Toda
Abstract We present the results of an in vitro investigation of the inhibitory effects of echinoisoflavanone and sophoraisoflavanone D isolated from Sophora chrysophylla SEEM on copper-induced protein oxidative modification of mouse brain homogenate in vitro. They inhibited copper-induced protein oxidative modification. The order of inhibitory effects of these isoflavanones and mannitol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger was sophoraisoflavanone D > mannitol > echinoisoflavanone. The results suggest that these natural products may be of use in cases where oxidative stress is present. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Free radical generation during the activation of hemolymph prepared from the homopteran Dactylopius coccus

F. García-Gil De Muñoz
Abstract Superoxide anion (O,2) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in Dactylopius coccus hemolymph obtained by perfusion and activated with zymosan was studied. Activated hemolymph reduced 3-[4,5 dimethylthiazolil-2]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. This reduction was prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating O,2 generation. This activity was dependent on temperature, and hemolymph incubated at 75°C lost its activity. Chromatocytes incubated with zymosan released their content and produced O,2. Activated hemolymph also produced NO and this activity was prevented in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) might be present in D. coccus hemolymph. The probable source of O,2 in the D. coccus hemolymph is the anthraquinone oxidation, since commercial carminic dye produced O,2 during its oxidation by Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase. Gram+ Micrococcus luteus exposed to activated hemolymph were killed in vitro, and addition of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and D-Mannitol (a hydroxyl radical scavenger) prevented their killing. The cytotoxic effect produced by the activated hemolymph was not observed with the Gram, bacteria Serratia marcescens. These results suggest that D. coccus activated hemolymph generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that may limit M. luteus growth. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 65:20,28, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Degradation of tetracycline in aqueous medium by electrochemical method

Hui Zhang
Abstract The degradation of tetracycline by anode oxidation with Ti/RuO2,IrO2 electrode was carried out in an electrochemical cell. The effect of operating conditions such as electrical current density, initial pH, antibiotic concentration, electrolyte concentration and hydroxyl radical scavenger on the oxidation of tetracycline was investigated. The results showed that the degradation of tetracycline followed apparent pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constant increased linearly with the current density, but the oxidation curves displayed the same dependence on the amount of the specific charge passed. The degradation rate decreased with the initial antibiotic concentration. Either initial pH or electrolyte concentration had little effect on the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline. The presence of tert -butanol did not hinder the degradation rate, indicating the radical contribution to the oxidation of tetracycline could be neglected. Copyright © 2009 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Radiolysis of Confined Water: Hydrogen Production at a High Dose Rate

CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 12 2005
Sophie Le Caër Dr.
Abstract The production of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of dried or hydrated nanoporous controlled-pore glasses (CPG) has been carefully studied using 10 MeV electron irraditation at high dose rate. In all cases, the H2 yield increases when the pore size decreases. Moreover, the yields measured in dried materials are two orders of magnitude smaller than those obtained in hydrated glasses. This proves that the part of the H2 coming from the surface of the material is negligible in the hydrated case. Thus, the measured yields correspond to those of nanoconfined water. Moreover, these yields are not modified by the presence of potassium bromide, which is a hydroxyl radical scavenger. This experimental observation shows that the back reaction between H2 and HO. does not take place in such confined environments. These porous materials have been characterized before and after irradiation by means of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, which helps to understand the elementary processes taking place in this type of environment, especially the protective effect of water on the surface in the case of hydrated glasses. [source]

Modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase by chronic and acute exposure to peroxynitrite

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2004
Yolanda Gutiérrez-Martín
The Ca2+ -ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA), an integral membrane protein, becomes irreversibly inactivated in vitro by the addition of a single bolus of peroxynitrite with a K0.5 of 200,300 µm, and this results in a large decrease of the ATP-dependent Ca2+ gradient across the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. The inactivation of SERCA is raised by treatment of SR vesicles with repetitive micromolar pulses of peroxynitrite. The inhibition of the SERCA is due to the oxidation of thiol groups and tyrosine nitration. Scavengers that react directly with peroxynitrite, such as cysteine, reduced glutathione, NADH, methionine, ascorbate or Trolox, a water-soluble analog of ,-tocopherol, afforded significant protection. However, dimethyl sulfoxide and mannitol, two hydroxyl radical scavengers, and ,-tocopherol did not protect SERCA from inactivation. Our results showed that the target of peroxynitrite is the cytosolic globular domain of the SERCA and that major skeletal muscle intracellular reductants (ascorbate, NADH and reduced glutathione) protected against inhibition of this ATPase by peroxynitrite. [source]

Photophysical and Phototoxic Properties of the Antibacterial Fluoroquinolones Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin

Giampietro Viola
Two antibacterial fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, were investigated to evaluate their photophysical properties and to explore the mechanism of their phototoxicity. Photophysical experiments were carried out in aqueous solution by stationary and time-resolved fluorimetry, and by laser flash photolysis, to obtain information on the various decay pathways of the excited states of the drugs and on transient species formed upon irradiation. The results obtained show that levofloxacin is able to photosensitize red blood cell lysis in an oxygen-independent way and induce a high decrease in cell viability after UVA irradiation, although to a lesser degree than the racemic mixture ofloxacin. Moxifloxacin, which is an 8-MeO-substituted fluoroquinolone, is less phototoxic than the other compounds. Cellular phototoxicity was inhibited by the addition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and free radical and hydroxyl radical scavengers (BHA, GSH, mannitol, and DMTU), indicating the involvement of superoxide anion and/or a radical mechanism in their cytotoxicity. A good correlation was observed between lipid peroxidation, protein photodamage, and cellular phototoxicity, indicating that test compounds exert their toxic effects mainly in the cellular membrane. Experiments carried out on pBR322 DNA show that these derivatives do not significantly photocleave DNA directly, but single-strand breaks were evidenced after treatment of photosensitized DNA by two base-excision-repair enzymes, and Endo III. [source]