Hydroxyl Ions (hydroxyl + ion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Photoreduction of iron protoporphyrin IX chloride in non-ionic triton X-100 micelle studied by electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy

P. K. Shantha
Resonance Raman and electronic absorption studies of iron protoporphyrin IX chloride (hemin) in non-ionic Triton X-100 micelle in the absence and presence of hindered imidazole (2-methylimidazole and 1,2-dimethylimidazole) and unhindered imidazole under various experimental conditions are reported. Hemin undergoes photoreduction at the metal center, both in the absence and presence of hindered imidazole, in anaerobic, alkaline and neutral pH conditions on photoexcitation by laser radiation at 441.6 and 457.9 nm. It is inferred from this study that only the monomer hemin encapsulated within the micelle under the alkaline pH conditions is photoreducible. The photoreduction of hemin in this micelle occurs from an electron transfer as a result of dissociation of coordinated hydroxyl ion to the iron atom in the photoexcited state, which may also involve the OH,Fe charge transfer transition around 360 nm. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thermal stability study of conductive polyaniline/polyimide blend films on their conductivity and ESR measurement,

Moon Gyu Han
Abstract Conductivity stability at thermal environment of conductive polyaniline-complexes/polyimide (PANI-complexes/PI) blends, which were doped by camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), respectively, were investigated by conductivity measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, differential and scanning thermometer (DSC). In the conversion process of PANI/Polyamic acid (PAA) to PANI/PI, the blend endeavored some kinds of alteration such as decomplexation of moisture and solvent, dissociation of dopant, crosslinking of PANI chain, and the imidization of PAA chain. PANI-DBSA/PI showed higher thermal stability of conductivity than PANI-CSA/PI, and both samples showed nearly linear decay of conductivity with increasing temperature showing greatly enhancement of conductivity stability. When they were exposed at near or over glass transition temperature, the conductivity decay became faster. The conductivity stability at base environment was also higher for PANI-DBSA/PI due to difficulty in accessing of hydroxyl ion to PANI, which were resulted from dopant. DBSA-doped blends showed increased polaron mobility and concentration at relatively high temperature, which led to extremely higher conductivity and its stability at high temperature. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium and interplay of antioxidant enzymes and agents

Veera L. D. Badisa
Abstract Cadmium is an environmental toxicant, which causes cancer in different organs. It was found that it damages DNA in the various tissues and cultured cell lines. To investigate the mechanism of DNA damage, we have studied the effect of cadmium-induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 DNA, and the possible ameliorative effects of antioxidative agents under in vitro conditions. It was observed that cadmium alone did not cause DNA damage. However, it caused DNA damage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, in a dose dependent manner, because of production of hydroxyl radicals. Findings from this study show the conversion of covalently closed circular double-stranded pBR 322 DNA to the open circular and linear forms of DNA when treated with 10 ,M cadmium and various concentrations of H2O2. The conversion was due to nicking in DNA strands. The observed rate of DNA strand breakage was dependent on H2O2 concentration, temperature, and time. Metallothionein I failed to prevent cadmium-induced DNA nicking in the presence of H2O2. Of the two antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) studied, only catalase conferred significant (50,60%) protection. EDTA and DMSO exhibited protection similar to catalase, while mannitol showed only about 20% protection against DNA damage. Ethyl alcohol failed to ameliorate cadmium-induced DNA strands break. From this study, it is plausible to infer that cadmium in the presence of hydrogen peroxide causes DNA damage probably by the formation of hydroxyl ions. These results may indicate that cadmium in vivo could play a major role in the DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 22: 144,151, 2007. [source]

Poorly crystalline mineral phases protect organic matter in acid subsoil horizons

M. Kleber
Summary Soil minerals are known to influence the biological stability of soil organic matter (SOM). Our study aimed to relate properties of the mineral matrix to its ability to protect organic C against decomposition in acid soils. We used the amount of hydroxyl ions released after exposure to NaF solution to establish a reactivity gradient spanning 12 subsoil horizons collected from 10 different locations. The subsoil horizons represent six soil orders and diverse geological parent materials. Phyllosilicates were characterized by X-ray diffraction and pedogenic oxides by selective dissolution procedures. The organic carbon (C) remaining after chemical removal of an oxidizable fraction of SOM with NaOCl solution was taken to represent a stable organic carbon pool. Stable organic carbon was confirmed as older than bulk organic carbon by a smaller radiocarbon (14C) content after oxidation in all 12 soils. The amount of stable organic C did not depend on clay content or the content of dithionite,citrate-extractable Fe. The combination of oxalate-extractable Fe and Al explained the greatest amount of variation in stable organic C (R2 = 0.78). Our results suggest that in acid soils, organic matter is preferentially protected by interaction with poorly crystalline minerals represented by the oxalate-soluble Fe and Al fraction. This evidence suggests that ligand exchange between mineral surface hydroxyl groups and negatively charged organic functional groups is a quantitatively important mechanism in the stabilization of SOM in acid soils. The results imply a finite stabilization capacity of soil minerals for organic matter, limited by the area density of reactive surface sites. [source]

Raman microscopy of the mixite mineral BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6·3H2O from the Czech Republic

Ray L. Frost
Abstract Raman microscopy of the mixite mineral BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6·3H2O from Jáchymov and from Smrkovec (both Czech Republic) has been used to study their molecular structure. The presence of (AsO4)3,, (AsO3OH)2,, (PO4)3, and (PO3OH)2, units, as well as molecular water and hydroxyl ions, was inferred. OH···O hydrogen bond lengths were calculated from the Raman and infrared spectra using Libowitzky's empirical relation. Small differences in the Raman spectra between both samples were observed and attributed to compositional and hydrogen-bonding network differences. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Electrodeposition of Titania Thin Films on Metallic Surface for High- k Dielectric Applications

Biplab K. Roy
Current microelectronics devices based on flexible as well as rigid substrates demand high dielectric constant (k) films to be grown on conductive substrate from a low-cost, low-temperature deposition technique. In this study, we produced high- k titania (TiO2) films through an affordable electrodeposition protocol from the electrochemical bath maintained at about 0°C. The deposition occurs through a rapid hydrolysis mechanism of titanium containing ions in the precursor solution aided by electrochemically generated hydroxyl ions formed near the cathode surface (copper (Cu) substrate). Upon attaining a sufficient supersaturation level, such hydrolyzed species precipitate to form a titania thin film on the cathode surface. While depositing from a highly acidic precursor solution, Cu substrate was protected by a cathodic potential (,3 to ,5 V against the counter electrode). The resultant titania films show nanoparticulate structures evolved from nucleation and growth events of the in situ precipitated particles. Much higher deposition rate (about 1 ,m/min) was observed compared with that of typical chemical bath deposition. The resultant films with a thickness of 1500 nm grown on Cu exhibit very high dielectric properties (e.g., k,30, capacitance density >110 nF/in.2 at 100 kHz) and moderate breakdown voltage (VB) (,17.5 V). These properties indicate the potential of electrodeposited titania films to be used as a small-area thin-film capacitor for miniaturized electronic devices. [source]

Growth and Phase Transformation of Nanometer-Sized Titanium Oxide Powders Produced by the Precipitation Method

Gwan Hyoung Lee
We report an in situ TEM investigation of the growth and transformation in nanometer-sized titania powders. The powders were produced through precipitation of titanium tetrachloride under different pH conditions. The initial phase of the produced powders was amorphous or was a mixture of anatase and brookite according to the pH conditions. During calcination, the anatase particles grew and transformed into rutile. The transformation temperature increased with increasing pH value. In situ TEM observations showed that the anatase particles were absorbed into rutile, and then rutile particles grew by coalescence. Furthermore, small pores were observed to form in samples prepared with high pH from the effects of hydroxyl ions and zeta potential. Pore formation increased the surface area, which delayed the transformation and nucleation of rutile. This explains the difference of growth and transformation of titania powders produced under different pH conditions during calcination. [source]

Theory of pH-stat titration

Elena Ficara
Abstract Innovative techniques are being studied to assess the activity of bioreactors and to improve the performance and operational stability of biological processes. Among these techniques, the pH-stat titration is applicable to any bioreaction involving pH variations. Up to now, the main application of the pH-stat titration has been for nitrification monitoring. In this article, we present a theoretical model of pH-stat titration, which predicts the response to any reaction involving the production or consumption of protons, hydroxyl ions, or inorganic carbon chemical species (CO2, HCO3,, CO3=). This model is a useful tool to understand pH-stat titrations, to define their applicability and limits, and to select the best experimental conditions for specific applications. Tests have been performed to compare experimental pH-stat titration rates in the presence of carbon dioxide and HCO3, producing reactions to the values predicted by the model and a very satisfying correspondence was found. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 82: 28,37, 2003. [source]