Anonymous Questionnaire (anonymous + questionnaire)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts


The declining popularity of Economics courses, evident in the last decade, has fuelled a debate on the nature of Economics units and the way in which they are taught in tertiary institutions. The effectiveness of traditional teaching methods has been questioned as ,lecturers search for alternative ways of presenting material and engaging students. In recent times, workshop-based/cooperative tutorials have become more popular in promoting deeper learning. This paper assesses the application of such an approach at a large tertiary institution. It evaluates student perceptions of this tutorial method in an Introductory Macroeconomics first-year unit. An anonymous questionnaire was used. Whilst the sample size is small (n = 56), the results are important in that this is the first such study in Macroeconomics. Students found workshop-based tutorials useful, preferred them over lecture style tutorials, and found that they fostered inclusivity. The importance of tutorials per se, is reiterated. Students state that tutorials are an important adjunct to lectures. This study also looks at students' study habits: finding that on average they spend less than one hour per week studying Economics and most prepare only occasionally for tutorials. The sample studied indicates that there are notable differences in the perceptions of tutorials and teaching methods between the genders and between local and international students. This may impact on the way in which tutorials are conducted effectively. [source]

Lifetime alcohol use, abuse and dependence among university students in Lebanon: exploring the role of religiosity in different religious faiths

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
Lilian A. Ghandour
ABSTRACT Aims To examine alcohol consumption and the role of religiosity in alcohol use disorders in Christian, Druze and Muslim youth in Lebanon, given their distinct religious doctrines and social norms. Methods Using a self-completed anonymous questionnaire, data were collected on 1837 students, selected randomly from two large private universities in Beirut. Life-time abuse and dependence were measured as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV. Findings Alcohol use was more common in Christians, who started drinking younger and were twice as likely to be diagnosed with abuse and dependence. However, among ever drinkers, the odds of alcohol use disorders were comparable across religious groups. Believing in God and practising one's faith were related inversely to alcohol abuse and dependence in all religious groups, even among ever drinkers (belief in God only). The associations were sometimes stronger for Muslims, suggesting that religiosity may play a larger role in a more proscriptive religion, as postulated by,reference group theory'. Conclusions Students belonging to conservative religious groups may be shielded from the opportunity to try alcohol. Once an ever drinker, however, religion is not related to the odds of an alcohol use disorder. Religiosity (i.e. belief in God and religious practice) is, nevertheless, related inversely to alcohol-related problems, even among drinkers. Findings from this culturally and religiously diverse Arab country corroborate the international literature on religion, religiosity and alcohol use, highlighting potential differences between Christians and Muslims. [source]

Improving the quality of clinical teaching in a restorative clinic using student feedback

Callum Youngson
Abstract Introduction:, A large proportion of the undergraduate curriculum is spent within Restorative Dentistry at the University of Liverpool. As well as supportive "phantom head" courses the undergraduates receive significant amounts of teaching within the clinics themselves. In 2004, to help inform the clinical tutors as to their areas of strengths and weaknesses, undergraduates were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire on the quality of teaching they received from their clinical supervisors. This process has been repeated subsequently in 2005 and 2006. Method:, A 19 parameter questionnaire, employing a 5-point Likert scale and space for open comments, was circulated to every clinical undergraduate student. Questionnaires were returned anonymously and all data collected by one researcher. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and the staff provided with individual feedback within the context of the overall departmental profile. The pooled data from each of the years was then compared to determine if any changes had occurred. Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis tests to determine whether these were statistically significant. Results:, Although the range varied, median scores of 4 (agree) were gained for each question each year. Following statistical analysis 18 of the parameters showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) between 2004 and 2006 with only one remaining constant throughout. Conclusion:, It would appear that the use of a questionnaire based feedback system can result in a tangible and demonstrable improvement in the delivery of clinical teaching. [source]

A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of conventional training and virtual reality simulation in the skills acquisition of junior dental students

Frank Quinn
The use of virtual reality (VR) in the training of operative dentistry is a recent innovation and little research has been published on its efficacy compared to conventional training methods. To evaluate possible benefits, junior undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1 as taught by conventional means only; group 2 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement (with access to a human instructor for operative advice); and group 3 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement, but without instructor evaluation/advice, which was only supplied via the VR-associated software. At the end of the research period, all groups executed two class 1 preparations that were evaluated blindly by ,expert' trainers, under traditional criteria (outline, retention, smoothness, depth, wall angulation and cavity margin index). Analyses of resulting scores indicated a lack of significant differences between the three groups except for scores for the category of ,outline form', for group 2, which produced significantly lower (i.e. better) scores than the conventionally trained group. A statistical comparison between scores from two ,expert' examiners indicated lack of agreement, despite identical written and visual criteria being used for evaluation by both. Both examiners, however, generally showed similar trends in evaluation. An anonymous questionnaire suggested that students recognized the benefits of VR training (e.g. ready access to assessment, error identification and how they can be corrected), but the majority felt that it would not replace conventional training methods (95%), although participants recognized the potential for development of VR systems in dentistry. The most common reasons cited for the preference of conventional training were excessive critical feedback (55%), lack of personal contact (50%) and technical hardware difficulties (20%) associated with VR-based training. [source]

Students' perceptions of seminar and lecture-based teaching in restorative dentistry

Paul A. Brunton
In an era of self-directed learning, it is important to seek the views of dental students regarding their learning experience. Using an anonymous questionnaire, clinical dental students' perceptions of seminar and lecture-based teaching in restorative dentistry were sought. 116 of 136 questionnaires circulated were returned for analysis giving a response rate of 85%. Clinical seminars as opposed to lectures were, in the opinion of the students, a more effective way of learning, more relevant to self-development and more interactive. Seminar-based learning was considered to be more amenable to self-direction than formal didactic lectures. It is concluded that the students included in this study were found to prefer seminar-based learning opportunities as opposed to more traditional styles of learning, specifically, didactic lectures. [source]

Risky weight control among university students

Hala Tamim PhD
Abstract Objective The objectives of the current study were to investigate risky weight control measures (vomiting or pills) among university students in Lebanon and to assess their relation to demographic, scholastic, and health risk behavioral characteristics. Method The study used a cross-sectional design. A proportionate random sample of 2,013 students was selected from public and private universities in Greater Beirut. Each participant completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Results Among participating students, 123 (6.1%) reported practicing risky weight control measures. Multivariate analysis indicated that younger females, cigarette smokers, engaged/married students, and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) were at increased odds of performing risky weight control measures. Conclusion Health awareness measures need to be proposed and, if possible, implemented to better define the motives and methods of weight reduction among Lebanese youth. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Children's prescription medicines: parents' perceptions on dosing intervals, dosing devices and prescription advice

Dr. Therése Kairuz senior lecturer, pharmacy practice
Objective To gather information on devices used to administer liquid medicines, dosing intervals for antibiotic administration, and parents' perceptions of the advice received from pharmacists about prescription medicines, for children up to the age of six years. Setting Six schools from different socio-economic areas were selected within the Auckland area of New Zealand. To facilitate distribution and collection of questionnaires, the headmaster or a teacher was known to the researchers. Method An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to year 1 and 2 students (aged five and six years) to take home for completion by a parent or primary caregiver. Respondents were asked to refer to their youngest child and/or to the last time they had given medicines or received a prescription for a child. Key findings A total of 299 completed questionnaires were received (48.2%); 60 questionnaires had not been distributed by school teachers in error, and the overall return rate was thus adjusted to 53.4%. The device used most frequently to administer medicines to younger children up to the age of three years was an oral medicine syringe, while nearly one-third of children aged three to six years received medicine in a ,teaspoon'. Almost half the respondents (48.8%) indicated they would be most likely to forget the midday dose of antibiotics, and dosing deviated from recommended intervals. Most respondents had received advice from a pharmacist on how to take the medicine, and had understood instructions and had the opportunity to ask questions. Conclusion This study highlights areas that pharmacists can include when advising parents and guardians about children's medicines, such as ideal dosing intervals of antibiotics and the use of accurate dosing devices. [source]

The career paths of a group of Romanian nurses in Italy: a 3-year follow-up study

A. Palese rn, bnsc
Purpose:, The objective of this study was to describe for how long a homogeneous group of 17 Romanian nurses who first arrived at the ,Teaching Hospital' in Italy in 2003, stayed in the same hospital/ward of the host country, why and when they decided to move from one hospital to another, and their levels of competence in core skills, after either 6 months or 3 years. Methods:, A longitudinal study design was adopted. The first phase was carried out in 2004, the second in 2006. We used an anonymous questionnaire. Results:, Only ten of the 17 nurses, who had started working in Italy 3 years before, remained in the same Hospital where they first started working. In spite of being given the opportunity to stay, some decided to move to hospitals where it is possible to earn more money or where they could save more by living in less expensive towns. The first nurse left the hospital in the first year, five in the second and one in the third year. Levels of perceived professional independence after 3 years are very good: the permanent group had improved their skills in all areas even though they felt a lack of confidence during the first 6 months. Conclusions:, This study, within the limits of the sample and the methods, shows that foreign nurses are highly mobile in the host country and this revolves around the opportunity to earn more. With increasing recruitment of nurses from within the European continent, it is necessary to continue studying the factors that sustain foreign nurses, to find out how they can be helped, how to value their imported professional skills, how to reduce the initial lack of faith in their own abilities and to discover which strategies would encourage them to stay in the hospital where they arrived. [source]

E-learning in the dermatological education at the Charité: evaluation of the last three years

Tilman Lüdert
Summary, Background: Numerous e-learning initiatives have been launched during the last decade. Many of them have not been continued, due to lack of acceptance on the part of the students, low quality or insufficient financial funding. Since 2002, the DEJAVU project has been integrated into the curriculum at the Department of Dermatology at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. DEJAVU offers an online archive of recorded lectures, lecture hand outs, structured learning modules, and case reports as well as online information about the courses/classes. Methods: Since beginning of the summer semester 2005, the student's acceptance and utilization of the online offerings was regularly surveyed, using anonymous questionnaires handed out together with the final exams. The teaching staff's opinions about e-learning were surveyed by means of a single anonymous questionnaire. Results: At the end of winter semester 2006/2007,93.5% of the students were aware of the existence of the e-learning program. The average amount of time spent with the program was 14.7 hours over the course of one semester. 66.8% of the students considered the program as very useful for their dermatology training. The lecture notes were the most frequently used online resource. Among the teaching staff, 86% considered e-learning a useful addition to traditional teaching. Conclusions: Our results show that e-learning is very well accepted by our students. It offers an additional way of acquiring knowledge and should be used to complement traditional ways of teaching. [source]

Use of the Internet by parents of paediatric patients

Brynn K Wainstein
Aim: We aimed to determine the rate of Internet use for obtaining medical information by health-care patients at a tertiary paediatric hospital, whether the Internet may influence patients' attitudes to health-care services and health-care providers and whether patients would prefer the assistance of a professional informatics officer. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire randomly distributed to 450 subjects at Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Results: A total of 294 (65%) questionnaires were returned. Overall Internet use for medical information was 64% (189/294). Most (97%; 183/189) respondents reported ,wanting to know more' as the reason they sought information on the Internet. Eighty-eight per cent (167/189) of respondents reported that they trust their doctor more than the Internet. Twenty-one per cent (39/189) had presented their doctor with information about which he/she was unaware and 18% (34/189) had altered a health-care decision because of information found on the Internet. The Internet had influenced questions asked of doctors in 83% (156/189). Eighty-six per cent (252/294) of all respondents were in favour of professional assistance to obtain medical information. Conclusion: A large number of patients use the Internet to find information that influences their attitudes to health care. The services of a medical informatics professional would likely benefit both patients and doctors. [source]

Burnout and job satisfaction comparing healthcare staff of a dermatological hospital and a general hospital

C Renzi
Abstract Background Psychological distress among healthcare professionals can have negative effects on the well-being of the professionals and also on the quality of care they provide to patients. Objectives To evaluate burnout and job satisfaction of dermatologists and nurses working with dermatological patients compared with physicians and nurses of other specialties. Methods, A self-completed anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the personnel of two hospitals in Rome, Italy: a dermatological hospital (IDI) and a general hospital (GH), belonging to the same non-profit organization. Standardized instruments were used to assess burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and job satisfaction. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between burnout and working in dermatology vs. other specialties, job satisfaction, years of employment and respondents' sex and age. Results We distributed 929 questionnaires to clinical and non-clinical staff of IDI and 494 questionnaires to the GH staff (response rates: 53% at IDI and 50% at the GH). Among respondents there were 67 physicians and 59 nurses at IDI and 70 physicians and 148 nurses at the GH. Subsequent analyses refer only to this clinical subsample. Factor analysis showed that among physicians and nurses the two main factors explaining job satisfaction were respondents',satisfaction with the management of their unit' and ,opportunities for personal growth'. Among nurses the likelihood of burnout decreased significantly with higher levels of job satisfaction [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7,0.9] and working in dermatology compared with other specialties (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.2,0.9). Among physicians a lower likelihood of burnout was associated with job satisfaction (OR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.5,0.8) and older age (OR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.1,0.8). Conclusions Among both physicians and nurses, job satisfaction was associated with a lower likelihood of burnout, independently of clinical specialty and other factors. Burnout was similar for dermatologists and other specialists. Nurses of the GH compared with those working in dermatology had a higher probability of burnout and were significantly less satisfied with the management of their units and with opportunities for personal growth. [source]

Sexual Risk Behavior of Travelers who Consulted a Pretravel Clinic

Mieke Croughs MD
Objective The objective of this study was to determine to which degree travelers who received pretravel advice at a travel clinic have protected or unprotected sexual contact with a new partner and what factors influence this behavior. Method An anonymous questionnaire was sent to travelers who came to a pretravel clinic between June 1 and August 31, 2005. Risk factors for casual travel sex and predictors of protected sex were studied in a multivariate model. Results A total of 1,907 travelers were included (response rate 55%) in the study. Only 4.7% of the respondents had sexual contact with a new partner, and 63.1% of these new partners were from the country of destination. Of those who had casual travel sex, 52.4% did not expect this (women 75%), 30.9% did not always use condoms, and 41% were not protected against hepatitis B. Independent risk factors for casual travel sex were traveling without steady partner (OR 14.4), expecting casual travel sex (OR 9.2), having casual sexual contacts in the home country (OR 2.4), non-tourist journeys (OR 2.2), being male (OR 2.1), the fact that the information on sexually transmitted infections (STI) had been read (OR 2.0), and traveling to South and Central America (OR 2.0). Taking condoms along (OR 5.4) and reading the information on STI (OR 3.3) were identified as independent predictors of protected sex. Conclusions Travelers have substantial sexual risk behavior. Casual sex is usually not expected, and the most important predictor is traveling without a steady partner. We would advice every client of a travel clinic who will travel without a steady partner to read the STI information, to take condoms along, and to be vaccinated against hepatitis B. [source]

Parental attitude to participating in long-term follow-up studies of their children's health after in utero diagnosis of abnormalities

Lauren Ramsay
Abstract Objective To determine whether parents might be distressed if approached to take part in long-term follow-up of their children's health and development. Methods A short, closed format anonymous questionnaire seeking parental opinion on being asked about their child's health was offered to attendees for obstetric ultrasound and parents of children attending paediatric cardiology clinics. Results In total, 70% of the 266 respondents were attending for ultrasound and ,30% paediatric cardiology clinics. In total, 66 respondents had children with long-term health problems, 28 with learning difficulties and 61 had previously had an abnormal obstetric ultrasound scan. Greater than 90% of parents were happy to be contacted and asked questions about their children's health and development, regardless of their child's health or their experiences during prenatal ultrasonography. Conclusions Our results provide reassurance to future researchers and ethics committees that studies of children's later health after in utero diagnosis of anomalies are unlikely to prove unacceptable to many parents. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Reserve nitrous oxide cylinders on anaesthetic machines

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 9 2000
The presence of reserve nitrous oxide cylinders on anaesthetic machines is not necessary and potentially hazardous, wasteful and polluting. Although reserve nitrous oxide cylinders are routinely present on the anaesthetic machines in many hospitals in the UK, it is our concern that they are not checked or maintained properly. We examined a sample of cylinders and surveyed the practice amongst the anaesthetic staff in our Department with an anonymous questionnaire. This confirmed that: (1) the equipment is not properly maintained, 68% of cylinders sampled having passed a 3-year expiry date; (2) checks are of little practical use, are not routinely performed by anaesthetists, and only 46% of respondents routinely check the nitrous oxide cylinders. In conclusion, the nitrous oxide cylinders are not properly checked or maintained and may represent a safety hazard. [source]

Prevalence of urinary incontinence in women with cystic fibrosis

M. Cornacchia
Objective To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female patients (aged 15 years) attending a cystic fibrosis (CF) centre, in whom stress UI could be common, as chronic coughing and sputum production are frequent symptoms associated with progressive lung disease in these patients. Patients and methods An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 176 women with CF (mean age 24.6 years, sd 5.8) during routine assessments as outpatients. Results In all, 72 patients (41%) were classified as never incontinent; occasional UI was reported in 61 women (35%). Regular UI, occurring twice or more a month for at least two consecutive months in the last year, was reported in 43 patients (24%). Regular UI was associated with increasing age and a lower mean (sd) forced expiratory volume/s (of that predicted) than in women with no urinary symptoms, at 26.9 (6.5) years and 53.5 (23.5)%, and 23.1 (5.4) years and 65.5 (23.2)%, respectively (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). All incontinent women recorded stress UI; coughing, laughing and physical activity were associated with UI in 92%, 33% and 21% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion Stress UI is a common symptom in women with CF. As urine loss can be under-reported to the healthcare providers, women should be asked about incontinence as part of their routine follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle exercises are effective in treating stress UI and should be considered for those with CF and regular UI. [source]

Gender Stereotypes: An Explanation to the Underrepresentation of Women in Emergency Medicine

Thierry Pelaccia MD
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:775,779 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, Women are underrepresented in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs in comparison with many other specialties. The reasons for this are unclear. One hypothesis is that negative gender stereotypes about EM careers might exist among female medical students. In the field of education, negative gender stereotypes are known to lead to career avoidance, because they tend to decrease self-efficacy perception. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of negative gender stereotypes about EM practice among medical students and to measure the effects of these stereotypes on females' self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. Methods:, A survey was conducted of the 255 third-year medical students from three medical schools who attended a mandatory EM academic program in France. They completed an anonymous questionnaire exploring their gender stereotypes about EM practice and their self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. Results:, Gender stereotypes are common among medical students, especially in women. Self-efficacy perception is negatively correlated to female students' belief that EM careers are better suited for men (p < 0.05). Conclusions:, Negative gender stereotypes among female medical students may lead to EM career avoidance, because of the decrease in their self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. [source]

Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict

Alfgeir Logi Kristjansson
Abstract Aim: To investigate how family conflict contributes to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting: School classrooms in Iceland in which an anonymous questionnaire was administered to respondents by supervising teachers. Participants were 7430 (81.4%) of 9124 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Main outcome measure: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use during the last 30 days were assessed by self-report. Results: Parental divorce was related to adolescent cigarette smoking during the last 30 days (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.84,2.44) when controlling for gender only, but was insignificant (OR = 1.18 95%, CI 0.99,1.44) when controlling for relationship with parents, disruptive social changes and family conflict. There was a significant relationship between parental divorce and adolescent alcohol use during last 30 days (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.48,1.87), controlling only for gender; however, the relationship disappeared (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91,1.20) when controlling for other variables. Conclusion: Family conflicts are important contributors to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Conflict between parents and adolescents, but not inter-parental conflict, appears to be the most important factor in the relationship between family conflict and adolescent substance use. [source]

Preoperative smoking cessation: a questionnaire study

D. Owen
Summary Background:, Preoperative smoking cessation has been shown to improve postoperative outcomes. Methods:, A total of 120 anonymous questionnaires were distributed to non-vascular surgeons practising in four centres in the UK asking about their smoking cessation advice practices, and whether they appreciated both the benefits of preoperative smoking cessation, and the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions. Results:, Eighty-three questionnaires were returned (response rate 69%). Twenty-three gastrointestinal surgeons, 11 orthopaedic surgeons, 9 breast surgeons, 12 plastic surgeons, 13 neurosurgeons and 15 urologists took part in this study. Eighty-eight per cent of respondents had not referred any elective patients to smoking cessation services in the previous month. Most non-vascular surgeons underestimated both the benefits of preoperative smoking cessation on outcome, and the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions. Conclusions:, This survey demonstrates that non-vascular surgeons underestimate the fact that preoperative smoking cessation can improve postoperative outcome, and that smoking cessation interventions are successful in helping patients to quit smoking. They largely do not refer patients to smoking cessation services. In order for patients to benefit postoperatively from this intervention it would be necessary to educate surgeons about the scale of the benefit, and the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions or to set up systematic frameworks to offer smoking cessation advice to preoperative patients who smoke. [source]

Attitudes towards skills examinations for basic surgical trainees

S.D. Bann
Summary Objective measures of surgical skill and cognition are becoming available. A questionnaire study examining surgeons' beliefs towards a skills-based examination, current standards and possible benefits was devised. Three hundred pairs of standardised anonymous questionnaires were sent to consultants and their basic surgical trainees (BSTs) irrespective of surgical speciality. Responses were requested using a Likert scale (1,5, 3 = neutral response). Two-hundred and two replies were received (including 54 pairs). BST experience ranged from 6 to 60 months (mean 24 months). When questioned regarding current training in basic surgical skills, only 34% believed that they were given adequate training at present. Sixty-four per cent of respondents believed the introduction of a skills examination would raise standards and 66% believed it necessary. Eighty-three per cent of respondents believed that they or their BST would practice these skills, if an examination were introduced and 85% wanted or would provide dedicated teaching time for this. However, 68% had no access to a dedicated skills facility, and uptake of these, where available, was variable. When questioned about their ability to perform the six appropriate tasks, there was a poor correlation of scoring between the groups. Consultants and their BSTs do not believe that they are given adequate training in basic skills. The introduction of an examination would lead to practice of these skills and is seen as a positive move. [source]

Decrease in the Prevalence of Adolescent Alcohol Use and its Possible Causes in Japan: Periodical Nationwide Cross-Sectional Surveys

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
Yoneatsu Osaki
Background:, Trends in alcohol drinking prevalence were assessed among Japanese adolescents, and possible reasons for a decrease in drinking prevalence observed in 2004. Methods:, Cross-sectional nationwide surveys were conducted periodically. High schools were randomly sampled from throughout Japan in 1996, 2000, and 2004. All enrolled students in sampled schools were subjects of the surveys. Self-reporting anonymous questionnaires were collected from 115,814 students in 1996, 106,297 in 2000, and 102,451 in 2004. Questions about drinking prevalence of students and family members, proportion of students who have no friends, and sources of alcohol were included. Students who drunk at least one day of the 30 days preceding the survey were defined as the current drinkers. Results:, The drinking prevalence in 2004 was decreased in comparison to that in 1996 and 2000 in both sexes and in all school grades. The current drinking rate (monthly drinker) among junior high school boys was 29.4% in 1996, 29.0% in 2000, and 20.5% in 2004, while that among senior high school boys was 49.7%, 48.7%, and 36.2%, respectively. The respective prevalence among junior and senior girls was 24.0%, 25.5%, and 20.0% and 40.8%, 42.1%, and 34.1%. The prevalent sources of alcohol beverages were searching in home, stores (convenience store, supermarket, or gas-stand), liquor shops, and bars. An analysis of the reasons for this decrease identified a decrease in drinking prevalence in students' families, especially by fathers and older brothers, and an increase in the proportion of students who had no friends. Conclusions:, A decrease in drinking prevalence of male family members and a limitation of sources of alcoholic beverages may contribute to the decrease in adolescent drinking prevalence. [source]

Multiple mini-interviews: opinions of candidates and interviewers

Sarah Humphrey
Objectives, To assess candidates' and interviewers' perceptions of the use of a multiple mini-interview (MMI) for selection of senior house officers (SHOs) to a UK regional paediatric training programme. Methods, Both candidates and interviewers completed anonymous questionnaires (comprising 16 and 25 questions, respectively). Demographic data were recorded for both groups. Data were analysed by frequencies; using Mann,Whitney and Kruskall,Wallis tests for comparisons; and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency within the data. Results, Both candidates and interviewers were positive about the fairness of the MMI (mean scores of 4.0 and 4.4, respectively). The majority of candidates (83%) had not been to this type of interview before. Gender, age and previous experience of MMIs did not account for differences in candidate responses (P > 0.05). A total of 86% of candidates were international medical graduates who preferred the format more than UK graduates did (P = 0.01). Interviewers were mainly experienced consultants who agreed that the multi-station format was better than the traditional interview (mean score 4.8) and represented a reliable process (mean score 4.4). Interviewers were concerned about the range of competencies covered and the subsequent performance of candidates in post (mean scores 3.6 and 3.2, respectively). Conclusions, Both candidates and interviewers agreed that the MMI format was reliable, fair and asked appropriate, easy-to-understand questions. In high-stakes interviews such as for specialty training in Modernising Medical Careers programmes, it is vital that all concerned have confidence in the selection process. [source]

Global nutritional recommendations: a combination of evidence and food availability?

K Kapur BSc, PGDipDiet Dietitian/Diabetes Educator
Abstract Diet and exercise are vital diabetes management strategies. Health professionals (HPs) use dietary guidelines to advise their clients but the current macronutrient recommendation in the guidelines varies. The aim of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in macronutrient dietary advice in different parts of the world and suggest some reasons for any differences identified. The study was undertaken in two phases: (1) a one-shot cross-sectional survey of HPs and global diabetes organisations using self-completed, anonymous questionnaires (n=40), and (2) a review of dietary guidelines from relevant diabetes associations (the American Diabetes Association [ADA], the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group [DNSG] of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD], the Canadian Diabetes Association [CDA], the Joslin Diabetes Center, Diabetes UK, and the Indian Council of Medical Research [ICMR]). Dietary recommendations differed among countries and from the guidelines, and reflected socioeconomic factors and local food availability. With regard to macronutrient recommendations, carbohydrate ranged from 40,70%, protein 12,20% and fat 15,40% of total energy intake. Nations with higher gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita tended to recommend a much lower ratio of carbohydrate than those with lower GDP PPP per capita. However, all guidelines stressed the importance of healthy eating. It was concluded that socioeconomic factors and local food availability appear to influence HPs' dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons. [source]

The Impairment of Sexual Function Is Less Distressing for Menopausal than for Premenopausal Women

Marta Berra MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Menopause requires psychological and physical adjustments because of the occurring significant hormonal changes. Sexuality is one of the aspects that undergoes the most profound modifications. Preliminary data suggest that sometimes women do not regard sexual changes as problematic and often readjust their life and relationship according to their new physical status. Aim., The aim of our study was to evaluate sexual function and the way women feel by comparing healthy postmenopausal and premenopausal women. Methods., One hundred menopausal (M) and 100 premenopausal (pM) healthy women were asked to complete anonymous questionnaires to assess sexual function and stress related to sexual activity. Main Outcome Measures., Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) were completed by M and pM women. Results., Medium FSFI score was 20.5 ± 9.6 and 26.4 ± 7.7 (P < 0.0005) and medium FSDS score was 12.1 ± 11.7 (95% CI 9.7,14.4) and 11.3 ± 10.2 (P = 0.917) for M and pM women, respectively. Twenty-five of the 69 M women and 20 of the 31 pM women with a pathological score in the FSFI questionnaire scored higher than 15 in the FSDS (P < 0.0005). The overall prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 20% and 25% (P = 0.5) in the M and pM women. Conclusions., Our data confirm that menopause is associated with changes in sexual function that may be compatible with sexual dysfunction. However, personal distress caused by these changes in sexual life appears to be lower among menopausal women (36.2%) as compared with premenopausal women (64.5%). These data suggest that medical treatment for sexual health in menopause must be highly personalized and carefully prescribed. Berra M, De Musso F, Matteucci C, Martelli V, Perrone AM, Pelusi C, Pelusi G, and Meriggiola MC. The impairment of sexual function is less distressing for menopausal than for premenopausal women. J Sex Med 2010;7:1209,1215. [source]