Anole Lizard (anole + lizard)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Effects of Social Experience on Aggressive Behavior in the Green Anole Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)

ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2001
Eun-Jin Yang
To understand how context-specific aggression emerges from past experience, we examined how consecutive aggressive encounters influence aggressive behavior and stress responses of male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Animals were shown a video clip featuring an aggressively displaying conspecific male, which provoked aggressive responding, while control animals viewed a neutral video. After 5 d of interaction with the videos, both the subject and control groups were presented with a live conspecific. As a non-invasive assay of stress responses, we measured changes in body color and eyespot darkness, two features known to be strongly correlated with titers of stress hormones. Our results demonstrate that experience increased aggression in male anoles, but that increases in aggression to a repeated stimulus were transient. Tests with a novel conspecific indicate that the experienced animals remained aggressive when presented with novel stimuli. Although there were differences in the morphological indicators of the stress response between experimental and control groups during video presentations, there were no differences when presented with novel conspecifics. These data indicate that experience-dependent differences were not mediated by differences in the ,stressfulness' of aggressive interaction, as thought to be the case for animals in chronic subordinate/dominant dyads. We suggest that habituation and reinforcement interact to promote aggressive responding and to restrict it to novel individuals. Such context specificity is a hallmark of natural patterns of aggression in territorial species. [source]


Genetic and morphometric differentiation among island populations of two Norops lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae) on independently colonized islands of the Islas de Bahia (Honduras)

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2007
C. F. C. Klütsch
Abstract Aim, Anole lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae) display remarkable morphological and genetic differentiation between island populations. Morphological differences between islands are probably due to both adaptive (e.g. differential resource exploitation and intra- or interspecific competition) and non-adaptive differentiation in allopatry. Anoles are well known for their extreme diversity and rapid adaptive speciation on islands. The main aim of this study was to use tests of morphological and genetic differentiation to investigate the population structure and colonization history of islands of the Islas de Bahia, off the coast of Honduras. Location, Five populations of Norops bicaorum and Norops lemurinus were sampled, four from islands of the Islas de Bahia and one from the mainland of Honduras. Methods, Body size and weight differentiation were measured in order to test for significant differences between sexes and populations. In addition, individuals were genotyped using the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique. Bayesian model-based and assignment/exclusion methods were used to study genetic differentiation between island and mainland populations and to test colonization hypotheses. Results, Assignment tests suggested migration from the mainland to the Cayos Cochinos, and from there independently to both Utila and Roatán, whereas migration between Utila and Roatán was lacking. Migration from the mainland to Utila was inferred, but was much less frequent. Morphologically, individuals from Utila appeared to be significantly different in comparison with all other localities. Significant differentiation between males of Roatán and the mainland was found in body size, whereas no significant difference was detected between the mainland and the Cayos Cochinos. Main conclusions, Significant genetic and morphological differentiation was found among populations. A stepping-stone model for colonization, in combination with an independent migration to Utila and Roatán, was suggested by assignment tests and was compatible with the observed morphological differentiation. [source]


Social experience organizes parallel networks in sensory and limbic forebrain

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
Eun-Jin Yang
Abstract Successful social behavior can directly influence an individual's reproductive success. Therefore, many organisms readily modify social behavior based on past experience. The neural changes induced by social experience, however, remain to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that social modulation of neural systems not only occurs at the level of individual nuclei, but also of functional networks, and their relationships with behavior. We used the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis), which displays stereotyped, visually triggered social behaviors particularly suitable for comparisons of multiple functional networks in a social context, to test whether repeated aggressive interactions modify behavior and metabolic activity in limbic,hypothalamic and sensory forebrain regions, assessed by quantitative cytochrome oxidase (a slowly accumulating endogenous metabolic marker) histochemistry. We found that aggressive interactions potentiate aggressive behavior, induce changes in activities of individual nuclei, and organize context-specific functional neural networks. Surprisingly, this experiential effect is not only present in a limbic,hypothalamic network, but also extends to a sensory forebrain network directly relevant to the behavioral expression. Our results suggest that social experience modulates organisms' social behavior via modifying sensory and limbic neural systems in parallel both at the levels of individual regions and networks, potentially biasing perceptual as well as limbic processing. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007 [source]


Testosterone, growth and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
R. M. COX
Abstract The integration of macroevolutionary pattern with developmental mechanism presents an outstanding challenge for studies of phenotypic evolution. Here, we use a combination of experimental and comparative data to test whether evolutionary shifts in the direction of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) correspond to underlying changes in the endocrine regulation of growth. First, we combine captive breeding studies with mark-recapture data to show that male-biased SSD develops in the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) because males grow significantly faster than females as juveniles and adults. We then use castration surgeries and testosterone implants to show that castration inhibits, and testosterone stimulates, male growth. We conclude by reviewing published testosterone manipulations in other squamate reptiles in the context of evolutionary patterns in SSD. Collectively, these studies reveal that the evolution of SSD has been accompanied by underlying changes in the effect of testosterone on male growth, potentially facilitating the rapid evolution of SSD. [source]


The Effects of Social Experience on Aggressive Behavior in the Green Anole Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)

ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2001
Eun-Jin Yang
To understand how context-specific aggression emerges from past experience, we examined how consecutive aggressive encounters influence aggressive behavior and stress responses of male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Animals were shown a video clip featuring an aggressively displaying conspecific male, which provoked aggressive responding, while control animals viewed a neutral video. After 5 d of interaction with the videos, both the subject and control groups were presented with a live conspecific. As a non-invasive assay of stress responses, we measured changes in body color and eyespot darkness, two features known to be strongly correlated with titers of stress hormones. Our results demonstrate that experience increased aggression in male anoles, but that increases in aggression to a repeated stimulus were transient. Tests with a novel conspecific indicate that the experienced animals remained aggressive when presented with novel stimuli. Although there were differences in the morphological indicators of the stress response between experimental and control groups during video presentations, there were no differences when presented with novel conspecifics. These data indicate that experience-dependent differences were not mediated by differences in the ,stressfulness' of aggressive interaction, as thought to be the case for animals in chronic subordinate/dominant dyads. We suggest that habituation and reinforcement interact to promote aggressive responding and to restrict it to novel individuals. Such context specificity is a hallmark of natural patterns of aggression in territorial species. [source]


GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION, FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT SELECTION, AND THE MAINTENANCE OF A FEMALE-LIMITED POLYMORPHISM

EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2010
Ryan Calsbeek
A central problem in evolutionary biology is to understand how spatial and temporal variation in selection maintain genetic variation within and among populations. Brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) exhibit a dorsal pattern polymorphism that is expressed only in females, which occur in "diamond,""bar," and intermediate "diamond-bar" morphs. To understand the inheritance of this polymorphism, we conducted a captive breeding study that refuted several single-locus models and supported a two-locus mode of inheritance. To describe geographic variation in morph frequencies, we surveyed 13 populations from two major islands in The Bahamas. Morph frequencies differed substantially between major islands but were highly congruent within each island. Finally, we measured viability selection on each island to test two hypotheses regarding the maintenance of the polymorphism: (1) that spatial variation in selection maintains variation in morph frequencies between islands, and (2) that temporal variation in selection across years maintains variation within islands. Although bar females had relatively lower survival where they were rare, our data do not otherwise suggest that selection varies spatially between islands. However, diamond-bar females were subject to positive frequency-dependent selection across years, and the relative fitness of bar and diamond females alternated across years. We propose that this polymorphism is maintained by temporal variation in selection coupled with the sheltering of alleles via a two-locus inheritance pattern and sex-limited expression. [source]