Anogenital Distance (anogenital + distance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of in utero exposure to 2,2,,4,4,,5,5,-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) on somatic growth and endocrine status in rat offspring

Kenichi Kobayashi
ABSTRACT Exposure to polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) mixtures at an early stage of development has been reported to affect endocrine glands; however, little is known about the precise toxicological properties of individual PCB. The present study was undertaken to determine whether prenatal exposure to 2,2,,4,4,,5,5,-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), a di- ortho -substituted non-coplanar congener, affects postnatal development in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (Crj: CD (SD) IGS) were given PCB 153 (0, 16, or 64 mg/kg/day) orally from gestational day (GD) 10 through GD 16, and developmental parameters in the male and female offspring were examined. We found no dose-dependent changes in body weight, body length (nose,anus length), tail length, or the weights of kidneys, testes, ovaries and uterus in offspring at 1 or 3 weeks of age. Liver weights were increased in the PCB 153,treated groups, although we observed a significant difference only in males. Anogenital distance was unaffected in the PCB 153,treated groups. We observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the plasma concentrations of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, whereas those of thyroid-stimulating hormone were not significantly changed. In addition, there were no dose-dependent changes in plasma concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in any dose group. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to PCB 153 (GD 10,16, 16,64 mg/kg/day) may alter the thyroid status in rat offspring to some extent without affecting somatic growth or its related hormonal parameters. [source]

Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

S. Christiansen
Summary The incidence of hypospadias is increasing in young boys, but it remains unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a role. Risk assessment is based on estimation of no-observed-adverse-effect levels for single compounds, although humans are exposed to combinations of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13, and dysgenesis score at PND 16 were highly correlated with the occurrence of hypospadias, and MIX effects were seen at doses where each of the individual chemicals caused no observable effects. Therefore, the results indicate that doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce no hypospadias when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency of hypospadias when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens. [source]

Dietary exposure to low doses of bisphenol A: Effects on reproduction and development in two generations of C57BL/6J mice

Kenichi Kobayashi
Abstract The present study was conducted to examine the effects of low-dose exposure to bisphenol A on reproduction and development in two generations of mice. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice (F0) were fed a diet containing low doses of bisphenol A (0, 0.33, 3.3, or 33 ppm) from gestational day 6 through postnatal day 22, and the weanlings (F1 and F2) from each F0 and F1 dam group, respectively, were also fed these same concentrations of bisphenol A ad libitum until sacrifice. There were no treatment-related changes in body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, gestation length, or the number of live births on postnatal day 1 in F0 dams between the control group and bisphenol A groups. Sex ratio and viability were similar in all F1 pups. No treatment-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, developmental parameters, anogenital distance, or weight of any of the organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thymus, testis, ovary, or uterus) in F1 and F2 adults in either sex. The epididymis weight was slightly higher with 0.33 and 3.3 ppm in F1 males, but this slight increase was neither dose dependent nor seen across generations. There were no treatment-related effects of bisphenol A on cauda epididymal sperm count or sperm motility in F1 or F2 males. These findings indicate that dietary exposure to bisphenol A between 0.33 and 33 ppm does not adversely affect reproduction or development as assessed in two generations of mice. [source]

Antiandrogenic effects of dibutyl phthalate and its metabolite, monobutyl phthalate, in rats

Makoto Ema
ABSTRACT, Developmental toxicity following administration of dibutyl phthalate (DBF) and its major metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), by gavage was determined in Wistar rats. DBF on days 0,8 of pregnancy induced an increase in the incidence of preimplantation loss at 1250 mg/kg and higher and postimplantation loss at 750 mg/kg and higher. MBuP on days 0,8 of pregnancy produced an increase in the incidence of pre-and postimplantation loss at 1000 mg/kg. DBF on days 7,15 of pregnancy caused an increase in the incidence of fetuses with malformations at 750 mg/kg. MBuP on days 7,15 of pregnancy produced an increased incidence of fetuses with malformations at 500 mg/kg and higher. DBF on days 15,17 of pregnancy resulted in a decrease in the anogenital distance (AGD) of male fetuses and increase in the incidence of fetuses with undescended testes at 500 mg/kg and higher. MBuP on days 15,17 of pregnancy caused a decreased male AGD and increased incidence of fetuses with undescended testes at 250 mg/kg and higher. No effect of DBF and MBuP on the AGD was found in female offspring. The spectrum of fetal malformations, dependence of gestational days of treatment on the manifestation of teratogenicity, and alterations in development of the male reproductive system observed after administration of DBF were in good agreement with those observed after administration of MBuP. These findings suggest that MBuP may be responsible for the induction of developmental toxic effects of DBP. The doses that produced a decrease in the AGD and undescended testes in male offspring were lower than those producing maternal toxicity, fetal malformations after administration during major organogenesis, and embryonic loss. The male reproductive system may be more susceptible than other organ systems to DBP and MBuP toxicity after maternal exposure. [source]

Prenatal developmental toxicity studies of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p, p,-DDT) in rats and rabbits

Ken L. Takahashi
ABSTRACT, The studies were conducted in rats and rabbits to elucidate the potential developmental toxicity of p, p'-DDT in general accordance with the improved Japanese MAFF guidelines (12-Nousan-No. 8147,2,1,18, 2000). p, p'-DDT suspended in 1% aqueous solution of CMC was administered orally to pregnant Jcl:SD rats on gestational days (GD) 6,19 at a dose of 0,5, 25, or 100 mg/kg/day and to pregnant KbI: JW rabbits on GD 6,27 at a dose of 0,5,20, or 80 mg/kg/day. Maternal animals were killed on the day after the last day of administration for morphological examination of their fetuses with special attention to the reproductive organs. Adverse effects on maternal animals were found only at the highest dose in both species; i.e., clonic convulsion (2/24 in rats, 5/22 in rabbits), mortality (1/24 in rats), abortion or premature delivery (4/22 in rabbits), and reduced body weight gains and food consumption. However, the control and treated groups showed comparable values for the numbers of corpora lutea and implants, percent preimplantation losses, number of live fetuses, percent resorptions and fetal deaths, sex ratio, fetal body weights, and placental weights in both species, and anogenital distance and testicular histology in rats. Although fetal examination revealed slightly increased incidence of 27 presacral vertebrae in the highest dose group in rats, there was no treatment-related increase in the incidence of malformations in any of the species. Based on these results, it is concluded that p, p'-DDT causes no malformations, including male reproductive organ abnormalities, in either rats or rabbits, although it results in an increased incidence of skeletal variations in rats at a maternally toxic dose. [source]

A mixture of seven antiandrogens induces reproductive malformations in rats

Cynthia V. Rider
Summary To date, regulatory agencies have not considered conducting cumulative risk assessments for mixtures of chemicals with diverse mechanisms of toxicity because it is assumed that the chemicals will act independently and the individual chemical doses are not additive. However, this assumption is not supported by new research addressing the joint effects of chemicals that disrupt reproductive tract development in the male rat by disrupting the androgen signalling pathway via diverse mechanisms of toxicity [i.e. androgen receptor (AR) antagonism in the reproductive tract vs. inhibition of androgen synthesis in the foetal testis]. In this study, pregnant rats were exposed to four dilutions of a mixture containing vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, prochloraz, benzyl butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate during the period of sexual differentiation and male offspring were assessed for effects on hormone sensitive endpoints including: anogenital distance, infant areolae retention and reproductive tract tissue weights and malformations. The ratio of the chemicals in the mixture was based upon each chemical's ED50 for inducing reproductive tract malformations (hypospadias or epididymal agenesis). The observed responses from the mixture were compared with predicted responses generated with a toxic equivalency approach and models of dose addition, response addition or integrated addition. As hypothesized, we found that the mixture of chemicals that alter the androgen signalling pathway via diverse mechanisms disrupted male rat reproductive tract differentiation and induced malformations in a cumulative, dose-additive manner. The toxic equivalency and dose addition models provided the best fit to observed responses even though the chemicals do not act via a common cellular mechanism of action. The current regulatory framework for conducting cumulative risk assessments needs to consider the results, including those presented herein, which indicate that chemicals that disrupt foetal tissues during sexual differentiation act in a cumulative, dose-additive manner irrespective of the specific cellular mechanism of toxicity. [source]

Differential developmental toxicities of di- n -hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate administered orally to rats

Anne-Marie Saillenfait
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the developmental toxic potential of di- n -hexyl phthalate (DnHP) and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) in rats. Pregnant Sprague,Dawley rats were exposed to DnHP or DCHP at doses of 0 (olive oil), 250, 500 and 750 mg kg,1 per day, by gavage, on gestational days (GD) 6,20. Maternal food consumption and body weight gain were significantly reduced at 750 mg kg,1 per day of DnHP and at the two high doses of DCHP. Slight changes in liver weight associated with peroxisomal enzyme induction were seen in dams treated with DnHP or DCHP. DnHP caused dose-related developmental toxic effects, including marked embryo mortality at 750 mg kg,1 per day, and presence of malformations (mainly cleft palate, eye defects and axial skeleton abnormalities) and significant decreases in fetal weight at 500 and 750 mg kg,1 per day. Significant delay of ossification and increase in the incidence of skeletal variants (e.g. supernumerary lumbar ribs) also appeared at 250 mg kg,1 per day. DCHP produced fetal growth retardation at 750 mg kg,1 per day, as evidenced by significant reduction of fetal weight. DnHP and DCHP induced a significant and dose-related decrease in the anogenital distance of male fetuses at all doses, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of male fetuses with undescended testis at 500 and 750 mg kg,1 per day of DnHP. In conclusion, DnHP showed clear embryolethality and teratogenicity, but not DCHP. There was evidence that both phthalates could alter the development of the male reproductive system after in utero exposure, DnHP being much more potent than DCHP. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) vapor in CD® rats

R. W. Tyl
Abstract Under Of,ce of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances draft guidelines, CD® weanling F0 rats (30 of each gender per group) inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether vapor at 0, 250, 1500 or 3000 ppm 5 days a week and 6 h a day for 10 weeks, with vaginal cytology evaluated for weeks 8,10. The F0 animals then produced F1 offspring, with exposure 7 days a week from mating through to lactation. During the F1 prebreed exposure period, vaginal patency, preputial separation (PPS) and vaginal cytology were evaluated. The F1 animals were mated, with F2 anogenital distance measured on postnatal day zero. At F2 weaning 30 of each gender per group were selected for postwean retention, with no exposures, through vaginal patency and PPS. Body weights, feed consumption and clinical signs were recorded throughout the study. Adult F0 and F1 systemic toxicity was present at 1500 and 3000 ppm. Minor adult male reproductive toxicity was present at 3000 ppm. There were no adult effects on vaginal cyclicity, estrous cycle length, mating, fertility, pregnancy, gestational length or ovarian and uterine weights. There were no treatment-related gross or histopathologic ,ndings in parental male or female systemic or reproductive organs. The F1 and F2 offspring toxicity was present at 1500 and 3000 ppm. The no-observable-adverse-effect level for adult systemic and offspring toxicity was 250 ppm and 1500 ppm for male reproductive toxicity (females at >3000 ppm). Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

External genital morphology of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta): Females are naturally "masculinized"

Christine M. Drea
Abstract The extravagance and diversity of external genitalia have been well characterized in male primates; however, much less is known about sex differences or variation in female form. Our study represents a departure from traditional investigations of primate reproductive anatomy because we 1) focus on external rather than internal genitalia, 2) measure both male and female structures, and 3) examine a strepsirrhine rather than an anthropoid primate. The subjects for morphological study were 21 reproductively intact, adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), including 10 females and 11 males, two of which (one per sex) subsequently died of natural causes and also served as specimens for gross anatomical dissection. Male external genitalia presented a typical masculine configuration, with a complex distal penile morphology. In contrast, females were unusual among mammals, presenting an enlarged, pendulous external clitoris, tunneled by the urethra. Females had a shorter anogenital distance and a larger urethral meatus than did males, but organ diameter and circumference showed no sex differences. Dissection confirmed these characterizations. Noteworthy in the male were the presence of a "levator penis" muscle and discontinuity in the corpus spongiosum along the penile shaft; noteworthy in the female were an elongated clitoral shaft and glans clitoridis. The female urethra, while incorporated within the clitoral body, was not surrounded by erectile tissue, as we detected no corpus spongiosum. The os clitoridis was 43% the length and 24% the height of the os penis. On the basis of these first detailed descriptions of strepsirrhine external genitalia (for either sex), we characterize those of the female ring-tailed lemur as moderately "masculinized." Our results highlight certain morphological similarities and differences between ring-tailed lemurs and the most male-like of female mammals, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and call attention to a potential hormonal mechanism of "masculinization" in female lemur development. J. Morphol., 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, deltamethrin, nonylphenol and phytoestrogens has negative effects on the reproductive parameters in male Spraque-Dawley rats

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 4 2007
E. Kilian
Summary Many reports suggest that male reproductive health has deteriorated over the last decades, possibly due to environmental contaminants that act as endocrine disruptors. This hypothesis was tested in Sprague-Dawley rats using a modified Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 415 one-generation test. Group A received cottonseed oil as control, and Groups B, C and D received deltamethrin (DM); DM and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and DM, DDT, phytoestrogens and p -nonylphenol, respectively. Rats were exposed in utero and then received the substances for 10 weeks. The seminal vesicle mass (Group B; P = 0.046) and sperm count [Groups C (P = 0.013) and D (P = 0.003)] were lower and the anogenital distance [Group B (P = 0.047) C (P = 0.045) and D (P = 0.002)] shorter compared with the control group. The seminiferous tubule diameter [Groups B (P = <0.001), C (P = <0.001) and D (P = <0.001)] and epithelium thickness [Groups B (P = 0.030), C (P = <0.001) and D (P = <0.001)] were smaller compared with the control. The histology of the testes showed signs of apical sloughing and vacuolisation. Liver weights [Groups C (P = 0.013) and D (P = 0.005)] and liver enzymes [Group D (P = 0.013)] were also affected. These findings may indicate that simultaneous exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds contributes to the deterioration observed in male reproductive health. [source]