Anode

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Terms modified by Anode

  • anode catalyst
  • anode material

  • Selected Abstracts


    Oxygen-Terminated Nanocrystalline Diamond Film as an Efficient Anode in Photovoltaics

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2010
    Candy Haley Yi Xuan Lim
    Abstract The potential of using p-doped nanocrystalline diamond as the anode for organic solar cells, because of its outstanding photostability and well-matched energetics with organic dyes, is demonstrated. The interface dipole and open-circuit potential can be tuned by varying the surface termination on diamond. Oxygenated nanocrystalline diamond (O-NCD) exhibits the best photocurrent conversion among all the surface-treated electrodes studied in this work because of its large open-circuit potential. The good energy alignment of the valence band of O-NCD with the HOMO of poly(3-hexylthiophene), as well as its p-doped characteristics, suggest that O-NCD can replace the hole transport layer, such as PEDOT:PSS, needed for efficient performance on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. If the sheet resistance and optical transparency on NCD can be further optimized, chemical-vapor-deposited diamond electrodes may offer a viable alternative to ITO and fluorinated tin oxide (FTO). [source]


    Fine-microstructure Mediated Efficient Hydrogen Oxidation in Ni/YSZ Anode Fabricated from Novel Co-precipitation Derived Nanocomposites

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 2 2010
    K. Sato
    Abstract Fine-microstructure mediated efficient hydrogen oxidation was demonstrated on nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anode fabricated from NiO/YSZ nanocomposite particles, synthesised via a novel co-precipitation method using YSZ nanoparticles with the average size of 3,nm. Transmission electron microscopy image revealed that nanocomposite particles calcined at 600,C consisted of homogeneously distributed NiO and YSZ nanocrystals, approximately 5,nm large. The Ni/YSZ anode was fabricated by sintering the screen-printed nanocomposites at 1,300,C and their subsequent reduction. The anode had a uniform porous microstructure consisting of fine grains in the range of 200,300,nm, and exhibited quite low area-specific resistance (ASR) of 2.29, 0.43 and 0.15,,,cm2 at 600, 700 and 800,C, respectively. [source]


    Temperature and Impurity Concentration Effects on Degradation of Nickel/Yttria-stabilised Zirconia Anode in PH3 -Containing Coal Syngas

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 1 2010
    M. Zhi
    Abstract Degradation of the Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) anode of the solid oxide fuel cell has been evaluated in the coal syngas containing different PH3 concentrations in the temperature range from 750 to 900,C. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that PH3 in the coal syngas gas is converted mostly to P2O3 at 750,900,C. The phosphorous impurity reacts with the Ni-YSZ anode to form phosphates. The P-impurity poisoning leads to the deactivation of the Ni catalyst and to the reduction in the electronic conductivity of the anode. The impurity poisoning effect on the anode is exacerbated by increase in the temperature and/or the PH3 concentration. [source]


    In Situ Growth of Mesoporous SnO2 on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: A Novel Composite with Porous-Tube Structure as Anode for Lithium Batteries,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2007
    Z. Wen
    Abstract A novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite, namely mesoporous tin dioxide (SnO2) overlaying on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared by a simple method that included in situ growth of mesoporous SnO2 on the surface of MWCNTs through hydrothermal method utilizing Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agents. Nitrogen adsorption,desorption, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis techniques were used to characterize the samples. It was observed that a thin layer tetragonal SnO2 with a disordered porous was embedded on the surface of MWCNTs, which resulted in the formation of a novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite. On the base of TEM analysis of products from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the mesoporous-nanotube structure. The electrochemical properties of the samples as anode materials for lithium batteries were studied by cyclic voltammograms and Galvanostatic method. Results showed that the mesoporous-tube hybrid composites displayed higher capacity and better cycle performance in comparison with the mesoporous tin dioxide. It was concluded that such a large improvement of electrochemical performance within the hybrid composites may in general be related to mesoporous-tube structure that possess properties such as one-dimensional hollow structure, high-strength with flexibility, excellent electric conductivity and large surface area. [source]


    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Nanostructured Fe3O4/SWNT Electrode: Binder-Free and High-Rate Li-Ion Anode (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2010
    20/2010)
    A flexible carbon nanotube net is employed to demonstrate high capacity/high volume expansion materials for Li-ion battery electrodes, as presented by A. C. Dillon et al. on page E145. An electrode, with well over twice the capacity of the state-of-the-art technology, charges and discharges in 12 minutes without significant capacity fade. These advancements, funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies Program, will help enable next generation electric vehicles. [source]


    Nanostructured Fe3O4/SWNT Electrode: Binder-Free and High-Rate Li-Ion Anode

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2010
    Chunmei Ban
    Utilizing Fe3O4 nanorods as the active Li+ storage material and 5,wt% carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) as a "conductive net," a Li-ion anode with a high reversible capacity of 1000,mAh,g,1 (,2000,mAh,cm,3) at C rate is demonstrated. The electrodes exhibit high-rate capability and stable capacities of 800,mAh,g,1 at 5C and ,600,mAh,g,1 at 10C. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: A New Composite Anode, Fe,Cu,Si/C for Lithium Ion Battery.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 43 2008
    Chil-Hoon Doh
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    Efficient Charge Injection from the S2 Photoexcited State of Special-Pair Mimic Porphyrin Assemblies Anchored on a Titanium-Modified ITO Anode

    CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 31 2006
    Mitsuhiko Morisue Dr.
    Abstract A novel surface fabrication methodology has been accomplished, aimed at efficient anodic photocurrent generation by a photoexcited porphyrin on an ITO (indium,tin oxide) electrode. The ITO electrode was submitted to a surface sol,gel process with titanium n -butoxide in order to deposit a titanium monolayer. Subsequently, porphyrins were assembled as monolayers on the titanium-treated ITO surface via phosphonate, isophthalate, and thiolate groups. Slipped-cofacial porphyrin dimers, the so-called artificial special pair at the photoreaction center, were organized through imidazolyl-to-zinc complementary coordination of imidazolylporphyrinatozinc(II) units, which were covalently immobilized by ring-closing olefin metathesis of allyl side chains. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoirradiation of the porphyrin dimer generated a large anodic photocurrent in aqueous electrolyte solution containing hydroquinone as an electron sacrificer, due to the small reorganization energy of the dimer. The use of different linker groups led to significant differences in the efficiencies of anodic photocurrent generation. The apparent flat-band potentials evaluated from the photocurrent properties at various pH values and under biased conditions imply that the band structure of the ITO electrode is modified by the anchoring species. The quantum yield for the anodic photocurrent generation by photoexcitation at the Soret band is increased to 15,%, a surprisingly high value without a redox cascade structure on the ITO electrode surface, while excitation at the Q band is not so significant. Extensive exploration of the photocurrent properties has revealed that hot injection of the photoexcited electron from the S2 level into the conduction band of the ITO electrode takes place before internal conversion to the S1* state, through the strong electronic communication of the phosphonyl anchor with the sol,gel-modified ITO surface. [source]


    Redox Cycling of Ni-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes: A Review

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 3 2007
    D. Sarantaridis
    Abstract The published literature relating to damage to SOFCs caused by redox cycling of Ni-based anodes is reviewed. The review covers the kinetics of Ni oxidation and NiO reduction (as single phases and as constituents of composites with yttria-stabilised zirconia, YSZ), the dimensional changes associated with redox cycling and the effect of this on the mechanical integrity and electrical performance of cells and stacks. A critical parameter is the expansion strain that is caused by oxidation. Several studies report that the first complete oxidation of a Ni/YSZ composite causes a linear expansion of the order of 1%, but the actual values vary substantially between different investigations. The oxidation strain is the result of microstructural irreversibility during the redox process and leads to strain accumulation over several redox cycles. This can cause mechanical disruption to an anode, anode support or other cell components attached to the anode. A simplified mechanical model of the stress and damage that are likely to be caused by anode expansion is proposed and applied to anode-supported, electrolyte-supported and inert substrate-supported cell configurations. This allows the maximum oxidation strain to avoid damage in each configuration to be estimated. [source]


    Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent SnO2,F Anodes,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 15 2006
    F. Yang
    Copper phthalocyanine/C60/2,9- dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/Ag heterojunction organic solar cells are grown on low-cost SnO2,F-coated glass using organic vapor-phase deposition (see figure). The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell with nanoscale CuPc protrusions shows a 2.5,% power-conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination. The high efficiency in BHJ solar cells is attributed to the increased exciton dissociation efficiency at the CuPc/C60 interface. [source]


    High-Performance Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using ITO Anodes Grown on Plastic by Room- Temperature Ion-Assisted Deposition,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 4 2004
    Y. Yang
    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) was used to deposit smooth, adherent, and electrically/optically high-quality indium tin oxide (ITO) films on glass and plastic substrates at room temperature. These films afforded organic light-emitting diode performance comparable to devices with commercial ITO/glass anodes, indicating that IAD is an attractive technique for low-temperature ITO deposition, especially on plastics (see Figure). [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Sb-MOx -C (M: Al, Ti, or Mo) Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 44 2009
    Sukeun Yoon
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: High Temperature Phase Transition in SOFC Anodes Based on Sr2MgMoO6-,.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2009
    D. Marrero-Lopez
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: High Performance Anodes for SOFCs Operating in Methane-Air Mixture at Reduced Temperatures.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 20 2002
    Takashi Hibino
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Chemical Synthesis of Tin Oxide-Based Materials for Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 10 2001
    Jin Yong Kim
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    Improved Plasma Spray Torch Stability Through Multi-Electrode Design

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
    J. Schein
    Abstract Coating production by thermal plasma spray is dependent on the residence time of particles in the plasma jet produced by the gas flow inside a plasma torch. To ensure a high fraction of well-molten particles to be accelerated towards the substrate a long reproducible residence time is needed. This can be achieved by a long plasma jet with little or no temporal variation in length and temperature. While single electrode plasma torches need an unstable attachment of the anodic arc root in order to avoid excess erosion, which also causes an unstable plasma jet, multi-electrode torches allow operation with fixed anode attachments by subdividing the anode current by the number of electrodes used, and thereby thus reducing the power input for each separated arc root. Once the steady anode attachment has been obtained the produced plasma jet exhibits a steady characteristic, but also looses rotational symmetry. The separation can be achieved by using either multi anode or multi cathode geometry with appropriate electrical control. Both version have been produced with 3 electrodes each resulting in two systems known as the Delta Gun (3 anodes) and Triplex (3 cathodes). ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Study on Glucose Biofuel Cells Using an Electrochemical Noise Device

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 14 2008
    Yueming Tan
    Abstract An electrochemical noise (ECN) device was utilized for the first time to study and characterize a glucose/O2 membraneless biofuel cell (BFC) and a monopolar glucose BFC. In the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC, ferrocene (Fc) and glucose oxidase (GOD) were immobilized on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Au electrode with a gelatin film at the anode; and laccase (Lac) and an electron mediator, 2,2,-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), were immobilized on a MWCNTs/Au electrode with polypyrrole at the cathode. This BFC was performed in a stirred acetate buffer solution (pH,5.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose in air, with a maximum power density of 8,,W/cm2, an open-circuit cell voltage of 0.29,V, and a short-circuit current density of 85,,A/cm2, respectively. The cell current at the load of 100,k, retained 78.9% of the initial value after continuous discharging for 15,h in a stirred acetate buffer solution (pH,5.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose in air. The performance decrease of the BFC resulted mainly from the leakage of the ABTS mediator immobilized at the cathode, as revealed by the two-channel quartz crystal microbalance technique. In addition, a monopolar glucose BFC was performed with the same anode as that in the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC in a stirred phosphate buffer solution (pH,7.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose, and a carbon cathode in Nafion-membrane-isolated acidic KMnO4, with a maximum power density of 115,,W/cm2, an open-circuit cell voltage of 1.24,V, and a short-circuit current density of 202,,A/cm2, respectively, which are superior to those of the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC. A modification of the anode with MWCNTs for the monopolar glucose BFC increased the maximum power density by a factor of 1.8. The ECN device is highly recommended as a convenient, real-time and sensitive technique for BFC studies. [source]


    Determination of xanthohumol in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) by nonaqueous CE

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2007
    Javor Kac Dr.
    Abstract Xanthohumol (XN) is a prenylated chalcone with antimutagenic and anticancer activity from hops. A nonaqueous reverse polarity capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of XN in hop extract was developed and validated. The optimal parameters were a 64.5,cm long fused-silica capillary with 50,,m id at 25C; 30,kV negative voltage (anode at detector side of the capillary); nonaqueous buffer with 75,mM NaOH and 50,mM boric acid in methanol; hydrodynamical injection with 10,mbar for 40,s; and detection at 440,nm. XN, isoxanthohumol (IX), colupulone, adlupulone, and n -lupulone were well resolved on the electropherogram. The LOD for XN was 0.05,mg/L and RSD for peak area was below 3%. The amount of XN in different samples of hop pellets varied from 0.14 to 0.42%. [source]


    Treatment of Process Water Containing Heavy Metals with a Two-Stage Electrolysis Procedure in a Membrane Electrolysis Cell

    ENGINEERING IN LIFE SCIENCES (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2005
    R. Fischer
    Abstract The capability of a two-stage electrochemical treatment for the regeneration of acidic heavy-metal containing process water was examined. The process water came from sediment bioleaching and was characterized by a wide spectrum of dissolved metals, a high sulfate content, and a pH of about 3. In the modular laboratory model cell used, the anode chamber and the cathode chamber were separated by a central chamber fitted with an ion exchanger membrane on either side. The experiments were carried out applying a platinum anode and a graphite cathode at a current density of 0.1,A/cm2. The circulation flow of the process water in the batch process amounted to 35,L/h, the electrolysis duration was 5.5,h at maximum and the total electrolysis current was about 1,A. In the first stage, the acidic process water containing metals passed through the cathode chamber. In the second stage, the cathodically pretreated process water was electrolyzed anodically. In the cathode chamber the main load of dissolved Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb was eliminated. The sulfuric acid surplus of 3,4,g/L decreased to about 1,g/L, the pH rose from initially 3.0 to 4,5, but the desired pH of 9,10 was not achieved. Precipitation in the proximity to the cathode evidently takes place at a higher pH than farther away. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of amorphous MnO2 owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). The further depletion of the remaining heavy metals in the cathodically pretreated process water by subsequent anodic treatment was nearly exhaustive, more than 99,% of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were removed from the leachate. The high depletion of heavy metals might be due to both the sorption on MnO2 precipitates and/or basic ferrous sulfate formed anodically, and the migration of metal ions through the cation exchanger membrane via the middle chamber into the cathode chamber. In the anode chamber, the sulfuric acid content increased to 6,7,g/L and the pH sank to 1.7. All heavy metals contained, with the exception of Zn, were removed to levels below the German limits for discharging industrial wastewaters into the receiving water. Moreover, the metal-depleted and acid-enriched process waters could be returned to the leaching process, hence reducing the output of wastewater. The results indicated that heavy metals could be removed from acidic process waters by two-stage electrochemical treatment to a large extent. However, to improve the efficiency of metal removal and to establish the electrochemical treatment in practice, further work is necessary to optimize the operation of the process with respect to current density, energy consumption, discharging of metal precipitates deposited in the electrode chambers and preventing membrane clogging. [source]


    A Transparent, Flexible, Low-Temperature, and Solution-Processible Graphene Composite Electrode

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2010
    Haixin Chang
    Abstract The synthesis and preparation of a new type of graphene composite material suitable for spin-coating into conductive, transparent, and flexible thin film electrodes in ambient conditions is reported here for the first time. Solution-processible graphene with diameter up to 50 ,m is synthesized by surfactant-assisted exfoliation of graphite oxide and in situ chemical reduction in a large quantity. Spin-coating the mixing solution of surfactant-functionalized graphene and PEDOT:PSS yields the graphene composite electrode (GCE) without the need for high temperature annealing, chemical vapor deposition, or any additional transfer-printing process. The conductivity and transparency of GCE are at the same level as those of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Importantly, it exhibits high stability (both mechanical and electrical) in bending tests of at least 1000 cycles. The performance of organic light-emitting diodes based on a GCE anode is comparable, if not superior, to that of OLEDs made with an ITO anode. [source]


    Spin- and Spray-Deposited Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotube Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 14 2010
    Sungsoo Kim
    Abstract Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells using thin-film single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWCNT) anodes deposited on glass are reported. Two types of SWCNT films are investigated: spin-coated films from dichloroethane (DCE), and spray-coated films from deionized water using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) as the surfactant. All of the films are found to be mechanically robust, with no tendency to delaminate from the underlying substrate during handling. Acid treatment with HNO3 yields high conductivities >1000,S,cm,1 for all of the films, with values of up to 7694,,800,S,cm,1 being obtained when using SDS as the surfactant. Sheet resistances of around 100,,,sq,1 are obtained at reasonable transmission, for example, 128,,2,,,sq,1 at 90% for DCE, 57,,3,,,sq,1 at 65% for H2O:SDS, and 68,,5,,,sq,1 at 70% for H2O:SDBS. Solar cells are fabricated by successively coating the SWCNT films with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM), and LiF/Al. The resultant devices have respective power conversions of 2.3, 2.2 and 1.2% for DCE, H2O:SDS and H2O:SDBS, with the first two being at a virtual parity with reference devices using ITO-coated glass as the anode (2.3%). [source]


    A kinetic perspective on extracellular electron transfer by anode-respiring bacteria

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, Issue 1 2010
    Csar I. Torres
    Abstract In microbial fuel cells and electrolysis cells (MXCs), anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) oxidize organic substrates to produce electrical current. In order to develop an electrical current, ARB must transfer electrons to a solid anode through extracellular electron transfer (EET). ARB use various EET mechanisms to transfer electrons to the anode, including direct contact through outer-membrane proteins, diffusion of soluble electron shuttles, and electron transport through solid components of the extracellular biofilm matrix. In this review, we perform a novel kinetic analysis of each EET mechanism by analyzing the results available in the literature. Our goal is to evaluate how well each EET mechanism can produce a high current density (>10 A m,2) without a large anode potential loss (less than a few hundred millivolts), which are feasibility goals of MXCs. Direct contact of ARB to the anode cannot achieve high current densities due to the limited number of cells that can come in direct contact with the anode. Slow diffusive flux of electron shuttles at commonly observed concentrations limits current generation and results in high potential losses, as has been observed experimentally. Only electron transport through a solid conductive matrix can explain observations of high current densities and low anode potential losses. Thus, a study of the biological components that create a solid conductive matrix is of critical importance for understanding the function of ARB. [source]


    Recent Development of Active Nanoparticle Catalysts for Fuel Cell Reactions

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2010
    Vismadeb Mazumder
    Abstract This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticle (NP) catalysts of Pt-, Pd- and Au-based NPs as well as composite NPs. First, new developments in the synthesis of single-component Pt, Pd and Au NPs are summarized. Then the chemistry used to make alloy and composite NP catalysts aiming to enhance their activity and durability for fuel cell reactions is outlined. The review next introduces the exciting new research push in developing CoN/C and FeN/C as non-Pt catalysts. Examples of size-, shape- and composition-dependent catalyses for oxygen reduction at cathode and formic acid oxidation at anode are highlighted to illustrate the potentials of the newly developed NP catalysts for fuel cell applications. [source]


    Oxygen-Terminated Nanocrystalline Diamond Film as an Efficient Anode in Photovoltaics

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2010
    Candy Haley Yi Xuan Lim
    Abstract The potential of using p-doped nanocrystalline diamond as the anode for organic solar cells, because of its outstanding photostability and well-matched energetics with organic dyes, is demonstrated. The interface dipole and open-circuit potential can be tuned by varying the surface termination on diamond. Oxygenated nanocrystalline diamond (O-NCD) exhibits the best photocurrent conversion among all the surface-treated electrodes studied in this work because of its large open-circuit potential. The good energy alignment of the valence band of O-NCD with the HOMO of poly(3-hexylthiophene), as well as its p-doped characteristics, suggest that O-NCD can replace the hole transport layer, such as PEDOT:PSS, needed for efficient performance on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. If the sheet resistance and optical transparency on NCD can be further optimized, chemical-vapor-deposited diamond electrodes may offer a viable alternative to ITO and fluorinated tin oxide (FTO). [source]


    Charge-Transporting Polymers based on Phenylbenzoimidazole Moieties

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 3 2010
    Marc Debeaux
    Abstract A series of novel styrene functionalized monomers with phenylbenzo[d]imidazole units and the corresponding homopolymers are prepared. These side-chain polymers show high glass-transition temperatures that even exceed the corresponding value for the common electron-transporting material 1,3,5-tris(1-phenyl-1H -benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBI). Similar electronic behavior between the polymers and TPBI is shown. The polymers are used as matrices for phosphorescent dopants. The fabricated devices exhibit current efficiencies up to 38.5,cd A,1 at 100,cd,m,2 and maximum luminances of 7400,cd m,2 at 10,V with a minimum turn-on voltage as low as 2.70,V in single-layer devices with an ITO/PEDOT:PSS anode (ITO,=,indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS,=,poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate)) and a CsF/Ca/Ag cathode. [source]


    Variations in Hole Injection due to Fast and Slow Interfacial Traps in Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes with Interlayers

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2010
    M. James Harding
    Abstract Detailed studies on the effect of placing a thin (10,nm) solution-processable interlayer between a light-emitting polymer (LEP) layer and a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonic)-acid-coated indium tin oxide anode is reported; particular attention is directed at the effects on the hole injection into three different LEPs. All three different interlayer polymers have low ionization potentials, which are similar to those of the LEPs, so the observed changes in hole injection are not due to variations in injection barrier height. It is instead shown that changes are due to variations in hole trapping at the injecting interface, which is responsible for varying the hole current by up to two orders of magnitude. Transient measurements show the presence of very fast interfacial traps, which fill the moment charge is injected from the anode. These can be considered as injection pathway dead-ends, effectively reducing the active contact surface area. This is followed by slower interfacial traps, which fill on timescales longer than the carrier transit time across the device, further reducing the total current. The interlayers may increase or decrease the trap densities depending on the particular LEP involved, indicating the dominant role of interfacial chain morphology in injection. Penetration of the interlayer into the LEP layer can also occur, resulting in additional changes in the bulk LEP transport properties. [source]


    Fine-microstructure Mediated Efficient Hydrogen Oxidation in Ni/YSZ Anode Fabricated from Novel Co-precipitation Derived Nanocomposites

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 2 2010
    K. Sato
    Abstract Fine-microstructure mediated efficient hydrogen oxidation was demonstrated on nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anode fabricated from NiO/YSZ nanocomposite particles, synthesised via a novel co-precipitation method using YSZ nanoparticles with the average size of 3,nm. Transmission electron microscopy image revealed that nanocomposite particles calcined at 600,C consisted of homogeneously distributed NiO and YSZ nanocrystals, approximately 5,nm large. The Ni/YSZ anode was fabricated by sintering the screen-printed nanocomposites at 1,300,C and their subsequent reduction. The anode had a uniform porous microstructure consisting of fine grains in the range of 200,300,nm, and exhibited quite low area-specific resistance (ASR) of 2.29, 0.43 and 0.15,,,cm2 at 600, 700 and 800,C, respectively. [source]


    Intermediate Temperature Anode-Supported Fuel Cell Based on BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 Electrolyte with Novel Pr2NiO4 Cathode

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 1 2010
    G. Taillades
    Abstract A proton conducting ceramic fuel cell (PCFC) operating at intermediate temperature has been developed that incorporates electrolyte and electrode materials prepared by flash combustion (yttrium-doped barium cerate) and auto-ignition (praseodymium nickelate) methods. The fuel cell components were assembled using an anode-support approach, with the anode and proton ceramic layers prepared by co-pressing and co-firing, and subsequent deposition of the cathode by screen-printing onto the proton ceramic surface. When the fuel cell was fed with moist hydrogen and air, a high Open Circuit Voltage (OCV,>,1.1,V) was observed at T,>,550,C, which was stable for 300,h (end of test), indicating excellent gas-tightness of the proton ceramic layer. The power density of the fuel cell increased with temperature of operation, providing more than 130,mW,cm,2 at 650,C. Symmetric cells incorporating Ni-BCY10 cermet and BCY10 electrolyte on the one hand, and Pr2NiO4,+,, and BCY10 electrolyte on the other hand, were also characterised and area specific resistances of 0.06,,,cm2 for the anode material and 1,2,,,cm2 for the cathode material were obtained at 600,C. [source]


    Temperature and Impurity Concentration Effects on Degradation of Nickel/Yttria-stabilised Zirconia Anode in PH3 -Containing Coal Syngas

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 1 2010
    M. Zhi
    Abstract Degradation of the Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) anode of the solid oxide fuel cell has been evaluated in the coal syngas containing different PH3 concentrations in the temperature range from 750 to 900,C. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that PH3 in the coal syngas gas is converted mostly to P2O3 at 750,900,C. The phosphorous impurity reacts with the Ni-YSZ anode to form phosphates. The P-impurity poisoning leads to the deactivation of the Ni catalyst and to the reduction in the electronic conductivity of the anode. The impurity poisoning effect on the anode is exacerbated by increase in the temperature and/or the PH3 concentration. [source]


    Power Generation and Electrochemical Analysis of Biocathode Microbial Fuel Cell Using Graphite Fibre Brush as Cathode Material

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 5 2009
    S.-J. You
    Abstract To improve cathodic efficiency and sustainability of microbial fuel cell (MFC), graphite fibre brush (GFB) was examined as cathode material for power production in biocatalysed-cathode MFC. Following 133-h mixed culturing of electricity-producing bacteria, the MFC could generate a reproducible voltage of 0.4,V at external resistance (REX) of 100,,. Maximum volumetric power density of 68.4,W,m,3 was obtained at a current density of 178.6,A,m,3. Upon aerobic inoculation of electrochemically active bacteria, charge transfer resistance of the cathode was decreased from 188 to 17,, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Comparing investigations of different cathode materials demonstrated that biocatalysed GFB had better performance in terms of half-cell polarisation, power and Coulombic efficiency (CE) over other tested materials. Additionally, pH deviation of electrolyte in anode and cathode was also observed. This study provides a demonstration of GFB used as biocathode material in MFC for more efficient and sustainable electricity recovery from organic substances. [source]