Hot Water Extract (hot + water_extract)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Antioxidant Properties of Edible Basidiomycete,Phellinus igniarius,in Submerged Cultures

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2010
Ming Yeou Lung
ABSTRACT:, Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths produced by submerged cultures of,Phellinus igniarius,under optimal culture conditions were extracted using methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) showed significant antioxidant properties for all EC50 values less than 10 mg/mL except for MEB in scavenging effects on DPPH radicals. Hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) were evidenced by their low EC50 values (<10 mg/mL) to be effective in reducing power, chelating effect on ferrous ions, and scavenging effect on superoxide anions. ,-tocopherol was mainly found in MEM and ,-tocopherol in MEB. Ascorbic acid and total flavonoids were abundant in methanolic extracts (MEM + MEB), whereas total phenols were rich in HWEM. An excellent correlation between contents of total phenols and EC50 values was accomplished for antioxidant activity (R2= 0.996) and chelating ferrous ions ability (R2= 0.922). Practical Application: In our paper, the products by submerged culture of,Phellinus igniarius,exhibited powerful antioxidant properties. Results told that extracts from fermenting products by,P. igniarius,might be good sources for antioxidant-related functional foods and pharmaceutical industries. [source]


Screening of Garlic Water Extract for Binding Activity with Cholera Toxin B Pentamer by NMR Spectroscopy , An Old Remedy Giving a New Surprise

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2006
Matteo Politi
Abstract Binding between a component of the crude hot water extract obtained from Allium sativum crushed bulbs (ASw) and cholera toxin B pentamer (CTB) was detected by STD NMR experiments. Bioassay-oriented fractionation allowed the partial identification of a high molecular weight polysaccharide mainly composed of galactose as the bioactive complex against CTB. This work represents the first example of screening of a medicinal plant by NMR against a specific disease, and corroborates traditional medical uses of the species. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


The inhibitory effect of the components of Cornus officinalis on melanogenesis

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 5 2008
Yasuhiko Nawa
Five known compounds were isolated from a Cornus officinalis 50% ethanol extract (C. officinalis extract) and a hot water extract. We investigated the photochemical and pharmacological active compounds of C. officinalis hot water extract and ethanol extract. We understood that C. officinalis is a medicinal plant with potent free-radical-scavenging activity not only against reactive oxygen species (H2O2, superoxiside anion, hydroxyl radical, etc.) in a narrow sense, but also against many other free radicals (peroxynitrate, peroxyradical). It is estimated that the reduction effect with C. officinalis extract can block oxidative reaction on melanogenesis. Loganin and cornuside, the components in C. officinalis, showed a significant free-radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on melanogenesis. We report to prove the inhibitory effect of UVB-induced pigmentation in C. officinalis extract through its radical scavenging activity. [source]


Preparative separation of the saponin lancemaside a from Codonopsis lanceolata by centrifugal partition chromatography

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, Issue 5 2008
Osamu Shirota
Abstract Introduction. Lancemaside A is a saponin that inhibits decreases in blood testosterone level and thus prevents or ameliorates symptoms associated with male climacteric disorder. Our initial attempt to preparative isolation of lancemaside A from the saponin fraction of Codonopsis lanceolata roots by a preparative HPLC did not give a clear result. Objective. To develop a simple and efficient method for the preparative isolation of lancemaside A from the hot water extract of C. lanceolata roots using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). Methodology. The saponin fraction obtained from the hot water extract of C. lanceolata roots was used as the sample for preparative-scale separation of lancemasides by CPC using n -hexane:n -butanol:methanol:0.1% aqueous formic acid (3:4:1:6, v/v) as the two-phase solvent system. The upper phase (organic phase) of the two-phase solvent system was used as the mobile phase, and 0.5 g of saponin fraction was applied for separation by CPC. Each fraction that was separated by CPC was analysed by HPLC, and the fractions containing each of the separated compounds were pooled together, and then were purified by simple preparative HPLC. Results. The demonstrated separation sequence, hot water extraction, DIAION HP-20 column chromatography, CPC and preparative HPLC, yielded lancemaside A, foetidissimoside A and astersaponin Hb in their pure forms. Conclusion. The simple and efficient method for the preparative isolation of lancemaside A along with two other saponins, foetidissimoside A and astersaponin Hb, from the saponin fraction of C. lanceolata was established using CPC. [source]


A hot water extract of Chlorella pyrenoidosa reduces body weight and serum lipids in ovariectomized rats

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
Saburo Hidaka
Abstract The effects of a hot water extract of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which contains chlorella growth factor (CGF), on the body weight, serum lipids, and the bone mass were evaluated using an ovariectomized rat as a model for postmenopausal bone loss. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated (Sham), Sham given the CGF solution, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX given the CGF solution, respectively. Administration of the extract to OVX rats suppressed the body weight gain. After 7 weeks, the administration of the extract to the OVX group reduced increases in both serum total cholesterols and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It also normalized the decrease of triglyceride level in the OVX group. The ovariectomy decreased the tibial bone mineral density (BMD) by 19%, and the administration of the extract to OVX rats did not inhibit this decrease. These results suggest that a dietary supplement of CGF may be useful to control the body weight and improve lipid metabolism of menopausal women. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Prospects for molecular breeding of barley

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
W T B THOMAS
Summary Data from UK Recommended List Trials showed that the introduction of new cultivars of spring and winter barley has maintained a significant increase in yield over time, whereas there has been no significant improvement in hot water extract, the major determinant of good malting quality, in either crop. Commercial barley breeding is based upon phenotypic selection, and the introduction of molecular breeding methods must either increase the rate of advance, or offer an improvement in the cost-effectiveness of breeding programmes. Molecular breeding can be applied to either single gene or polygenic characters but is not widely used in commercial barley breeding, other than as a marker for resistance to the Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus complex. There are many reports of potential targets for use in molecular breeding but the few validation studies that have been carried out to date are disappointing. Results from genomics studies are likely to lead to the identification of key candidate genes, which can be associated with economically important characters through co-location on certain chromosomal regions. Associations between candidate gene sequence haplotypes and phenotypic characteristics is expected to identify allelic combinations, which are most frequently observed in successful cultivars, that can be used in molecular breeding of barley on a commercial scale. [source]


Effect of hot water extracts of brown seaweeds Sargassum spp. on growth and resistance to white spot syndrome virus in shrimp Penaeus monodon postlarvae

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
Grasian Immanuel
Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a hot water extract of brown seaweeds Sargassum duplicatum and Sargassum wightii on the growth and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance in shrimp Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Artemia nauplii (instar II) were enriched with both seaweed extracts at various concentrations (250, 500 and 750 mg L,1) and fed to the respective P. monodon (PL15,35) group for 20 days. A control group was also maintained without seaweed extract supplementation. The weight gain of the experimental groups was significantly higher (0.274,0.323 g) than the control group (0.261 g). Similarly, the specific growth rate was also significantly higher (16.27,17.06%) in the experimental groups than in the control group (16.03%). After 20 days of the feeding experiment, the shrimp PL were challenged with WSSV for 21 days. During the challenge test, the control shrimp displayed 100% mortality within 8 days. In contrast, the mortality percentage of the highest concentration (750 mg L,1) of seaweed extract enriched Artemia nauplii fed shrimp was 54,79%. Comparatively, low mortality was observed in S. wightii extract-enriched Artemia nauplii fed shrimp. The polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the concentration-dependent infection of WSSV in P. monodon PL. [source]


Screening by NMR: A New Approach for the Study of Bioactive Natural Products?

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 7 2005
The Example of Pleurotus ostreatus Hot Water Extract
Abstract Direct NMR screening of natural products obtained from hot water extracts of medicinal species is accomplished through STD and tr-NOESY experiments on a crude mixture and a given protein receptor. It is shown, with use of a mushroom extract as model case, that this protocol may provide a fast and simple method, particularly useful in natural products chemistry, through which to detect the presence of ligands for a target receptor. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]


ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM PARCHING GREEN TEA

JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
SHENG-DUN LIN
ABSTRACT Cold and hot water extracts (2, 6 and 10%) were prepared from parching green tea and its antioxidant properties studied and potential antioxidant components determined. Yields of hot water extracts (17.53,28.63%) were significantly higher than those of cold water extracts (13.34,16.14%). The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values in antioxidant activity and reducing power were 2.17,2.75 and 0.22,0.30 mg/mL, respectively. Scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were comparable. EC50 values in scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions were 3.31,4.54 and 1.63,3.09 mg/mL, respectively. Contents of total phenols were 220.52,339.83 mg/g whereas those of total catechins in cold and hot water extracts were 130.22,146.28 mg/g and 136.40,191.33 mg/g, respectively. Based on the results obtained, hot water extracts were more effective in antioxidant activity, reducing power and scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals but less effective in chelating ability on ferrous ions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Tea is one of popular drinks in the world. The consumption of green tea is especially popular in Asia, mainly for its health benefits. Parched tea is a Chinese style green tea, which is different from the Japanese style steamed tea. Recently, the tea prepared by brewing tea leaves in cold water has become a new choice in Taiwan in addition to traditionally hot water-brewed tea. Results from this research, the cold and hot water extracts of green tea are good antioxidant. Besides, green tea is also reported to reduce serum cholesterol levels and inhibit hypertension, mutagenesis, and tumourigenesis in several experiments in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the extract of green tea has the potential to be developed into new health foods, and the cold brewing would be a new alternative way to make a tea. [source]


Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Polygonum cognatum Meissn extracts

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 1 2003
Ali Y
Abstract The antioxidant activities, reducing powers, 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities, total phenolic compound contents and antimicrobial activities of ether, ethanol and hot water extracts of Polygonum cognatum Meissn were studied in vitro. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the water extract. However, there were no statistically significant differences among 15,g,ml,1 extract-containing samples in linoleic acid emulsion (0.02,M, pH 7.0) during 120,h of incubation (P,>,0.05). The reducing power of the water extract was the highest, but its reducing power was markedly lower than that of ascorbic acid. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was found in the water extract, with 50% DPPH radical scavenging at a concentration of 100,g,ml,1 dried water extract, while at the same concentration of dried ethanol extract the value was 12%. Surprisingly, no DPPH radical-scavenging activity was observed in the ether extract. The concentrations of phenolic compounds found were 0.48, 0.50 and 0.01,g,ml,1 gallic acid equivalent in 10,g,ml,1 water, ethanol and ether extracts respectively. The ether and ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The water extract did not show antimicrobial activity against the studied micro-organisms. 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


In vitro anti-adhesive activity of green tea extract against pathogen adhesion

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2009
Ji-Hye Lee
Abstract Camellia sinensis polysaccharide has been reported to possess anti-adhesive activity against pathogens. The present study was designed to investigate whether hot water extracts obtained from green tea leaves might inhibit pathogen adhesion to human or mouse cell lines. Green tea extract-4 (CSI-4) with the maximum yield of 4% (w/v) is composed of a major proportion of carbohydrates containing 40% uronic acids, but lack of catechins. It showed strong inhibitory activities against hemagglutination mediated by pathogens Helicobacter pylori, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.01-0.5 mg/mL. CSI-4 further demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of these pathogens to host cell lines with the IC50 values (50% inhibition of adhesion) of 0.14,2.3 mg/mL. It exhibited the highest activity against P. acnes, but no inhibitory effects were observed against Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus epidermidis. Our results suggest that CSI-4 may exert a selective anti-adhesive effect against certain pathogenic bacteria with no adverse effects against beneficial or commensal bacteria. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Comparative studies on the immunomodulatory and antitumor activities of the different parts of fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma spores

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 10 2008
Grace G. L. Yue
Abstract Ganoderma lucidum (GL, Lingzhi) has been suggested as a candidate for immunomodulation and cancer treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the different parts of the fruiting body (whole fruiting body, pileus and stipe) of GL as well as Ganoderma spores (sporoderm-broken and -unbroken), with regard to their antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in S-180 sarcoma-bearing mice. The hot water extracts of different parts of GL or the Ganoderma spores were orally administered to the sarcoma-bearing mice. The results showed that GL whole fruiting body, stipe and sporoderm-broken spore possessed stronger inhibitory activities on sarcoma growth when compared with the pileus extract. Higher immunomodulatory activities in terms of enhancing the proliferative responses and the cytokines (IFN- ,, IL-4 and IL-6) production of spleen lymphocytes were also found in GL stipe and sporoderm-broken spore treatment groups. The sporoderm-broken spores had higher stimulatory effects on mitogen-activated spleen lymphocytes of healthy mice than those of sarcoma-bearing mice. In addition, the immunostimulatory activities of GL hot water extracts and Ganoderma spores were shown to be comparable; hence the latter did not show superiority in efficacy. This is the first comparative study on the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma spores and the fruiting body extracts. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Use of decreasing foliar carbon isotope discrimination during water limitation as a carbon tracer to study whole plant carbon allocation

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 5 2002
S. K. Arndt
Abstract Foliar carbon isotope discrimination (,) of C3 plants decreases in water-deficit situations as discrimination by the photosynthetic primary carboxylation reaction decreases. This diminished , in leaves under water deficit can be used as a tracer to study whole plant carbon allocation patterns. Carbon isotope composition (,13C value) of leaf hot water extracts or leaf tissue sap represents a short-term integral of leaf carbon isotope discrimination and thus represents the ,13C value of source carbon that may be distributed within a plant in water-deficit situations. By plotting the ,13C values of source carbon against the ,13C values of sink tissues, such as roots or stems, it is possible to assess carbon allocation to and incorporation into sink organs in relation to already present biomass. This natural abundance labelling method has been tested in three independent experiments, a one-year field study with the fruit tree species Ziziphus mauritiana and peach (Prunus persica), a medium-term drought stress experiment with Ziziphus rotundifolia trees in the glasshouse, and a short-term drought stress experiment with soybean (Glycine max). The data show that the natural abundance labelling method can be applied to qualitatively assess carbon allocation in drought-stressed plants. Although it is not possible to estimate exact fluxes of assimilated carbon during water deficit the method represents an easy to use tool to study integrated plant adaptations to drought stress. In addition, it is a less laborious method that can be applied in field studies as well as in controlled experiments, with plants from any developmental stage. [source]


Effect of hot water extracts of brown seaweeds Sargassum spp. on growth and resistance to white spot syndrome virus in shrimp Penaeus monodon postlarvae

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
Grasian Immanuel
Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a hot water extract of brown seaweeds Sargassum duplicatum and Sargassum wightii on the growth and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance in shrimp Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Artemia nauplii (instar II) were enriched with both seaweed extracts at various concentrations (250, 500 and 750 mg L,1) and fed to the respective P. monodon (PL15,35) group for 20 days. A control group was also maintained without seaweed extract supplementation. The weight gain of the experimental groups was significantly higher (0.274,0.323 g) than the control group (0.261 g). Similarly, the specific growth rate was also significantly higher (16.27,17.06%) in the experimental groups than in the control group (16.03%). After 20 days of the feeding experiment, the shrimp PL were challenged with WSSV for 21 days. During the challenge test, the control shrimp displayed 100% mortality within 8 days. In contrast, the mortality percentage of the highest concentration (750 mg L,1) of seaweed extract enriched Artemia nauplii fed shrimp was 54,79%. Comparatively, low mortality was observed in S. wightii extract-enriched Artemia nauplii fed shrimp. The polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the concentration-dependent infection of WSSV in P. monodon PL. [source]