Homozygous Mutation (homozygous + mutation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Homozygous Mutation

  • novel homozygous mutation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Idiopathic Hyperphosphatasia and TNFRSF11B Mutations: Relationships Between Phenotype and Genotype,

    Belinda Chong
    Abstract Homozygous mutations in TNFRSF11B, the gene encoding osteoprotegerin, were found in affected members from six of nine families with idiopathic hyperphosphatasia. The severity of the phenotype was related to the predicted effects of the mutations on osteoprotegerin function. Introduction: Idiopathic hyperphosphatasia (IH) is a rare high bone turnover congenital bone disease in which affected children are normal at birth but develop progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and deafness. There is, however, considerable phenotypic variation from presentation in infancy with severe progressive deformity through to presentation in late childhood with minimal deformity. Two recent reports have linked idiopathic hyperphosphatasia with deletion of, or mutation in, the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG), an important paracrine modulator of RANKL-mediated bone resorption. Materials and Methods: We studied subjects with a clinical diagnosis of IH and unaffected family members from nine unrelated families. Clinical, biochemical, and radiographic data were collected, and genomic DNA examined for mutations in TNFRSF11B. The relationship between the mutations, their predicted effects on OPG function, and the phenotype were then examined. Results: Of the nine families studied, affected subjects from six were homozygous for novel mutations in TNFRSF11B. Their parents were heterozygous, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Four of the six mutations occurred in the cysteine-rich ligand-binding domain and are predicted to disrupt binding of OPG to RANKL. Missense mutations in the cysteine residues, predicted to cause major disruption to the ligand-binding region, were associated with a severe phenotype (deformity developing before 18 months age and severe disability), as was a large deletion mutation. Non-cysteine missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain were associated with an intermediate phenotype (deformity recognized around the age of 5 years and an increased rate of long bone fracture). An insertion/deletion mutation at the C-terminal end of the protein was associated with the mildest phenotype. Conclusion: Mutations in TNFRSF11B account for the majority of, but not all, cases of IH, and there are distinct genotype-phenotype relationships. [source]

    Analyses for binding of the transferrin family of proteins to the transferrin receptor 2

    Hiroshi Kawabata
    Summary Transferrin receptor 2, (TfR2,), the major product of the TfR2 gene, is the second receptor for transferrin (Tf), which can mediate cellular iron uptake in vitro. Homozygous mutations of TfR2 cause haemochromatosis, suggesting that TfR2, may not be a simple iron transporter, but a regulator of iron by identifying iron-Tf. In this study, we analysed the ligand specificity of TfR2, using human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and TfR2, -stably transfected and expressing cells and flow-cytometric techniques. We showed that human TfR2, interacted with both human and bovine Tf, whereas human TfR1 interacted only with human Tf. Neither human TfR1 nor TfR2, interacted with either lactoferrin or melanotransferrin. In addition, by creating point mutations in human TfR2,, the RGD sequence in the extracellular domain of TfR2, was shown to be crucial for Tf-binding. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutated TfR2, (Y250X), which has been reported in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis, also lost its ability to interact with both human and bovine Tf. Although human TfR1 and TfR2, share an essential structure (RGD) for ligand-binding, they have clearly different ligand specificities, which may be related to the differences in their roles in iron metabolism. [source]

    Molecular spectrum of SLC22A5 (OCTN2) gene mutations detected in 143 subjects evaluated for systemic carnitine deficiency,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 8 2010
    Fang-Yuan Li
    Abstract Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is caused by recessive mutations in the SLC22A5 (OCTN2) gene encoding the plasmalemmal carnitine transporter and characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia, and skeletal and cardiac myopathy. The entire coding regions of the OCTN2 gene were sequenced in 143 unrelated subjects suspected of having CDSP. In 70 unrelated infants evaluated because of abnormal newborn screening (NBS) results, 48 were found to have at least 1 mutation/unclassified missense variant. Twenty-eight of 33 mothers whose infants had abnormal NBS results were found to carry at least 1 mutation/unclassified missense variant, including 11 asymptomatic mothers who had 2 mutations. Therefore, sequencing of the OCTN2 gene is recommended for infants with abnormal NBS results and for their mothers. Conversely, 52 unrelated subjects were tested due to clinical indications other than abnormal NBS and only 14 of them were found to have at least one mutation/unclassified variant. Custom designed oligonucleotide array CGH analysis revealed a heterozygous ,1.6 Mb deletion encompassing the entire OCTN2 gene in one subject who was apparently homozygous for the c.680G>A (p.R227H) mutation. Thus, copy number abnormalities at the OCTN2 locus should be considered if by sequencing, an apparently homozygous mutation or only one mutant allele is identified. ©2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Radiation-induced gene expression profile of human cells deficient in 8-hydroxy-2,-deoxyguanine glycosylase

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry
    Abstract The human OGG1 gene encodes a DNA glycosylase that is involved in the base excision repair of 8-hydroxy-2,-deoxyguanine (8-OH-dG) from oxidatively damaged DNA. Cellular 8-OH-dG levels accumulate in the absence of this activity and could be deleterious for the cell. To assess the role of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) in the cellular defense mechanism in a specific DNA repair defect background, we set out to determine the expression pattern of base excision repair genes and other cellular genes not involved in the base excision pathway in OGG1-deficient human KG-1 cells after ionizing radiation exposure. KG-1 cells have lost OGG1 activity due to a homozygous mutation of Arg229Gln. Gene expression alterations were monitored at 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr in 2 Gy irradiated cells. Large-scale gene expression profiling was assessed with DNA microarray technology. Gene expression analysis identified a number of ionizing radiation-responsive genes, including several novel genes. There were 2 peaks of radiation-induced gene induction or repression: one at 8 hr and the other at 24 hr. Overall the number of downregulated genes was higher than the number of upregulated genes. The highest number of downregulated genes was at 8 hr postirradiation. Genes corresponding to cellular, physiologic, developmental and extracellular processes were identified. The highest number of radiation-induced genes belonged to the signal transduction category, followed by genes involved in transcription and response to stress. Microarray gene expression data were independently validated by relative quantitative RT-PCR. Surprisingly, none of the genes involved in the base excision repair of radiation-induced DNA damage showed altered expression. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Juvenile Paget's Disease: The Second Reported, Oldest Patient Is Homozygous for the TNFRSF11B "Balkan" Mutation (966_969delTGACinsCTT), Which Elevates Circulating Immunoreactive Osteoprotegerin Levels,,§¶

    Michael P Whyte MD
    Abstract The oldest person (60 yr) with juvenile Paget's disease is homozygous for the TNFRSF11B mutation 966_969delTGACinsCTT. Elevated circulating levels of immunoreactive OPG and soluble RANKL accompany this genetic defect that truncates the OPG monomer, preventing formation of OPG homodimers. Introduction: Juvenile Paget's disease (JPD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, features skeletal pain, fracture, and deformity from extremely rapid bone turnover. Deafness and sometimes retinopathy also occur. Most patients have diminished osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibition of osteoclastogenesis caused by homozygous loss-of-function defects in TNFRSF11B, the gene that encodes OPG. Circulating immunoreactive OPG (iOPG) is undetectable with complete deletion of TNFRSF11B but normal with a 3-bp in-frame deletion. Materials and Methods: We summarize the clinical course of a 60-yr-old Greek man who is the second reported, oldest JPD patient, including his response to two decades of bisphosphonate therapy. Mutation analysis involved sequencing all exons and adjacent mRNA splice sites of TNFRSF11B. Over the past 4 yr, we used ELISAs to quantitate his serum iOPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) levels. Results: Our patient suffered progressive deafness and became legally blind, although elevated markers of bone turnover have been normal for 6 yr. He carries the same homozygous mutation in TNFRSF11B (966_969delTGACinsCTT) reported in a seemingly unrelated Greek boy and Croatian man who also have relatively mild JPD. This frame-shift deletes 79 carboxyterminal amino acids from the OPG monomer, including a cysteine residue necessary for homodimerization. Nevertheless, serum iOPG and sRANKL levels are persistently elevated. Conclusions: Homozygosity for the TNFRSF11B "Balkan" mutation (966_969delTGACinsCTT) causes JPD in the second reported, oldest patient. Elevated circulating iOPG and sRANKL levels complement evidence that this deletion/insertion omits a cysteine residue at the carboxyterminus needed for OPG homodimerization. [source]

    Age-dependent cardiomyopathy in mitochondrial mutator mice is attenuated by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria

    AGING CELL, Issue 4 2010
    Dao-Fu Dai
    Summary Mitochondrial defects have been found in aging and several age-related diseases. Mice with a homozygous mutation in the exonuclease encoding domain of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (Polgm/m) are prone to age-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations and have shown a broad spectrum of aging-like phenotypes. However, the mechanism of cardiac phenotypes in relation to the role of mitochondrial DNA mutations and oxidative stress in this mouse model has not been fully addressed. We demonstrate age-dependent cardiomyopathy in Polgm/m mice, which by 13,14 months of age displays marked cardiac hypertrophy and dilatation, impairment of systolic and diastolic function, and increased cardiac fibrosis. This age-dependent cardiomyopathy is associated with increases in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and protein oxidative damage, increased expression of apoptotic and senescence markers, as well as a decline in signaling for mitochondrial biogenesis. The relationship of these changes to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested by crossing Polgm/m mice with mice that overexpress mitochondrial targeted catalase (mCAT). All of the above phenotypes were partially rescued in Polgm/m/mCAT mice. These data indicate that accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage with age can lead to cardiomyopathy and that this phenotype is partly mediated by mitochondrial oxidative stress. [source]

    Malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency: C to T transition in intron 2 of the MCD gene

    Sankar Surendran
    Abstract Malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids synthesis. Based on reports of MCD deficiency, this enzyme is particular important in muscle and brain metabolism. Mutations in the MCD gene result in a deficiency of MCD activity, that lead to psychomotor retardation, cardiomyopathy and neonatal death. To date however, only a few patients have been reported with defects in MCD. We report here studies of a patient with MCD deficiency, who presented with hypotonia, cardiomyopathy and psychomotor retardation. DNA sequencing of MCD revealed a homozygous intronic mutation, specifically a ,5 C to T transition near the acceptor site for exon 3. RT-PCR amplification of exons 2 and 3 revealed that although mRNA from a normal control sample yielded one major DNA band, the mutant mRNA sample resulted in two distinct DNA fragments. Sequencing of the patient's two RT-PCR products revealed that the larger molecular weight fragments contained exons 2 and 3 as well as the intervening intronic sequence. The smaller size band from the patient contained the properly spliced exons, similar to the normal control. Western blotting analysis of the expressed protein showed only a faint band in the patient sample in contrast to a robust band in the control. In addition, the enzyme activity of the mutant protein was lower than that of the control protein. The data indicate that homozygous mutation in intron 2 disrupt normal splicing of the gene, leading to lower expression of the MCD protein and MCD deficiency. J. Neurosci. Res. 65:591,594, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Homozygous Defects In Lmna, Encoding Lamin A/C Nuclear-Envelope Proteins, Cause Autosomal Recessive Axonal Neuropathy In Human (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disorder Type 2) And Mouse

    A De Sandre-Giovannoli
    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disorders comprise a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, which are mainly characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, foot deformities, and electrophysiological, as well as histological, changes. A subtype, CMT2, is defined by a slight or absent reduction of nerve-conduction velocities together with the loss of large myelinated fibers and axonal degeneration. CMT2 phenotypes are also characterized by a large genetic heterogeneity, although only two genes-NF-L and KIF1Bbeta-have been identified to date. Homozygosity mapping in inbred Algerian families with autosomal recessive CMT2 (AR-CMT2) provided evidence of linkage to chromosome 1q21.2-q21.3 in two families (Z(max) = 4.14). All patients shared a common homozygous ancestral haplotype that was suggestive of a founder mutation as the cause of the phenotype. A unique homozygous mutation in LMNA (which encodes lamin A/C, a component of the nuclear envelope) was identified in all affected members and in additional patients with CMT2 from a third, unrelated family. Ultrastructural explor- ation of sciatic nerves of LMNA null (i.e., ,/,) mice was performed and revealed a strong reduction of axon density, axonal enlargement, and the presence of nonmyelinated axons, all of which were highly similar to the phenotypes of human peripheral axonopathies. The finding of site-specific amino acid substitutions in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B, autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy type 1A, autosomal dominant partial lipodystrophy, and, now, AR-CMT2 suggests the existence of distinct functional domains in lamin A/C that are essential for the maintenance and integrity of different cell lineages. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence of the recessive inheritance of a mutation that causes CMT2; additionally, we suggest that mutations in LMNA may also be the cause of the genetically overlapping disorder CMT2B1. [source]

    Severe type I protein C deficiency with neonatal purpura fulminans due to a novel homozygous mutation in exon 6 of the protein C gene


    Novel mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene causing a cognitive and movement disorder with diabetes mellitus

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2006
    Hui-Fang Shang MD
    Abstract In a Chinese woman who had diabetes mellitus, undetectable ceruloplasmin, hand tremor, neck dystonia, and cognitive disturbances, genetic analyses revealed a novel homozygous mutation (848G>C or W283S) in exon 5 in the ceruloplasmin gene. Another member with a milder phenotype was also affected by this mutation. The healthy sister was heterozygous at the same position. Aceruloplasminemia has not yet been reported in China. This case suggests that increased awareness should be paid to this disorder in the presence of the typical symptoms. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    A consanguineous Turkish family with early-onset Parkinson's disease and an exon 4 parkin deletion

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 7 2004
    Okan Dogu MD
    Abstract The importance of parkin in early-onset Parkinson's disease in Japan, Europe, and the United States is well established. The contribution of this gene to the risk of Parkinson's disease in other populations is less well known. To explore the importance of parkin in those of Turkish ancestry, we studied familial cases from that country, and identified a consanguineous family with early-onset Parkinson's disease due to a homozygous mutation in parkin. © 2004 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Sepsis-like cerebrovascular event in a newborn with MTHFR homozygous mutation

    Laura Pogliani
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Early relapse of JAK2 V617F-positive chronic neutrophilic leukemia with central nervous system infiltration after unrelated bone marrow transplantation

    Shinichi Kako
    Abstract Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a proliferation mainly of mature neutrophils. The prognosis is generally poor and an optimal therapeutic strategy remains to be determined. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is expected to be the only curative therapy so far. We report a 46-year-old male with progressive CNL who underwent bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor. After engraftment was achieved on day 35, relapse of CNL was confirmed on day 50. The progression of CNL was very rapid afterward and infiltration to the central nervous system was observed. The Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F homozygous mutation was detected from the peripheral blood or bone marrow samples throughout the clinical course. From comparison with reports of successful HSCT for CNL in the literature, it was inferred that HSCT should be performed in a stable status before progression. Furthermore, JAK2 V617F-positive CNL may contain an aggressive disease entity in contrast to previous reports. Accumulation of experiences is required to establish a definite role of HSCT in the treatment of CNL and a prognostic significance of JAK2 mutation in CNL. Am. J. Hematol., 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene

    Joke B.G.M. Verheij
    Abstract ABCD syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut (Hirschsprung disease [HSCR]), and deafness. This phenotype clearly overlaps with the features of the Shah-Waardenburg syndrome, comprising sensorineural deafness; hypopigmentation of skin, hair, and irides; and HSCR. Therefore, we screened DNA of the index patient of the ABCD syndrome family for mutations in the endothelin B receptor (EDNRB) gene, a gene known to be involved in Shah-Waardenburg syndrome. A homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 (R201X) of the EDNRB gene was found. We therefore suggest that ABCD syndrome is not a separate entity, but an expression of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Juvenile psoriatic arthritis carrying familial Mediterranean fever gene mutations in a 14-year-old Turkish girl

    Betul Sozeri YENIAY
    ABSTRACT Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA) is characterized by asymmetric arthritis of big and small joints, enthesitis, dactylitis, psoriatic skin lesions and nail pitting. Investigators agree that JPsA is a relatively common chronic arthropathy of childhood that differs clinically, serologically, and genetically from both juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a multisystemic autosomal recessive disease occasionally accompanied by sacroiliitis. This is characterized by recurrent self-limited attacks of fever and accompanying abdominal, chest and arthricular pain. We present a 14-year-old Turkish girl with JPsA and carrying FMF gene mutations. In this patient, JPsA was diagnosed according to her physical, laboratory and skin biopsy findings and a treatment with methotrexate and sulfasalazine was started. As an inadequate clinical and laboratory response was obtained after the first month of therapy, the patient was investigated for FMF, and was diagnosed by molecular analyses of related gene (E148Q heterozygous/V726A homozygous mutation) besides clinical findings. After 2 weeks of the colchicine treatment, symptoms of the patient regressed and acute phase reactants decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first case presenting with psoriatic arthritis and FMF gene mutations together and responds to colchicine, methotrexate and sulfasalazine dramatically in clinical and laboratory findings. This case has been presented to remind that cases with psoriatic arthritis may also carry mutations in the MEFV gene. [source]

    Disrupted SOX10 regulation of GJC2 transcription causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Hitoshi Osaka MD
    Mutations in the gap junction protein gamma-2 gene, GJC2, cause a central hypomyelinating disorder; Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD; MIM311601). Using a homozygosity mapping and positional candidate gene approach, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.-167A>G) within the GJC2 promoter at a potent SOX10 binding site in a patient with mild PMLD. Functionally, this mutation completely abolished the SOX10 binding and attenuated GJC2 promoter activity. These findings suggest not only that the SOX10 -to- GJC2 transcriptional dysregulation is a cause of PMLD, but also that GJC2 may be in part responsible for the central hypomyelination caused by SOX10 mutations. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:250,254 [source]

    Crystal deposits on the lens capsules in Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy associated with a mutation in the CYP4V2 gene

    Yumiko Yokoi
    Abstract. Purpose:, We report a patient (Case 1) with Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) associated with previously unknown findings of crystal-like deposits on the anterior and posterior lens capsules. This patient is one of four (Cases 1,4) in whom we have found BCD associated with the same mutation in the CYP4V2 gene. Methods:, We present a case report with molecular diagnosis. A 45-year-old man (Case 1) was referred to our clinic with complaints of gradual progression of visual disturbances and night blindness. His visual acuity was limited to hand movement bilaterally. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy disclosed glistening, crystal-like deposits on the anterior and posterior lens capsules, as well as on the corneal stroma near the corneoscleral limbus. No such deposit was found in the lens stroma. Fundus examination disclosed profound chorioretinal atrophy with scarce crystal deposits. Full-field electroretinography showed extinguished responses of isolated rods, isolated cones, and mixed rods and cones. Results:, Molecular genetic analysis revealed that the subject had a homozygous mutation in the CYP4V2 gene (IVS6,8delTCATACAGGTCATCGCG/insGC), which is most commonly found in Japanese patients with BCD. Three other cases (Cases 2,4) of BCD associated with the same mutation did not show such crystal-like deposits on the lens surface. Conclusions:, Although their exact origin remains unknown, crystal-like deposits may appear on the lens capsule of patients with BCD associated with a mutation in the CYP4V2 gene. [source]

    Two novel mutations in the human thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene: genetics and clinical findings in four children

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2009
    Diemud Simm
    Abstract We report four children originating from two unrelated German families with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) due to mutations in the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene. Three female siblings (family 1) were found to be compound heterozygous for two mutations, a known mutation in exon 9 (W527C), and a mutation in exon 8 (Q446H), which has not been described before. In the second family we identified a boy with goitrous CH, who had a novel homozygous mutation in the TPO gene in exon 16 (W873X). All children of family 1 were diagnosed postnatally by newborn screening. The case of the boy of family 2 has already been reported for the in utero treatment of a goiter with hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Our results confirm existing data on the phenotypic variability of patients with TPO gene mutations. [source]

    Identification of a recurrent mutation in the human hairless gene underlying atrichia with papular lesions

    M. Massé
    Summary Identification of mutations in the hairless (HR) gene in patients with atrichia with papular lesions (APL) has proven of critical importance, as it provides a basis for the differentiation between APL and alopecia universalis. The establishment of the diagnostic criteria for APL has triggered the identification of a large number of APL patients among those suspected to suffer from alopecia universalis. This advancement has resulted in the discovery of an increasing number of hairless mutations in both consanguineous and nonconsanguineous APL families. Here, we report the identification of a homozygous mutation, 3434delC, in an APL patient of Arab--Palestinian descent. The proband is a 23-year-old female with generalized scalp and body alopecia. To confirm the diagnosis of APL and to identify the specific mutation, we sequenced the hairless gene. Sequencing of all exons of the hairless gene revealed a homozygous frameshift mutation, 3434delC, in exon 18. Interestingly, the same mutation was previously identified in an Arab--Israeli family. Our data suggest that the 3434delC mutation most likely represents a founder mutation in this geographical region. [source]

    Allgrove syndrome with features of familial dysautonomia: A novel mutation in the AAAS gene

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2006
    Essam A. Ismail
    Abstract Allgrove syndrome (or triple-A syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency (glucocorticoid in the majority of cases) and autonomic/neurological abnormalities. This disease is now known to be caused by mutation in the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. Diagnosis should be readily available when the full-blown features are there, but it becomes less apparent when presentation is atypical or in the evolving process. We present a brother and sister (12 and 19 y old, respectively) born to consanguineous parents of Palestinian origin with Allgrove syndrome. The index patient was erroneously diagnosed to be a case of familial dysautonomia before the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency was made at the age of 7.5 y, while his elder sister had only alacrima from birth and developed achalasia at the age of 15 y. She started to develop early evidence of adrenal disease at the age of 19 y. Both of them had neuroautonomic dysfunction. The diagnosis of Allgrove syndrome was confirmed in these two patients by studying the gene mutation in the family. The sequencing of the AAAS gene in the two patients identified a novel homozygous mutation within intron 5 (IVS5+1(G),A). Both parents as well as all three other children were heterozygous for the same mutation. Conclusion: These two cases illustrate the heterogenous nature and the intrafamilial phenotypic variability of Allgrove syndrome. [source]

    A novel homozygous mutation in the second transmembrane domain of the gonadotrophin releasing hormone receptor gene

    D. Söderlund
    BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVE Mutations in the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) gene cause hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Here, we present the molecular studies of the GnRH-R gene in three families with isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. PATIENTS Three unrelated families, with at least two members diagnosed with isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were included. MEASUREMENTS DNA sequencing was performed after polymerase chain reaction amplification of each of the three exons of the gene. RESULTS A novel homozygous missense mutation, at nucleotide 268, turning glutamic acid into lysine, located at the second transmembrane domain of the GnRH-R gene was found in two patients pertaining to one of the families studied. Both parents and an unaffected brother were heterozygous carriers of one mutant allele, an unaffected sister was homozygote wild type. In the other two affected families no mutations were found in the GnRH-R gene. CONCLUSIONS This constitutes the first description of an spontaneous mutation located at the second transmembrane domain (Glu90Lys) of the GnRH-R, indicating that the integrity of glutamic acid at this position is crucial for receptor function. Also this report, complementing others, demonstrates that mutations are distributed throughout the GnRH-R gene and that as in the only other homozygous mutation previously described, affected patients present a complete form of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Due to the fact that apparently consanguinity was present in our affected family, we presume that the mutation derived from a common ancestor, by a founder gene effect. [source]

    Evaluation and use of a synthetic quality control material, included in the European external quality assessment scheme for cystic fibrosis,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 8 2008
    Sarah Berwouts
    Abstract Assuring high quality within the field of genetic testing is fundamental, as the results can have considerable impact on the patient and his or her family. The use of appropriate quality control (QC) samples is therefore essential. Diagnostic laboratories mainly use patient samples as QC material, which of course include a maximum of two mutations per sample. Bearing in mind that some assays (such as for cystic fibrosis [CF] testing) can test for more than 100 mutations, multiplex QC materials including more than two mutations could save valuable time and reagents. Based on this need, synthetic multiplex controls have been developed by Maine Molecular Quality Controls, Inc. (MMQCI) for CF. A synthetic control, containing six homozygous mutations and one polymorphism for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), was evaluated by distributing it through the CF external quality assessment (EQA) scheme, along with the EQA samples in 2005. A total of 197 participants returned results of the yearly EQA scheme and 133 laboratories participated in the evaluation of the synthetic sample. Respectively, 76% and 73% of the participants were assigned as successful. This evaluation study revealed that the multiplex QC material performed well in the majority of assays and could be useful in method validation, as a tool to challenge interpretation skills, and as potential proficiency testing (PT) material. Hum Mutat 0, 1,8, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutation spectrum of human SLC39A4 in a panel of patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2003
    Sébastien Küry
    Abstract Acrodermatitis enteropathica is rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a severe nutritional zinc deficiency. We and others have recently identified the human gene encoding an intestinal zinc transporter of the ZIP family, SLC39A4, as the mutated gene in acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). A first mutation screening in 8 AE families (15 patients out of 36 individuals) revealed the presence of six different mutations described elsewhere. Based on these results, we have evaluated the involvement of SLC39A4 in 14 patients of 12 additional AE pedigees coming either from France, Tunisia, Austria or Lithuania. A total of 7 SLC39A4 mutations were identified (1 deletion, 2 nonsense, 2 missense, and 2 modifications of splice site), of which 4 are novel: a homozygous nonsense mutation in 3 consanguineous Tunisian families [c.143T>G (p.Leu48X)], a heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.1203G>A (p.Trp401X)) in a compound heterozygote from Austria also exhibiting an already known missense mutation, and distinct homozygous mutations in families from France or Tunisia [c.475-2A>G and c.184T>C (p.Cys62Arg)]. Furthermore, two other potential mutations [c.850G>A (p.Glu284Lys) and c.193-113T>C] were also observed at homozygous state in a French family formerly described. This study brings to 21 the number of reported SLC39A4 mutations in AE families. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hereditary hypophosphatemias: New genes in the bone,kidney axis (Review Article)

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    SUMMARY: Hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Two new genes linked to two different forms of hereditary hypophosphatemias have recently been described. Autosomal recessive form of hypophosphatemic rickets was mapped to chromosome 4q21 and identified homozygous mutations in dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) gene, which encodes a non-collagenous bone matrix protein. Intact plasma levels of the phosphaturic protein FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) were clearly elevated in some of the affected individuals, providing a possible explanation for the phosphaturia and inappropriately normal 1,25(OH)2D levels, and suggesting that DMP1 may regulate FGF23 expression. Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria is another rare disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. Affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption. The disease was mapped to a 1.6 Mbp region on chromosome 9q34, which contains SLC34A3, the gene encoding the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIc. This was the first demonstration that NaPi-IIc has a key role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. Thus, DMP1 and NaPi-IIc add two new members to the bone,kidney axis proposed since it was discovered that the first phosphatonin, FGF23, was of osteoblastic/osteocyte origin. This provides a mechanism for the skeleton to communicate with the kidney to coordinate the mineralization of extracelular matrix and the renal handling of phosphate. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A Prospective Case,Control Study Analyzes 12 Thrombophilic Gene Mutations in Turkish Couples with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Gonca Imir Yenicesu
    Citation Yenicesu GI, Cetin M, Ozdemir O, Cetin A, Ozen F, Yenicesu C, Yildiz C, Kocak N. A prospective case,control study analyzes 12 thrombophilic gene mutations in Turkish couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 126,136 Problem, Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a heterogeneous disorder. The contribution of specific thrombophilic genes to the pathophysiology of RPL has remained controversial. We evaluated the prevalences of 12 thrombophilic gene mutations among homogenous Caucasian couples with RPL and fertiles. Method of study, This was a prospective case,control study evaluating 272 women with RPL and 152 of their male partners, and a control group of 56 fertile couples. We investigated mutations including FV Leiden, factor V H1299R, factor II prothrombin G20210A, F XIII V34L, ,-fibrinogen ,455G>A, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, GPIIIa L33P (HPA-1 a/b L33P), MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, ACE I/D, Apo B R3500Q, and Apo E. Results, Overall, heterozygous mutations of FV Leiden, FXIII V34L, GPIIIa L33P, Apo E4, and prothrombin G20210A and homozygous mutations of PAI-1and MTHFR C677T were associated with RPL. There was no meaningful association between RPL and other studied genes. Conclusion, In contrast to the other mutations and polymorphisms, FV Leiden, FXIII V34L, GPIIIa L33P, Apo E, prothrombin G20210A, PAI-1 and MTHFR C677T gene mutations may help to identify the couples at risk for recurrent pregnancy loss. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Are Polymorphisms in the ACE and PAI-1 Genes Associated with Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriages?

    Chelsi Goodman
    Problem, To determine whether the ACE D/D genotype or the combination of PAI-1 4G/4G and ACE D/D genotypes may serve as a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss. Method of study, Buccal swabs were obtained from 120 women experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss and from 84 fertile control women. DNA was extracted from the buccal swab samples using the Qiagen DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen), followed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were analyzed for the ACE gene polymorphism, which consists of the insertion or deletion (I/D) of a 287-bp fragment in intron 16, and the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype. Results, No significant differences in specific ACE gene mutations were observed when patients experiencing recurrent miscarriage were compared with control women. When the frequencies of homozygous mutations for ACE D/D and PAI-I 4G/4G were compared between recurrent aborters and controls, again no significant differences in the prevalence of the combination of these gene mutations were noted. Conclusion, Homozygosity for the D allele of the ACE gene and the combination of the D/D genotype with two 4G alleles of the PAI-1 promoter gene are not associated with a significant increase in the risk of recurrent miscarriage. [source]