Holistic Care (holistic + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Factors associated with constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older adults in the institutional setting

Emily Haesler BN PGradDipAdvNsg
Abstract Background, Modern healthcare philosophy espouses the virtues of holistic care and acknowledges that family involvement is appropriate and something to be encouraged due to the role it plays in physical and emotional healing. In the aged care sector, the involvement of families is a strong guarantee of a resident's well-being. The important role family plays in the support and care of the older adult in the residential aged care environment has been enshrined in the Australian Commonwealth Charter of Residents' Rights and Responsibilities and the Aged Care Standards of Practice. Despite wide acknowledgement of the importance of family involvement in the healthcare of the older adult, many barriers to the implementation of participatory family care have been identified in past research. For older adults in the healthcare environment to benefit from the involvement of their family members, healthcare professionals need an understanding of the issues surrounding family presence in the healthcare environment and the strategies to best support it. Objectives, The objectives of the systematic review were to present the best available evidence on the strategies, practices and organisational characteristics that promote constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older adults in the healthcare setting. Specifically this review sought to investigate how staff and family members perceive their relationships with each other; staff characteristics that promote constructive relationships with the family; and interventions that support staff,family relationships. Search strategy, A literature search was performed using the following databases for the years 1990,2005: Ageline, APAIS Health, Australian Family and Society Abstracts (FAMILY), CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Dare, Dissertation Abstracts, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. Personal communication from expert panel members was also used to identify studies for inclusion. A second search stage was conducted through review of reference lists of studies retrieved during the first search stage. The search was limited to published and unpublished material in English language. Selection criteria, The review was limited to studies involving residents and patients within acute, subacute, rehabilitation and residential settings, aged over 65 years, their family and healthcare staff. Papers addressing family members and healthcare staff perceptions of their relationships with each other were considered for this review. Studies in this review also included those relating to interventions to promote constructive staff,family relationships including organisational strategies, staff,family meetings, case conferencing, environmental approaches, etc. The review considered both quantitative and qualitative research and opinion papers for inclusion. Data collection and analysis, All retrieved papers were critically appraised for eligibility for inclusion and methodological quality independently by two reviewers, and the same reviewers collected details of eligible research. Appraisal forms and data extraction forms designed by the Joanna Briggs Institute as part of the QARI and NOTARI systematic review software packages were used for this review. Findings, Family members' perceptions of their relationships with staff showed that a strong focus was placed on opportunities for the family to be involved in the patient's care. Staff members also expressed a theoretical support for the collaborative process, however, this belief often did not translate to the staff members' clinical practice. In the studies included in the review staff were frequently found to rely on traditional medical models of care in their clinical practice and maintaining control over the environment, rather than fully collaborating with families. Four factors were found to be essential to interventions designed to support a collaborative partnership between family members and healthcare staff: communication, information, education and administrative support. Based on the evidence analysed in this systematic review, staff and family education on relationship development, power and control issues, communication skills and negotiating techniques is essential to promoting constructive staff,family relationships. Managerial support, such as addressing workloads and staffing issues; introducing care models focused on collaboration with families; and providing practical support for staff education, is essential to gaining sustained benefits from interventions designed to promote constructive family,staff relationships. [source]

The oral health needs of children after treatment for a solid tumour or lymphoma

Background., With increasing survival rates for childhood cancer, late effects are of growing importance. Oral health is central to general health, level of nutrition, quality of life, and is significant in the holistic care of children during cancer therapy. Hypothesis., The oral health needs of children treated for solid tumours/lymphoma will be greater than the general population, groups will differ according to tumour and treatment. Design., One hundred and twenty patients, 0,17 years, under follow-up from 01/07/06 to 07/02/07 were investigated for caries, opacities, microdontia, and gingivitis. Analysis was performed with stratification according to tumour and treatment. Comparisons made with the UK 2003 Child Dental Health Survey. Results., The neuroblastoma group and high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue (HDCSCR) therapy group had increased caries of the primary teeth. Chi-squared analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.03) between the age at receipt of chemotherapy (<3.5 years) and the presence of microdont teeth. Conclusion., Oral health care is important for all patients particularly those with a neuroblastoma, or who received HDCSCR. Patients should be advised about the possibility of microdontia in the permanent dentition following chemotherapy under 3.5 years. [source]

Healthcare professionals' perceptions of existential distress in patients with advanced cancer

Esther Mok
mok e., lau k-p., lam w-m., chan l-n., ng j.s.c. & chan k-s. (2010) Healthcare professionals' perceptions of existential distress in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(7), 1510,1522. Abstract Title.,Healthcare professionals' perceptions of existential distress in patients with advanced cancer. Aim., This paper is a report of an exploration of the phenomenon of existential distress in patients with advanced cancer from the perspectives of healthcare professionals. Background., Existential distress is an important concern in patients with advanced cancer; it affects their well-being and needs to be addressed in the provision of holistic care. Method., Focus groups were conducted from November 2008 to February 2009 with physicians, nurses, social workers, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and chaplains working in a palliative care unit that served patients with advanced cancer in Hong Kong. Data collection and analysis were guided by the grounded theory approach. All categories were saturated when five focus groups had been held with a total number of 23 participants. Findings., We found three causal conditions of existential distress: anticipation of a negative future, failure to engage in meaningful activities and relationships, and having regrets. Three basic (caring, relating and knowing) and six specific (positive feedback, religious support, new experiences, task setting, exploring alternatives and relationship reconciliation) intervening strategies were identified. Whether the intervening strategies would be effective would depend on patients' openness and readiness; healthcare professionals' self-awareness, hopefulness, and interest in knowing the patients; and a trusting relationship between patients and healthcare professionals. A sense of peace in patients was considered a consequence of successful interventions. Conclusion., This paper acknowledges the lack of an accepted conceptual framework of existential distress in patients with advanced cancer. It is based on healthcare professionals' views, and further studies from the perspectives of patients and their families are needed. [source]

Learning for holistic care: addressing practical wisdom (phronesis) and the spiritual sphere

Helen L. Leathard
Abstract Title.,Learning for holistic care: addressing practical wisdom (phronesis) and the spiritual sphere. Aim., This paper is a discussion of practical wisdom (phronesis) and spirituality in holistic caring and strategies to facilitate their application in nurse education. Background.,Phronesis, with its inherent spiritual qualities, is an established aspect of the persona of excellent clinical leaders. There is a strong case for recognizing the value of this characteristic in all nurses, and a strategy is required for engendering the development of phronesis during nurse education. Data sources., Electronic searches of Google Scholar and CINAHL were conducted for English language publications in the period 1996,2008. Search terms included combinations of phronesis, spirituality, health, education, pharmacology, medicines and medication education, holistic care and spiritual care. Selection of items for inclusion was based on their pertinence to the arguments being developed and their value as leads to earlier material. Discussion., The links between the attributes of effective clinical leaders and those required for holistic caring are explicated and related to phronesis, the acquisition of which involves spiritual development. An explanatory account of phronesis and its applicability to nursing leads to an explanation of how its spiritual aspects in particular might be incorporated into learning for holistic care. Reference to research in medicines-related education illustrates how the principles can be applied in nurse education. Conclusion., Nursing quality could be enhanced if adequate opportunities for acquiring phronesis through experiential learning were provided in nursing curricula. Phronesis and spiritual care could be incorporated into existing models of nursing care or new models devised to use these critical concepts. [source]

Individualized care: its conceptualization and practice within a multiethnic society

Kate Gerrish BNurs MSc PhD RGN RM DN Cert
Individualized care: its conceptualization and practice within a multiethnic society This paper reports on the selected findings from a larger ethnographic study of the provision of individualized care by district nurses to patients from different ethnic backgrounds. Undertaken in an English community National Health Service (NHS) Trust serving an ethnically diverse population, the study comprised two stages. First, an organizational profile of the Trust was undertaken in order to analyse the local policy context. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews with managers and a review of policy documentation and caseload profiles. Second, a participant observational study was undertaken focusing on six district nursing teams. Purposive sampling was used to identify four teams with high minority ethnic caseloads and two teams with predominately white ethnic majority caseloads. Interview transcripts and field notes were analysed by drawing upon the principles of dimensional analysis. This paper focuses upon aspects of the second stage, namely how the nurses' conceptualized and practised individualized care. Six principles underpinning the philosophy of individualized care expounded by the nurses were identified: respecting individuality; holistic care; focusing on nursing needs; promoting independence; partnership and negotiation of care; and equity and fairness. Each is examined in turn and consideration given to how they were modified in their transformation into practice. Some implications for patients from minority ethnic backgrounds of the nurses' conceptualization and practice of individualized care are discussed. The lack of internal consistency within the nurses' discourse, the impact of policy directives on care delivery and the influence of factors outside the nurses' control, served to illuminate the complexity whereby the ideals of individualized care were adjusted and reworked in the realities of everyday nursing practice. This in turn raised questions about the appropriateness of the current interpretation and practice of individualized care in a multi-ethnic society. [source]

Interprofessional education: the interface of nursing and social work

Engle Angela Chan
Aims., To examine the influence of interdisciplinary seminars on undergraduate nursing and social work students' perceptions of their learning. Background., Collaboration is considered to be important for health professionals in working towards good patient care, and interdisciplinary education is seen as one way of addressing this need for greater collaboration and team work. Today's health professionals are dealing with an increasing number of older and chronically ill patients. The biopsychosocial dimensions inherent in such chronic illnesses bring about a closer working relationship between the nursing and social work professions to foster good patient care. No local research in Hong Kong, however, has looked specifically at how these two professions can develop their collaborative skills and qualities through interdisciplinary education. Design., Mixed methods design. Method., Data from questionnaires, videotape recordings of the sessions and follow-up phone interviews were used for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results., The findings revealed three themes: an increased awareness of each other's professional values and personal judgement, a recognition of each other's disciplinary knowledge emphases and more, and an appreciation for, and learning about each other's roles for future collaboration. Conclusions., Whilst, it is usual to identify health professionals as non-judgemental, it is also important to recognise the existence of their personal and professional values and beliefs that shape their decision-making. Equally beneficial for students is their reported understanding of the other discipline's emphasis on the physical or social aspects of care, and the interrelationships and complementary values that lead to students' appreciation of each other's roles and the possibility for their future collaboration in the holistic care of patients. Relevance to clinical practice., The sharing of each other's knowledge and their appreciation of the corresponding roles enhanced students' decision-making capacity and the extension of the holistic approach beyond one profession, which is essential for good patient care. [source]

Perspectives on professional values among nurses in Taiwan

Fu-Jin Shih
Aim., The purpose of this study was to identify the most important contemporary professional nursing values for nursing clinicians and educators in Taiwan. Background., Nursing values are constructed by members of political and social systems, including professional nursing organisations and educational institutions. Nurses' personal value systems shape the development of these professional values. An understanding of nurses' perceptions of professional values will enable the profession to examine consistencies with those reflected in existing and emerging educational and practice environments. Design., A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using the focus-group discussion method. Methods., A purposive sample of 300 registered nurses in Taiwan, consisting of 270 nursing clinicians and 30 faculty members, participated in 22 focus-group interviews. Data were analysed using a systematic process of content analysis. Results., Six prominent values related to professional nursing were identified: (a) caring for clients with a humanistic spirit; (b) providing professionally competent and holistic care; (c) fostering growth and discovering the meaning of life; (d) experiencing the ,give-and-take' of caring for others; (e) receiving fair compensation; and (f) raising the public's awareness of health promotion. Four background contexts framed the way participants viewed the appropriation of these values: (a) appraising nursing values through multiple perspectives; (b) acquiring nursing values through self-realisation; (c) recognising nursing values through professional competency and humanistic concerns and (d) fulfilling nursing values through coexisting self-actualisation. A conceptual framework was developed to represent this phenomenon. Conclusion., The most important professional nursing values according to the perspectives of nurses in Taiwan were identified. These values reflect benefits to society, to nurses themselves and to the interdisciplinary team. Relevance to clinical practice., Nurses' awareness of their own values and of how these values influence their behaviour is an essential component of humanistic nursing care. Nursing educators need to develop better strategies for reflection and integration of both personal and professional philosophies and values. [source]

Nurses' everyday activities in hospital care

Aim, This study aims at examining nurses' work in somatic and psychiatric wards in a hospital in Sweden. Background, It is asked whether the humanistic ideology, emphasizing holistic care and human interaction more than practical skills, which has become widespread in the Swedish nursing education programmes, fits with the actual work that nurses carry out. Method, In this study, diaries on work activities were written during 5 days by 30 nurses. Results, It turned out that the nurses generally spend 38% of their working time with patients (nursing) and the remaining time on other activities. Discussion, There are certain differences between clinics and they can to some extent be explained by differences in work organization. Conclusion, The results in this piece of research indicate that a relatively small proportion of nurses' working time is used for general and specific nursing. It should be asked whether or to what extent the humanistic and holistic perspective taught in nursing education will be utilized in practical nursing. [source]

Depression and diffuse physical symptoms in southern Chinese with temporomandibular disorders

Summary, The study investigated the experience of depressive symptoms and the relationship with diffuse physical symptoms reporting in southern Chinese seeking professional care for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Hong Kong. Eighty-seven new patients [77 females/10 males; mean age 39·3 years (SD 12·7)] referred to the specialist TMD clinic at the Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong participated in this study. The Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD history questionnaire was used to derive Axis II psychological data. Psychological status was assessed through depression and non-specific physical symptoms (NPS) scores (pain items included and excluded) measured with RDC/TMD Axis II instruments; 42·5% of patients experienced moderate/severe depression symptoms; 59·8% and 57·5% had moderate/severe NPS scores when pain items were included and excluded, respectively. Strong, positive and statistically significant correlations were noted between depression scores and the NPS scores that included pain items (r = 0·80) and those that did not (r = 0·80). The correlations remained consistent and were of similar magnitude when male patients were excluded from the computation and also when the possible effect of patient age was controlled. While taking into account the modest patient sample which was related to a low rate of treatment seeking, depressive symptoms were common and similar to other western and Chinese patient groups. NPS reports were higher than in Singapore Chinese patients. There appeared to be a clear association between depression and diffuse physical symptoms. The findings should be considered in the holistic care of Chinese people with TMD. [source]

Treatment of mild to moderate dehydration in children with oral rehydration therapy

Kristene C Diggins RN
Abstract Purpose: To review current literature on the effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration in children. Data sources: Recommendations from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), World Health Organization (WHO), selected research articles (2000,2006), and Internet sources. Conclusions: Dehydration is a common diagnosis in pediatric primary care. The literature indicates that dehydration is more often treated with intravenous (IV) therapy when ORT would be equally effective. ORT is an effective treatment for children with mild to moderate dehydration. ORT could be used more frequently rather than IV rehydration therapy. The use of ORT versus traditional methods of IV hydration matches the nursing philosophy of holistic care by enhancing client comfort and autonomy. Implications for practice: Current practice in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration in children does not match both AAP and WHO guidelines, which are based on evidence supporting ORT effectiveness. Treatment with ORT allows children more flexibility to be treated at home and thus decreases hospital stay. Evidence shows that the time required to initiate ORT is actually quicker than IV therapy and allows for a less stressful therapy that can be performed in the home. [source]

,It's quite hard to grasp the enormity of it': Perceived needs of people upon diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

S. Radford D Clin Psychol
Abstract Objectives:,The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) brings rapid pharmacological and multidisciplinary team interventions to address inflammatory processes and symptom management. However, people may also need support on the journey to self-management. The aim of this study was to explore what professional support patients feel they receive upon diagnosis, and what support they feel would be most helpful. Methods:,Two focus groups comprised patients with at least five years'; disease duration (n = 7), and patients more recently diagnosed (5,18 months, n = 5). The latter had attended at least two appointments in a rheumatology nurse specialist clinic during the previous year, aimed at providing support upon diagnosis. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis to identify common issues regarding support needs, which were then grouped into themes. Interviewing and analysis was performed by researchers not involved in clinical care. Results:,Four overarching themes emerged. ,Information' was needed about the symptoms of RA, its management and personal outcome, while ,Support' related to emotional needs (,It's quite hard to grasp the enormity of it'). Information and Support overlapped, in that patients wanted someone to talk to, and to be listened to. These two themes were underpinned by issues of service delivery: ,Choice' (patient or professional to talk to, groups, one-to-one) and ,Involvement' (holistic care, partnership), which overlapped in terms of the opportunity to decide when and which interventions to access. Conclusions:,People with RA report not only informational, but also emotional support needs at diagnosis. The potential for delivering emotional support to patients around the time of diagnosis warrants further exploration. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Caring holistically within new managerialism

Woon Hau Wong
This article explains the attempts of nurses to practice humanistic, holistic care in line with their professionalizing strategy. Ideally, the intention of nurses is to broaden their concerns beyond the physiological needs of patients, thereby circumventing biomedical control over their work. However, the author argues that resource constraints, and the coalescing of biomedical and managerial definitions of patients, suggest that holistic notions of care are subjected to a new form of calculus and normalizing technology. Critically, nurses are more preoccupied with the day-to-day struggle to free up resources for healthcare, in particular bed spaces, and to pre-empt the problem of bed blocking. Such work suggests that the ,emptying of beds' is not just a symbol of accomplishment for nursing work. From the governmentality theory of Foucault, the administration of ,beds' has become part of the managerial power/knowledge discourse and an instrument for making nurses toe the financial bottom-line. [source]

The Art of Prescribing

Antidepressants in Late-Life Depression: Prescribing Principles
QUESTION. , Ms. Antai-Otong, I am a psychiatric nurse practitioner currently employed in a large primary care clinic. My greatest challenge with older adults suspected of being depressed is their hesitancy to admit they are depressed or unwillingness to take antidepressants. I have started some of these patients on antidepressants and had mixed results. Please provide some guidelines for treating depression in older adults with coexisting medical conditions. ANSWER., Depression is a common companion of chronic medical illnesses and frequently goes unrecognized and untreated, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Depression is unrecognized and underdiagnosed in approximately 16% of older patients seen in primary care settings (Unutzer, 2002). Typically, older adults deny being depressed, minimize symptom severity, fail to recognize common subjective experiences, such as anhedonia, fatigue, and concentration difficulties associated with this disorder, and hesitate to accept their illness due to social stigma and effects of stoicism. Cultural and generational influences also impact how older adults perceive mental health services. Due to the growing number of individuals 65 and older with coexisting medical and psychiatric conditions, particularly depression, seeking health care in vast practice settings, advanced practice psychiatric nurses must collaborate with primary care providers and develop holistic care that addresses coexisting chronic medical and psychiatric conditions. [source]

Patients' Sexual Health: A Qualitative Research Approach on Greek Nurses' Perceptions

Evangelia Nakopoulou MSc
ABSTRACT Introduction., Health care professionals, especially nurses, through their contact with patients, play an important role in encouraging discussions about sexual concerns. Aim., To explore perceptions on sexual health issues and how these might inhibit or enhance Greek nurses' ability to incorporate sexual health assessment into everyday practice. Main Outcome Measures., A discussion guide was used as checklist to ensure that the basic issues would be addressed. Topics related to the areas of interest were either brought up from the participants or introduced by the moderator. Methods., The study recruited a purposive sample of 44 Greek staff nurses (SN) attending a course leading to their professional upgrading. A qualitative research design was employed using seven focus groups. Discussions started with nurses' perceived definitions of sexual health and proceeded with open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis based on the principles of grounded theory. Results., Three central themes were identified from transcripts' thematic analysis: subjective perception of sexual health, discussing sexual problems, and educational and training needs. Participants' perceptions of sexual health centred mainly on the emotional and somatic dimensions. Regarding clinical practice, a variety of personal and contextual reasons limit nurses' willingness to talk about sexuality with patients, such as gender and age differences, familial upbringing, lack of time and privacy, and restricted perception of nursing role. All nurses stressed the need for further specialized training not only in physiology issues related to sexuality, but also most importantly in communication skills. Conclusions., Although Greek nurses acknowledge the importance of sexual health assessment, they believe that sexual history taking is not within the range of their professional tasks. Since holistic care demands sexual health assessment and intervention to be an integral part of nursing practice, it is necessary to introduce courses in their curriculum and experiential workshops addressing the multidimensionality of sexuality. Nakopoulou E, Papaharitou S, and Hatzichristou D. Patients' sexual health: A qualitative research approach on Greek nurses' perceptions. J Sex Med 2009;6:2124,2132. [source]