Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Holistic

  • holistic approach
  • holistic assessment
  • holistic care
  • holistic framework
  • holistic model
  • holistic processing
  • holistic view

  • Selected Abstracts

    Holistic but customized resources for a course in numerical methods

    Autar Kaw
    Abstract Prototype web based resources have been developed for an undergraduate course in Numerical Methods. The web modules are holistic, that is they include pre-requisite information, real-life applications, presentations and notes, simulations, and self-assessment. The student interest and learning are maximized by providing customization of content based on a student's engineering major and computational system of choice. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 11: 203,210, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.10053 [source]

    Enhancing Educational Support: Towards Holistic, Responsive and Strength-based Services for Young Refugees and Asylum-seekers

    CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
    Nathan Hughes
    The importance of early school experiences in the personal and social development of young refugees and asylum-seekers has been documented by researchers and enshrined in practice guidelines. The capacity of schools to implement these guidelines is, however, limited, in terms of the availability of appropriate knowledge and skills, financial resources and long-term planning. In this article we draw upon case studies of six school or education-based services funded by the Children's Fund. We explore the various ways in which these have enhanced the ability of schools to address multiple and interrelated family- and community-level factors impacting on the educational attendance and achievement of this group. In conclusion, we consider the challenges to scale up and sustain these services. [source]

    Holistic but customized resources for a course in numerical methods

    Autar Kaw
    Abstract Prototype web based resources have been developed for an undergraduate course in Numerical Methods. The web modules are holistic, that is they include pre-requisite information, real-life applications, presentations and notes, simulations, and self-assessment. The student interest and learning are maximized by providing customization of content based on a student's engineering major and computational system of choice. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 11: 203,210, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.10053 [source]

    Making the Leap from Researcher to Planner: Lessons from Avian Conservation Planning in the Dominican Republic

    Steven C. Latta
    Published accounts of national, multidisciplinary planning efforts and priority setting for avian conservation are not common. I describe the process and results of a broad-based, grassroots-oriented avian conservation planning workshop held in the Dominican Republic in which we designed a coordinated strategy for avian conservation in the country. The planning process sought to (1) increase communication and cooperation among conservationists; (2) familiarize participants with resources pertinent to avian conservation; (3) encourage the transfer of information between researchers and managers; (4) promote the concepts of long-term avian monitoring, avian conservation plans, and species management plans; and (5) develop a common, multidisciplinary strategy to promote the conservation of birds in the Dominican Republic. The workshop highlighted group discussions among research biologists, managers, educators, and public policy specialists to assess avian conservation needs and priorities with respect to each discipline and has since galvanized a significant portion of the conservation community around several cooperative projects involving diverse segments of the community. Avian biologists can play a significant role in conservation efforts through a willingness to work with key players in diverse fields and to envision holistic, multidisciplinary approaches to conservation issues. Resumen: Cuando los biologícos investigadores incursionan en la biología de la conservación enfrentan nuevos desafíos, especialmente en países extranjeros, al intentar prestar apoyo para esfuerzos de planificación de la conservación. Los informes publicados de esfuerzos de planificación nacional, multidisciplinaria y de establecimiento de prioridades para la conservación de aves no son comunes. Describo el proceso y los resultados de un taller nacional de planificación para conservación de aves en la República Dominicana que utilizaba un proceso fundamental de base amplia donde creamos una estrategia coordinada para la conservación de aves del país. El proceso de planeación buscaba (1) aumentar comunicación y cooperación entre conservacionistas, (2) familiarizar a los participantes con los recursos disponibles para la conservación de aves, (3) estimular la transferencia de información entre investigadores y manejadores, (4) promover los conceptos del monitoreo de aves a largo plazo, planes de conservación de especies y planes de manejo de especies y (5) desarrollar una estrategia multidisciplinaria común para promover la conservación de aves en la República Dominicana. El taller puso a relieve discusiones de grupo entre investigadores, manejadores, educadores y especialistas en política pública para evaluar las necesidaes y prioridades para la conservación de aves con respecto a cada disciplina, desde entonces se ha estimulado a una porción significativa de la comunidad conservacionista alrededor de proyectos de cooperación que involucran a diversos segmentos de la comunidad. Los ornitólogos pueden jugar un papel significativo en los esfuerzos de conservación mediante una buena disposición para trabajar con personas clave en diversas disciplinas y visualizar de una manera integral y multidisciplinaria las estrategias para abordar asuntos de conservación. [source]

    Are the cognitive functions of children with Down syndrome related to their participation?

    Aim, There is a lack of investigation into the functional developmental profile of children with Down syndrome. On the basis of current international health paradigms, the purpose of this study was to assess the developmental profile of these children. Method, Sixty children (33 males, 27 females) with Down syndrome (age range 6,16y; mean age 9y 3mo, SD 28.8mo), who had received standard, holistic, early intervention, were assessed. Of these, 42 (70%) had congenital anomalies, 12 had severe congenital heart defects. Participants were assessed on measures of cognitive function (Beery,Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual,Motor Integration; Stanford,Binet Intelligence Scale) and participation (Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales). Results, No difference was found on any measure on the basis of severity of congenital anomaly. Results showed improvements in age-related body function and correlations between specific body functions and participation. No decline in IQ was found with age, and significant correlations between IQ and all other measures were noted. Although sex differences were found in the body functions of short-term memory and motor function, no difference in measures of activity performance and participation was found. Interpretation, Our findings emphasize the need for paediatric Down syndrome intervention to encourage improved body functions while emphasizing the acquisition of functional skills that enable enhanced participation in age-appropriate activities. [source]

    Reducing redundancy in invasion ecology by integrating hypotheses into a single theoretical framework

    Jane A. Catford
    ABSTRACT Aim, Invasion ecology includes many hypotheses. Empirical evidence suggests that most of these can explain the success of some invaders to some degree in some circumstances. If they all are correct, what does this tell us about invasion? We illustrate the major themes in invasion ecology, and provide an overarching framework that helps organize research and foster links among subfields of invasion ecology and ecology more generally. Location, Global. Methods, We review and synthesize 29 leading hypotheses in plant invasion ecology. Structured around propagule pressure (P), abiotic characteristics (A) and biotic characteristics (B), with the additional influence of humans (H) on P, A and B (hereon PAB), we show how these hypotheses fit into one paradigm. P is based on the size and frequency of introductions, A incorporates ecosystem invasibility based on physical conditions, and B includes the characteristics of invading species (invasiveness), the recipient community and their interactions. Having justified the PAB framework, we propose a way in which invasion research could progress. Results, By highlighting the common ground among hypotheses, we show that invasion ecology is encumbered by theoretical redundancy that can be removed through integration. Using both holistic and incremental approaches, we show how the PAB framework can guide research and quantify the relative importance of different invasion mechanisms. Main conclusions, If the prime aim is to identify the main cause of invasion success, we contend that a top-down approach that focuses on PAB maximizes research efficiency. This approach identifies the most influential factors first, and subsequently narrows the number of potential causal mechanisms. By viewing invasion as a multifaceted process that can be partitioned into major drivers and broken down into a series of sequential steps, invasion theory can be rigorously tested, understanding improved and effective weed management techniques identified. [source]

    Visual, auditory and cross-modal processing of linguistic and nonlinguistic temporal patterns among adult dyslexic readers

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2005
    Ann Meyler
    Abstract This study examined visual, auditory, and cross-modal temporal pattern processing at the nonlinguistic and sublexical linguistic levels, and the relationships between these abilities and decoding skill. The central question addressed whether dyslexic readers are impaired in their perception of timing, as assessed by sensitivity to rhythm. Participants were college-level adult dyslexic and normal readers. The dyslexic adults evidenced generalized impairment in temporal processing: they were less accurate and slower than normal readers when required to detect the temporal gap that differentiated pairs of patterns. Impairment was greatest when processing visual syllables. Temporal pattern processing correlated to decoding ability only among normal readers. It is suggested that high-functioning dyslexics may cope with temporal processing problems by adopting a predominantly holistic, orthographic strategy when decoding. It is proposed that there may be cumulative effects of processing demands from different sources including modality, stimulus complexity, and linguistic demands, and that combinations of these may interact to impact temporal processing ability. Moreover, there may be fundamentally distinct and dissociable temporal processing abilities, each of which may be differently linked developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2001
    John Stein
    Abstract Low literacy is termed ,developmental dyslexia' when reading is significantly behind that expected from the intelligence quotient (IQ) in the presence of other symptoms,incoordination, left,right confusions, poor sequencing,that characterize it as a neurological syndrome. 5,10% of children, particularly boys, are found to be dyslexic. Reading requires the acquisition of good orthographic skills for recognising the visual form of words which allows one to access their meaning directly. It also requires the development of good phonological skills for sounding out unfamiliar words using knowledge of letter sound conversion rules. In the dyslexic brain, temporoparietal language areas on the two sides are symmetrical without the normal left-sided advantage. Also brain ,warts' (ectopias) are found, particularly clustered round the left temporoparietal language areas. The visual magnocellular system is responsible for timing visual events when reading. It therefore signals any visual motion that occurs if unintended movements lead to images moving off the fovea (,retinal slip'). These signals are then used to bring the eyes back on target. Thus, sensitivity to visual motion seems to help determine how well orthographic skill can develop in both good and bad readers. In dyslexics, the development of the visual magnocellular system is impaired: development of the magnocellular layers of the dyslexic lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is abnormal; their motion sensitivity is reduced; many dyslexics show unsteady binocular fixation; hence poor visual localization, particularly on the left side (left neglect). Dyslexics' binocular instability and visual perceptual instability, therefore, can cause the letters they are trying to read to appear to move around and cross over each other. Hence, blanking one eye (monocular occlusion) can improve reading. Thus, good magnocellular function is essential for high motion sensitivity and stable binocular fixation, hence proper development of orthographic skills. Many dyslexics also have auditory/phonological problems. Distinguishing letter sounds depends on picking up the changes in sound frequency and amplitude that characterize them. Thus, high frequency (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) sensitivity helps the development of good phonological skill, and low sensitivity impedes the acquisition of these skills. Thus dyslexics' sensitivity to FM and AM is significantly lower than that of good readers and this explains their problems with phonology. The cerebellum is the head ganglion of magnocellular systems; it contributes to binocular fixation and to inner speech for sounding out words, and it is clearly defective in dyslexics. Thus, there is evidence that most reading problems have a fundamental sensorimotor cause. But why do magnocellular systems fail to develop properly? There is a clear genetic basis for impaired development of magnocells throughout the brain. The best understood linkage is to the region of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class 1 on the short arm of chromosome 6 which helps to control the production of antibodies. The development of magnocells may be impaired by autoantibodies affecting the developing brain. Magnocells also need high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids to preserve the membrane flexibility that permits the rapid conformational changes of channel proteins which underlie their transient sensitivity. But the genes that underlie magnocellular weakness would not be so common unless there were compensating advantages to dyslexia. In developmental dyslexics there may be heightened development of parvocellular systems that underlie their holistic, artistic, ,seeing the whole picture' and entrepreneurial talents. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A generalized conditional intensity measure approach and holistic ground-motion selection

    Brendon A. Bradley
    Abstract A generalized conditional intensity measure (GCIM) approach is proposed for use in the holistic selection of ground motions for any form of seismic response analysis. The essence of the method is the construction of the multivariate distribution of any set of ground-motion intensity measures conditioned on the occurrence of a specific ground-motion intensity measure (commonly obtained from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis). The approach therefore allows any number of ground-motion intensity measures identified as important in a particular seismic response problem to be considered. A holistic method of ground-motion selection is also proposed based on the statistical comparison, for each intensity measure, of the empirical distribution of the ground-motion suite with the ,target' GCIM distribution. A simple procedure to estimate the magnitude of potential bias in the results of seismic response analyses when the ground-motion suite does not conform to the GCIM distribution is also demonstrated. The combination of these three features of the approach make it entirely holistic in that: any level of complexity in ground-motion selection for any seismic response analysis can be exercised; users explicitly understand the simplifications made in the selected suite of ground motions; and an approximate estimate of any bias associated with such simplifications is obtained. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Seeing America,diary of a drug-focused study tour made in 1967

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Griffith Edwards
    ABSTRACT In 1965 the British government was forced to admit that the country had an escalating heroin problem, with the supply coming mainly from prescribing by private practitioners. Within the official responses to what was seen at that time as a very worrying public health situation was the decision to fund the setting-up of the Addiction Research Unit (ARU) at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) generously sponsored a study tour for the nominated director of the ARU shortly before the opening of the British research centre. Extensive contemporaneous diary notes of a visit included contact with administrators, researchers, clinicians, parish priests, narcotic agents and addicts themselves. From a mass of often conflicting advice, some insights could be derived. In particular, these included the need for an awareness of any country's way of dealing with drug problems as a dynamic, multi-factorial total system,a holistic ,national response'. A further conclusion was to see policy itself as a complex subject for analysis: drug policy should be as much an issue for research as drug taking. Besides these broad conclusions, the experience provided many specific leads to development of a British addiction research programme, and fostered professional friendships of immeasurable worth. [source]

    Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education

    Mark Mason
    Abstract Following a brief introduction to complexity theory, this paper considers how various themes in the field relate to the philosophical study of education. Issues and questions introduced include the challenge of complexity theory for the philosophy of education,and, conversely, some critical challenges for complexity theory from educational philosophy; complexity theory and educational continuity and change; the importance that complexity theory places on interpretive perspectives that are transphenomenal, transdisciplinary and transdiscursive; the risks of simplifying complexity to a point that excludes its ambiguities and includes only its dominant usages; the degree of coherence between Dewey's philosophical orientation and that of complexity theory; how Foucault might be read as a complexity theorist; how educational research informed by complexity theory might ask different questions with different analytical perspectives,connectionist, holistic, non-linear, rather than input,output ,black-box' causal modelling, for example; and how curriculum, teaching, the epistemology of schooling, and the ,education of consciousness',understood s an emergent phenomenon,might be different when viewed from the perspective of complexity theory. [source]

    Justice in River Management: Community Perceptions from the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

    Mick Hillman
    Abstract Dealing with differing and sometimes conflicting criteria for priority-setting is an essential part of sustainable natural resource management. However, all too often, these ethical and political considerations are neglected within a planning regime based upon apparently ,objective' biophysical assessment techniques. Input into associated decision-making processes is also frequently restricted to a narrow range of ,stakes' based upon historical and geographic circumstances. This paper reports on the findings of interviews and discussion groups in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, which aimed to canvass the diversity of perceptions of distributive and procedural justice in river rehabilitation. A range of biophysical and social criteria for setting priorities in rehabilitation work was identified. Participants also had differing ideas on the composition of decision-making bodies and on decision-making processes. The key implications of these findings are that sustainable river management policy needs to openly address differing conceptions of justice and that rehabilitation practice should be holistic, transdisciplinary and concerned with both outcome and process. [source]

    A holistic and integrated approach to the understanding of biogeochemistry

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Mary Scholes
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    An emotive subject: insights from social, voluntary and healthcare professionals into the feelings of family carers for people with mental health problems,

    Ben Gray BA PhD Senior Research Fellow CCCU
    Abstract Caring for people with mental health problems can generate a whole range of positive and negative emotions, including fear, disbelief, guilt and chaos as well as a sense of purpose, pride and achievement. This paper explores the emotions of family carers from the perspectives of social, voluntary and healthcare professionals. Sixty-five participants were interviewed, the sample included directors, managers and senior staff from social, voluntary and healthcare organisations. Participants were encouraged to talk in detail about their understanding of the emotions of family carers. Findings highlight a rich understanding of the broad spectrum of carer emotions and the huge emotional adjustments that are often involved. Diagnosis was seen to be imbued with negative emotions, such as fear, anger and denial. However, feelings of hopelessness and desolation were often counterbalanced by feelings of hope, satisfaction and the emotional rewards of caring for a loved one. Participants noted a clear lack of emotional support for family carers, with accompanying feelings of marginalisation, particularly during transitions and especially involving young carers as well as ethnic minorities. By way of contrast, carer support groups were suggested by professionals to be a holistic, effective and economical way of meeting carers' emotional needs. This paper explores the challenge of family carer emotions from the perspective of managers and practitioners and draws out implications for research, policy and practice. [source]

    Effect of unitization on associative recognition in amnesia

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 3 2007
    Joel R. Quamme
    Abstract We examined how associative recognition performance in amnesic patients is mediated by use of a unitized (i.e., holistic) encoding strategy, and the degree to which the unitization effect is related to sparing of familiarity-based recognition. Participants studied word pairs as either separate lexical units in sentences (i.e., nonunitized) or as compounds (unitized). Under standard recognition instructions, normal controls and patients with left-temporal lobe damage (previously determined to have impairments in both recollection and familiarity) showed no difference for unitized and nonunitized pairs, whereas hypoxics (previously determined to have impaired recollection but relatively preserved familiarity) showed an advantage of unitized over nonunitized pairs. This effect was reproduced in normal healthy participants under instructions to restrict responses to judgments of familiarity. The results indicate that unitization may mediate the degree of associative recognition impairment exhibited by some amnesic patients, and that the effect is related to preserved familiarity capacity. The relevance of the results to the debate over the importance of the hippocampus in memory for associations is discussed. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    End-to-end response time with fixed priority scheduling: trajectory approach versus holistic approach

    Steven Martin
    Abstract In this paper, we are interested in providing deterministic end-to-end guarantees to real-time flows in a distributed system. We focus on the end-to-end response time, quality of service (QoS) parameter of the utmost importance for such flows. We assume that each node uses a Fixed Priority scheduling. We determine a bound on the end-to-end response time of any real-time flow with a worst case analysis using the trajectory approach. We establish new results that we compare with those provided by the classical holistic approach for flows visiting the same sequence of nodes. These results show that the trajectory approach is less pessimistic than the holistic one. Moreover, the bound provided by our worst-case analysis is reached in various configurations, as shown in the examples presented. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mirror exposure for the treatment of body image disturbance

    Sherrie Selwyn Delinsky PhD
    Abstract Objective Body image disturbance is a risk factor for the development and persistence of eating disorders. Limitations of current treatments for body image disturbance prompted the development of a mirror exposure (ME) treatment. Method ME involves deliberate, planned, and systematic exposure to body image. The approach is nonjudgmental, holistic in focus, and mindful of present emotional experience. Complementary behavioral assignments aim to reduce avoidance and excessive checking. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of ME therapy (in a three-session format) compared with a nondirective (ND) therapy for 45 women with extreme weight and shape concerns. Results ME resulted in significant improvements at termination and follow-up in body checking and avoidance, weight and shape concerns, body dissatisfaction, dieting, depression, and self-esteem. As hypothesized, ME was significantly better than ND on many of the outcome measures. Conclusion ME is an effective treatment for body image disturbance and should be evaluated in the context of treatments for eating disorders. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Human security and human rights interaction

    Wolfgang Benedek
    This contribution analyses the interaction of human rights and human security. First, the author explains the emergence and conceptualisation of human security. By taking into account the actions on both research and policy levels and the human security initiatives by international organisations, such as UNESCO, by governments, NGOs and academia, the contribution sheds light on the potential of a multilayered and multi-player approach to human security. In a second step the author identifies the interrelation and interdependence of human security and human rights. The results of this more theoretical part are then empirically tested in a case study on the interaction of human security and human rights, with a particular focus on the implementation of a human security approach to the right of education. Further, the contribution identifies human security-related best practices. The conclusion argues that, in light of the interdependence of human rights and human security a more holistic and integrative approach is necessary. Their international dimension needs to be complemented by a local focus on human security and human rights. An important step towards this goal is the integration, by states, of human security in national human rights learning curricula. [source]

    Effectiveness and Appropriateness of Therapeutic Play Intervention in Preparing Children for Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    Ho Cheung William Li
    PURPOSE.,This paper aims to examine the effectiveness and appropriateness of using therapeutic play in preparing children for surgery. DESIGN/METHOD.,A randomized controlled trial was employed. Children (7,12 years of age; n = 203) admitted for surgery during a 13-month period were recruited. RESULTS.,The results support the effectiveness and appropriateness of using therapeutic play in preparing children for surgery. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,The study results promote awareness in nurses and parents that play is a very important part of children's lives, and heighten the importance of integrating therapeutic play as an essential component of holistic and quality nursing care to prepare children for surgery. [source]

    Lived Experiences of Mothers Caring for Children With Thalassemia Major in Thailand

    Suksiri Prasomsuk
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE.,Thalassemic patients must be given continuous treatment throughout their lives due to the physical and psychological effects of their disorder; their families also are impacted. This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of 15 mothers of children with thalassemia major by conducting semistructured interviews; the data were analyzed utilizing content analysis. CONCLUSION.,Six themes were identified: lack of knowledge about thalassemia, psychosocial problems, concerns for the future, social support systems, financial difficulty, and the effectiveness of healthcare services. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,These findings suggest that a holistic, culturally sensitive nursing approach should be considered when caring for children with thalassemia. [source]

    Occupational health and school health: a natural alliance?

    Emma Croghan BSc RGN RSCN MPH
    Background., The United Kingdom National Health Service aims to provide a holistic ,cradle to grave' service. In order to achieve this, systems are in place for effective communication between providers of services for babies and children. However, when children leave school, communication between the school health services and workplace health services to protect and promote the health of the new workforce is rare. Working together is a commonly-stated rhetoric of contemporary nursing theory, but often this is not applied in practice. School health and occupational health have similar aims and objectives and, by working together, may be able to improve the health of large populations for a lifetime. Aim., This paper aims to examine the similarities in principles and practices between school health and occupational health nurses, and to identify areas of overlap in which collaboration could improve care for clients of both services. Discussion., The paper examines the nature of nursing in occupational and school settings, and similarities and differences in policy, law and principles. It also examines these two areas of practice within a public health framework, looking for areas of overlap. A basis is suggested for collaborative working between the two areas, and barriers, facilitators and benefits of this practice are examined. Conclusion., We conclude that there does exist a natural alliance between occupational and school health nursing, and that the two should work together to provide continuity of care for clients on leaving school, and to prepare children and young people for the workplace and any special health issues in their chosen careers. [source]

    Evidence for individualistic species assembly creating convergent predator:prey ratios among pond invertebrate communities

    Michael J. Jeffries
    summary 1,Predator,:,prey ratios are cited as examples of a community level pattern, which suggests underlying assembly rules. Consistent ratios may result from either holistic community interactions or individualistic species assembly. This study tested for evidence of holistic or individualistic explanations for the predator : prey ratios among invertebrate communities of temporary ponds. 2,Macroinvertebrate species were recorded from 30 adjacent experimental ponds, in January and early summer over 4 years. After the first 2 years either additional predatory or prey taxa were added to treatment ponds to skew the natural predator : prey ratios. Species richness and ratios were monitored for the following 2 years comparing treatment ponds subject to augmented predator or prey richness against unmanipulated control ponds. 3,The majority of species added to treatments established in their respective ponds initially creating unusually high or low predator : prey ratios. In the 2 years following manipulation the ratios in treatment and control ponds converged. The convergence resulted from the spread of the additional species across all the ponds rather than acquisition or extinction of species within treatment ponds compensating for the skewed ratios. 4,Convergent predator : prey ratios resulted from the spread of the augmented local species pool across the site rather than holistic community level adjustment within separate ponds. The results support individualistic models of community assembly as the explanation for convergent predator : prey ratios in pond habitats. [source]

    Assessing the merits and faults of holistic and disaggregated judgments

    Hal R. Arkes
    Abstract Three studies explored both the advantages of and subjects' preferences for a disaggregated judgment procedure and a holistic one. The task in our first two studies consisted of evaluating colleges; the third study asked participants to evaluate job applicants. Holistic ratings consisted of providing an overall evaluation while considering all of the characteristics of the evaluation objects; disaggregated ratings consisted of evaluating each cue independently. Participants also made paired comparisons of the evaluation objects. We constructed preference orders for the disaggregated method by aggregating these ratings (unweighted or weighted characteristics). To compare the holistic, disaggregated, and weighted-disaggregated method we regressed the four cues on the participant's holistic rating, on the linearly aggregated disaggregated ratings, and on the average weighted disaggregated rating, using the participant's "importance points" for each cue as weights. Both types of combined disaggregated ratings related more closely to the cues in terms of proportion of variance accounted for in Experiments 1 and 2. In addition, the disaggregated ratings were more closely related to the paired-comparison orderings, but Experiment 2 showed that this was true for a small set (10) but not a large set (60) of evaluation objects. Experiment 3 tested the "gamesmanship" hypothesis: People prefer holistic ratings because it is easier to incorporate illegitimate but appealing criteria into one's judgment. The results suggested that the disaggregated procedure generally produced sharper distinctions between the most relevant and least relevant cues. Participants in all three of these studies preferred the holistic ratings despite their statistical inferiority. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparing holistic and disaggregated ratings in the evaluation of scientific presentations

    Hal R. Arkes
    Abstract The National Institutes of Health refused to switch to disaggregated ratings as a method for evaluating proposals, because no contest between disaggregated and holistic ratings had ever used scientific materials as the to-be-rated stimuli. We designed two studies to fill this research void. Participants rated scientific convention presentations either using a holistic procedure in which one overall rating was given or a disaggregated procedure in which one rating was given to each of five criteria. In four of the six convention sessions the disaggregated ratings led to higher inter-rater reliability than did the holistic ratings; three of these differences were statistically significant. The inter-rater reliabilities between the two types of ratings collapsed across all sessions differed significantly. In a second experiment, participants rated posters using either disaggregated or holistic ratings. The disaggregated ratings again led to higher inter-rater reliability, but not significantly so. In 35 of the 43 sessions in which disaggregated and holistic ratings were compared, the variance of the disaggregated ratings was smaller. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Random error reduction in analytic hierarchies: a comparison of holistic and decompositional decision strategies

    Osvaldo F. Morera
    Abstract The principle of ,divide and conquer' (DAC) suggests that complex decision problems should be decomposed into smaller, more manageable parts, and that these parts should be logically aggregated to derive an overall value for each alternative. Decompositional procedures have been contrasted with holistic evaluations that require decision makers to simultaneously consider all the relevant attributes of the alternatives under consideration (Fischer, 1977). One area where decompositional procedures have a clear advantage over holistic procedures is in the reduction of random error (Ravinder, 1992; Ravinder and Kleinmuntz, 1991; Kleinmuntz, 1990). Adopting the framework originally developed by Ravinder and colleagues, this paper details the results of a study of the random error variances associated with another popular multi-criteria decision-making technique, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); (Saaty, 1977, 1980), as well as the random error variances of a holistic version of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (Jensen, 1983). In addition, data concerning various psychometric properties (e.g. the convergent validity and temporal stability) and values of AHP inconsistency are reported for both the decompositional and holistic evaluations. The results of the study show that the Ravinder and Kleinmuntz (1991) error-propagation framework extends to the AHP and decompositional AHP judgments are more consistent than their holistic counterparts. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    SOX 404 and ERM: Perfect partners , or not?

    Jeffrey C. Thomson
    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) Section 404 regulations and guidance have had a large impact on the adoption of enterprise risk management (ERM) in the United States. In the short run, SOX 404 has impeded the adoption of risk-based approaches because of its rules that are totally counter to a holistic, risk-based approach. In the longer run, SOX provides an opportunity for even faster adoption of ERM,but only if there is more radical thinking on the part of regulators and practitioners alike in training, education, and certification of this body of knowledge. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Cosmetic use of polylactic acid: report of 568 patients

    Alessio Redaelli MD
    Summary Background, There are few methods for the correction of the reduction of subcutaneous volumes. Polylactic acid is a new material with which we can achieve interesting results. Objective, To review our case histories in the assessment of this material's safety and effectiveness, its best indications, and to outline our technique. Materials and Method, Polylactic acid was prepared and diluted with 5,8 mL depending on injection sites, which included patients' face, neck and hands volume restoration, as well as arm and thigh revitalization. A total of 568 patients were treated from January 1999 to December 2007. Results, The Definitive Graduated Score varied from 6.3 to 8.4 with an average score of 7.8. The principal side effect, collagen late nodules, appeared with a very low frequency (1%) and were the result of incorrect technique. Conclusions, The fibro-connective restoration of face contours and volumes is the winning strategy for a holistic, three-dimensional approach to the aged face, neck, and hands. Since the introduction of certified courses, side effects have become less common than in other methods, and can probably be further reduced to a minimum. [source]

    ICF-CY: A Universal Tool for Documentation of Disability

    Rune J. Simeonsson
    Abstract The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health,ICF (ICF-CY) conceptual framework offers a new paradigm and taxonomy of human functioning disability, which can be used to guide holistic and interdisciplinary approaches to assessment and intervention. In settings serving children, youth, or adults with disabilities, the ICF-CY can provide comprehensive documentation of its involvement in special education and rehabilitation. Implementation of the ICF-CY in early intervention, special education, and habilitation settings should build on the adoption of the dimensional framework for practice and corresponding applications in assessment and intervention practices. An important priority in such applications is the identification and development of instruments and assessment tools that can provide evidence for assigning severity levels to ICF-CY codes. [source]

    Patients' experiences of psychosis in an inpatient setting

    The aim of this report was to describe patients' experiences of psychosis in an inpatient setting. Mental illness, as a result of psychosis, has traditionally been defined from the viewpoint of clinical experts. Psychiatric nursing, as an interactive human activity, is more concerned with the development of the person than with the origins or causes of their present distress. Therefore, psychiatric nursing is based on eliciting personal experiences and assisting the person to reclaim her/his inner wisdom and power. The design of the study, in the report discussed below, was phenomenological. In 1998, nine patients were interviewed regarding their experiences of psychosis in an acute inpatient setting. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. The participants experienced psychosis as an uncontrollable sense of self, which included feelings of change and a loss of control over one's self with emotional distress and physical pain. The participants described the vulnerability they had felt whilst having difficult and strange psychological feelings. The informants experienced both themselves and others sensitively, considered their family and friends important and meaningful, and found it difficult to manage their daily lives. Furthermore, the informants experienced the onset of illness as situational, the progress of illness as holistic and exhaustive, and the admission into treatment as difficult, but inevitable. [source]

    A Model for Mapping Linkages Between Health and Education Agencies to Improve School Health

    Lawrence St. Leger
    ABSTRACT: Efforts to develop effective and sustainable school health programs evolved in sophistication the past 20 years through research and practical experience. This paper reviews these developments, arguing they were significantly driven by public health priorities, and have not adequately accounted for educational perspectives and priorities. To better understand the differences in perspective, a model is presented which illustrates linkages between different school-based inputs and strategies, and long-term health and educational outcomes. The model describes similarities and differences between the two perspectives. A significant coincidence exists in factors that determine educational attainment and improved health outcomes for students. A more holistic and integrated approach to school health is emerging, and at these interfaces our implementation and research efforts for the 21st century should be concentrated. [source]