Higher Education System (higher + education_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Mark Considine
In this essay, Mark Considine argues that the prospect of such changes requires us to reflect carefully upon the theoretical and normative underpinnings of universities and to delineate the structures and processes through which they might seek to negotiate their identities. Considine re-theorizes the university as a higher education system composed by distinctions and networks acting through an important class of boundary objects. He moves beyond an environmental analysis, asserting that systems are best theorized as cultural practices based upon actors making and protecting important kinds of distinctions. Thus, the university system must be investigated as a knowledge-based binary for dividing knowledge from other things. This approach, in turn, produces an identity-centering (cultural) model of the system that assumes universities must perform two different acts of distinction to exist: first, they must distinguish themselves from other systems (such as the economy, organized religion, and the labor market), and, second, they must operate successfully in a chosen resource environment. Ultimately, Considine argues that while environmental problems (such as cuts in government grants) may generate periodic crises, threats within identities produce emergencies generating a radical kind of problematic for actor networks. [source]

Europe and the Crisis in Scientific Vocations

During the 1990s, the number of students enrolling in science subjects at universities was declining each year in Germany, France, Italy, amongst other countries. These decreases are too readily attributed to a general disaffection caused by the image that younger generations have of scientific studies: they are seen as being the most ,difficult'. This explanation is true but not sufficient. Over and above the similarities that can be seen between European countries , which stem from the fact that they are simultaneously experiencing strong growth in and democratisation of their student populations ,, profound differences continue to exist, resulting in apparently similar effects, but with very different causes. Not only do higher education structures taken as a whole remain very different despite the Bologna process, but more fundamentally, the very meaning of the higher education system within each national society, its relationship with employment, and its position in individuals' personal career paths all vary. A comparison between Germany, Italy and France shows three ideal types of relationship between training and employment and three ways of explaining symptoms that appear similar. [source]

The Transformation of Higher Education in Israel since the 1990s: The Role of Ideas and Policy Paradigms

GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2008
GILA MENAHEMArticle first published online: 22 SEP 200
This article examines the transformation of Israel's higher education system since the 1990s. During that period, the system underwent expansion, diversification, privatization, and internationalization in a series of pathbreaking reforms. The main argument is that while external factors,such as demographic trends,exerted pressure for change, the trajectory and policy options preferred were shaped by ideational factors. Policy entrepreneurs played a crucial role in advancing pathbreaking institutional change when they reframed policies through linking cognitive ideas of "what has to be done" with the normative ideas that granted legitimacy to the proposals for reform. [source]

Occupational Knowledge and Practice amongst UK University Research Administrators

John Hockey
With the exception of lecturing staff, research on occupational groups and cultures within the UK higher education system is relatively sparse. This paper focuses upon one specialist group, to-date under-researched but which plays a central role in contemporary higher education administration: graduate research administrators. This occupational group is of particular interest as its members administer and manage an increasing complex and key area of university life, which in many cases appears to span the putative occupational divide between ,academic' and ,administrative' work. Based upon qualitative interviews with 27 research administrators, and using some of Bourdieu's conceptual devices, the paper analyses particular kinds of informal occupational knowledge and practice, necessary in order effectively to ,do' the complex task of research administration in the pressurized environment of contemporary British higher education. [source]

Policy Drivers in UK Higher Education in Historical Perspective: ,Inside Out', ,Outside In' and the Contribution of Research

Michael Shattock
Where have been the main policy drivers for the development of British higher education over the last 50 years? This article argues that while higher education policy was once driven from the inside outwards, from the late 1970s it has been driven exclusively from the outside inwards. Policy decisions under either regime were rarely driven by research findings especially from within the higher education community. The current imbalance between ,inside-out' and ,outside-in' policy formation is paradoxically most apparent when the higher education system has a more widely diversified funding base than at any time since the 1930s. The key policy challenge is now not what new policies are needed but what new framework should be developed for policy making. [source]

The roles of science and technology in energy and environment research and development

Ibrahim Dincer
Abstract Countries are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of science and technology in relation to national development and the necessity of formulating a concise science and technology policy. The need to strengthen and orient the scientific and technological infrastructure in line with national development goals, through more effective use of an available qualified work force and the higher education system, is becoming widely recognized. Consequently, appropriate methods of assessing the impact of science and technology on national development are needed so that efforts are concentrated on areas potentially having substantial impacts. Numerous planning studies have been undertaken to this end, particularly by international organizations such as UNESCO, UNIDO, OECD and IEA. This study examines the inter-relationships of the disciplines of science and technology with energy and environment research and development (R&D) activities, particularly for developing countries. The connections between these topics are discussed along with some basic methods that can be used to exploit the relations. Some illustrative examples are presented. It is anticipated that the present study will serve as a preliminary step for more comprehensive work by providing an example of the utilization of formal methods in formulating science and technology policy for energy and environment R&D. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Internationalisation, Diversity and the Humanities Curriculum: Cosmopolitanism and Multiculturalism Revisited

This article stages a dialogue between cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism in order to think through what is at stake in demands that universities should produce graduates who are sensitive to social diversity and attuned to the contemporary realities of globalisation. The argument is that, although ,graduate attributes' are no doubt an effective management tool in a massified higher education system, they can also be used to focus attention on what dispositions it is reasonable and desirable to expect graduates to develop. The arguments about cosmopolitanism of Jeremy Waldron and Martha Nussbaum are considered. [source]

The Role of Education in Economic Growth in East Asia: a survey

Risti Permani
This paper surveys the literature on the links between education and economic growth in East Asia. It finds that education is important for economic growth but it is not a sufficient condition. The complementarity between education and other factors in enhancing productivity and efficiency is commonly seen as the driving force of economic growth. However, the empirical evidence is ambiguous due to econometric problems. Statistical analysis suggests that education and economic growth in East Asia have two-way causality. Nevertheless, valuing education has been a widely-accepted part of Asian values. As a result, education consistently presents as a significant income determinant and consequentially a growth factor, regardless of whether education can increase productivity. East Asian education systems are also formed and extended in close relation to the stages of their economic development: the higher the level of economic development, the greater the demand for better and higher education systems. [source]