Higher Education Institutions (higher + education_institution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Education

Selected Abstracts

Describing online learning content to facilitate resource discovery and sharing:the development of the RU LOM Core

G. E. Krull
Abstract The development of Internet technologies has the ability to provide a new era of easily accessible and personalised learning, facilitated through the flexible deployment of small, reusable pieces of digital learning content over networks. Higher education institutions can share and reuse digital learning resources in order to improve their educational offerings. Descriptive language (known as metadata) is required to facilitate the search and retrieval of learning content. Various research offerings have been proposed to promote interoperable educational metadata. However, current metadata standards cannot accommodate the requirements of every community of users. This paper describes the development of an educational metadata application profile for describing learning resources within a South African higher education context. [source]

Employers, Quality and Standards in Higher Education: Shared Values and Vocabularies or Elitism and Inequalities?

Louise Morley
This paper is based on a research project funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England which investigated employers' needs for information on higher education quality and standards. A key issue was identifying the type of knowledge that employers utilise in graduate recruitment. A finding of the study was that information on quality and standards was being used by some employers in a way that could undermine equity and widening participation initiatives. Whereas employers reported that, in initial recruitment, they placed least emphasis on information about quality and standards and most emphasis on graduates' interpersonal and communication skills, over a quarter used league tables/Top 20 lists in their decision-making processes and 80 per cent of employers cited the importance of the reputation of the higher education institution in their decision making about marketing and individual recruitment of graduates. Reputation was based on real or imagined league tables, ,grapevine' knowledge, personal, regional and professional networks, performance of past graduates and prejudice against new universities. The hierarchy of opportunity within the labour market often appeared to correspond to a highly stratified higher education sector. [source]

IUSAM-APdeBA: A higher education institute for psychoanalytic training

Hector Ferrari
The history of the last century shows the almost constant presence of psychoanalysis in the academic setting and, simultaneously, the incredible absence of analytic training at the universities. This paper outlines the project of the Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association (APdeBA) to create a higher education institution of its own (IUSAM) specifically aimed at lodging psychoanalytic training within a university setting. The project was approved by the Argentine educational authorities in 2005 and received the economic support of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA). The academic structure of the university is described, whose goal is broadened to the interdisciplinary field of mental health with psychoanalysis as an integrating axis. Some of the characteristics of the traditional ,university model' as well as its relationship with psychoanalysis are pointed out. With the IUSAM, psychoanalytic training is not included as a part of an already established university, it rather creates a new one, with the support of a well-known psychoanalytical association (APdeBA) which endorses its activities and guarantees its identity. IPA's requirements for analytic training (didactic analysis, supervisions and seminars) have been fully preserved in this new context. Finally, some of the advantages and disadvantages of including analytic training into an academic environment are listed. [source]

The use of interactive video in teaching teachers: an evaluation of a link with a primary school

Heather Kinnear
This paper presents an evaluation of the use of videoconferencing in learning and teaching in a United Kingdom higher education institution involved in initial teacher education. Students had the opportunity to observe naturalistic teaching practices without physically being present in the classroom. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with the co-ordinator of the link, the head of ICT services in Stranmillis University College and the teacher of the classroom being observed. Students were invited to complete an online questionnaire. The views of the students, the co-ordinator of the link, the teacher of the classroom being observed and the head of ICT services in Stranmillis University College were then triangulated to gain an overall view of the effectiveness of the videoconferencing link. Interviews suggested students benefited in terms of pedagogy. In the early stages of the project, the teacher thought it acted as a form of classroom control. Technical problems were encountered initially and camera control was modified in the light of these. The online questionnaire suggested that students viewed this experience in a positive way and were impressed with the content, technical quality, and potential benefits of the use of this example of new technologies. [source]

Investigating Academic Success Factors for Undergraduate Business Students

Mehdi Kaighobadi
ABSTRACT Student academic performance is of major interest to all stakeholders of higher education institutions. This study questions whether or not statistical analysis of information that is readily available in most universities' official records system can be used to predict overall academic success. In particular, this study is an attempt to understand factors that affect academic success for business students by examining gender, age, ethnicity, and performance in two required core knowledge courses as predictors of academic success for a large sample of undergraduate students at a Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business,accredited business school. The results suggest that student performance is significantly related to some basic demographic variables, but the strongest predictors of overall academic success are the grades the students receive in core knowledge courses that are typically taken in the earlier semesters of business students' plans of study. [source]

Changes in the Management of Doctoral Education

This article deals with the current reform of European doctoral education. It is argued that the concrete results of the reform can be better understood by analysing changes in the management of doctoral programmes. This rests on the case study of a Norwegian PhD programme in finance and is based on an analytical framework composed of three public management narratives: New Public Management (NPM), Network Governance (NG) and Neo-Weberian-State (NWS). The latter allows for a particular focus on the instruments, actors and objectives of governance. The article concludes that the examined doctoral programme's management story can be divided into two episodes. The first , the ,internationalisation' episode , is shaped by the academic profession in finance which uses a wide range of constraining NPM instruments and applies them in a comprehensive manner to doctoral education in order to achieve its overall objective, namely to implement an internationally competitive PhD programme. The second , the ,integration' episode , is about a recently developed policy instrument with relatively non-constraining NWS elements, used by the State to establish National Research Schools. The latter are principally aimed at the better development and coordination of doctoral training between small and large higher education institutions. Due to those differences between the two episodes in terms of constraining character and scope, the reform of the examined doctoral programme is strongly shaped by the first episode. Hence, the reform essentially consists in a doctoral programme with an international and academic character. [source]

Funding Allocation and Staff Management.

A Portuguese Example
For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established standard staff/student ratios. This article analyses the evolution of staff numbers in Portuguese public universities to assess how successful the funding formula has been in forcing convergence to standard staff numbers. [source]

The Creation of a Vocational Sector in Swiss Higher Education: balancing trends of system differentiation and integration

Juan-Francisco Perellon
The article discusses the establishment of a vocational sector in Swiss higher education as a complement to the existing two-tier system of cantonal Universities and federal Institutes of technology. The origins of this new player, its missions and organisational features are discussed. This overall discussion is placed into the context of changing landscape of Swiss higher education policy characterised by increasing pressures for geographical reorganisation of the higher education sector under the auspices of a more direct role of the federal government. The article makes two points. First, it argues that the creation of a vocational sector in Swiss higher education combines two contradictory trends. On the one hand, this new sector tends to provide differentiation at the system level, through the creation of a new, more marked-oriented sector of higher education. On the other hand, system differentiation at the system level is threatened by increased demands for greater inter-institutional cooperation and system integration, emanating principally from the federal level. Second, the article also argues that the distinction between ,academic/scientific' vs. ,vocational/professional' education generally referred to when studying the emergence of non-university sectors in higher education, is not pertinent for the analysis of the Swiss case. Two reasons are brought forward to sustain this argument. First, this distinction reinforces an artificial binary divide, no longer relevant to assess the evolution of higher education institutions placed in a context of academic and vocational drifts. Second, the ,academic' vs. ,professional' opposition does not take into consideration the political organisation of the country and how this impacts on policy making in higher education; a crucial element in the Swiss context. [source]

The Invisible (Inaudible) Woman: Nursing in the English Academy

Liz Meerabeau
Nursing is numerically a far larger academic discipline than medicine, and is situated in many more higher education institutions in England (over 50), whereas there are 21 medical schools. Like the rest of ,non medical education and training' it is purchased through a quasi-market. Despite the size of this market, however, nursing education has until recently been largely invisible in policy documents and the ambitions of nursing academics to develop their subject are seen as inappropriate. This article explores this invisibility and inaudibility, with particular reference to the 1997 Richards Report, Clinical Academic Careers and the 2001 Nuffield Trust report, A New Framework for NHS/University Relations. It draws on the work of Davies on the ,professional predicament' of nursing, to argue that, although the move of nursing education into higher education had the aim of improving its status, nursing has difficulty finding its voice within academia. As a result, issues which are salient for nursing (as for many of the health professions), such as a poor (or relatively poor) showing in the Research Assessment Exercise and the complexities of balancing research, teaching and maintaining clinical competence, are raised as high-profile issues only in medicine. [source]

Stratification in Higher Education, Choice and Social Inequalities in Greece

Eleni Sianou-Kyrgiou
Higher education has expanded to a remarkable extent in many countries in recent decades. Although this has led to high levels of participation, inequalities not only persist but are also strengthened. The persistence of inequalities is partly the result of policies for the widening of participation having been accompanied by institutional stratification with educational choices being unequal and socially defined. There is evidence that with the development of new university departments and the increase in the number of university entrants in Greece, a stratified system of higher education has emerged. This study draws on quantitative data that provides evidence that choice has been driven largely by the students' social class: the close relationship between social class and educational opportunities has remained intact. Furthermore, social inequalities in access and distribution in higher education persist, despite the substantial increase in participation in higher education. Social class is a key factor in the interpretation of choice of study, which, along with the performance in the national level examinations that determines entrance into universities, has also led to the increase in the stratification of higher education institutions. [source]

Not Enough Science or Not Enough Learning?

Exploring the Gaps between Leadership Theory, Practice
This paper addresses the relationships between leadership theory, practice and development, drawing on both the higher education and wider leadership literature. It explores why challenges and problems exist within the contested field of leadership theory and why gaps remain between theory and practice after more than a century of research , and indeed, with increasing levels of research, scholarship and development in the last 25 years. After highlighting the importance of context for theory, practice and development, the first section of the paper examines a range of factors that contribute to theoretical ,contests' including different starting assumptions made by researchers, the different focus of studies, examination of different causal links to explain leadership, differences in values and cultural lenses and different constructs, terminology and perspectives. The second section examines the challenges faced by leadership practitioners, as individuals, and through exercising leadership as a collective responsibility in the context of changing operating environments within higher education institutions and across sectors and countries. The author highlights three areas where some re-thinking of the links between theory and practice are necessary , at the input stage, linking research findings and recruitment practices; in terms of outcomes, by researching links between leaders, leadership and performance; and in process terms, to examine more deeply complex and relational dynamic of leadership in action. The third section offers a number of specific suggestions as to how closer alignment between theory, practice and development can be achieved. The paper concludes by arguing for greater maturity (in research, practice and development) that acknowledges that leadership is played out in complex, dynamic and changing social systems. A stronger emphasis on ,leadership learning' should deliver both better science and better outcomes for leaders and led in higher education. [source]

Enigmatic Variations: Honours Degree Assessment Regulations in the UK

Mantz Yorke
The debate in the UK about the continued existence of the honours degree classification led to a survey of the assessment regulations in 35 varied higher education institutions. This revealed considerable variation in the way in which honours degree classifications are determined, and also in the handling of weak performances by students. Such variability, deriving from a system in which institutional autonomy is to the fore, raises a question about equitability in the treatment of students. A brief allusion is made to the variability in assessment regulations in the US and Australia. [source]

The (Re)Location of Higher Education in England (Revisited)

Malcolm Tight
With nearly two million students and over 100 higher education institutions (HEIs) in a relatively small country, it might be thought that locational issues were not of much significance in English higher education. This paper argues to the contrary, by exploring the distribution of students (full-time and part-time, undergraduate and postgraduate) and HEIs at the level of regions, counties and urban areas. It is concluded that the distribution of higher education opportunities remains skewed and hierarchical. The implications of this for widening participation policy are considered. [source]

Targets and Tools in Dutch Access Policies

Frans Kaiser
In 2004 the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science set a concrete target: by 2010, close to 50% of the age cohort should participate in higher education, following the targets set in the UK and Sweden. However clear the target is set, the ways to achieve it are far less specified. In the article a number of possible instruments to achieve the target are discussed and their relevance in the Dutch context is analysed. It is concluded that there are a limited number of policy instruments available. However, given the devolution of access policy to the higher education institutions and the influence of broader societal trends on participation our expectations on what government can do to reach its target need to be modest. [source]

Collaboration with the Community to Widen Participation: ,Partners' without Power or Absent ,Friends'?

Kim SlackArticle first published online: 9 DEC 200
Current discourse around widening participation emphasises the importance of partnership and collaboration. For example, the Learning Skills Council and government policy all cite the need to adopt collaborative approaches to assist with widening participation and student progression. In 1998 the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) called for proposals for higher education institutions to build partnerships to widen participation. Successful partnership bids were subsequently funded for a period of one year initially and extended up to three years in total. One of the aims of the partnerships as outlined by the HEFCE was to address uneven rates of demand for higher education amongst certain socio-economic groups by working in collaboration with other organisations. This article focuses on one aspect of an evaluative research project examining collaboration resulting from the HEFCE initiative: the involvement of communities in developing partnerships. It examines their initial involvement and the extent to which they were then incorporated into ongoing partnerships and decision-making. Factors that mitigate against community involvement are discussed. It is concluded that although organizational and institutional links can be highly beneficial to realizing the objective of a widened base of involvement in HE there may be a sense in which the role of communities is either neglected, or worse, omitted. [source]

Mass Higher Education and the English: Wherein the Colleges?

Gareth Parry
One of the distinctive features of the English encounter with mass higher education has been the uncertain and ambiguous role of further education colleges as providers of undergraduate education. Both before and during the major expansion that marked the shift to a mass scale of higher education in England, the higher education offered by colleges in the further education sector was commonly regarded as a residual or ancillary activity; its courses mostly at levels below the first degree and its growth in numbers among the slowest in higher education. In the period that followed, these same colleges were accorded a special mission in the delivery of short-cycle undergraduate education and, through their involvement in foundation degrees, were expected to lead a large part of the expansion in future years. The elevation of this provision, from a zone of ,low' or no policy to one of ,high' policy, has coincided with a radical reform of the planning, funding and quality arrangements for post-compulsory education. Under conditions less than favourable to the achievement of their higher education goals, colleges remain the responsibility of one administrative sector and higher education institutions the responsibility of another. [source]

Gender Earnings Differentials Among College Administrators

James Monks
This analysis examines gender pay gap among the top five salaried individuals at private higher education institutions. We find a 13.0 percent average pay disadvantage for women versus men. This pay gap can be decomposed into a 10.4 percent differential owing to differences in the types of institutions and occupations that women hold relative to men and a 2.6 percent unexplained earnings differential. [source]

Globalisation, social policy and international standard-setting: the case of higher education credentials

Graham Room
Social policies are, to an increasing extent, shaped by international standards and regulations. This international standard-setting can be seen as an attempt to grapple with the challenges of globalisation. However, what is unclear is how far the pressures of globalisation and the processes of international standard-setting leave any scope for policy choice, whether at international, national or sub-national level. This paper focuses on the specific case of higher education. It argues that the development of international standards and the convergence of national standards must be understood by reference to the interests and strategies of various stake holders, including national governments, social elites and higher education institutions themselves. International markets and international standards are politically constructed and neither globalisation nor international standard-setting can be seen as inexorable and apolitical processes. [source]

Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice

BSc (Hons) Nurse Practitioner, CAROLINE WILLIAMS RN, Dip N, MSc (Nursing), PGCE (FE), PGCert (Facilitation & life-long learning)
williams c. (2010) Journal of Nursing Management 18, 624,632 Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice Aim, To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. Background, With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. Evaluation, The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Key issues, Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. Conclusions, A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. Implications for nursing management, To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. Contribution to New Knowledge, This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. [source]

The impact of state governance structures on management and performance of public organizations: A study of higher education institutions

Jack H. Knott
Legislative statutes are passed by political majorities which support structures that insulate the implementing agency from its political opponents over time. Political actors also respond to different constituencies. Depending on the broad or narrow base of these constituencies, actors favor different kinds of governance structures. We apply this theoretical framework to the question of whether the state governance structures of boards of higher education affect the way university managers allocate resources, develop sources of revenue, and promote research and undergraduate education. Over the past two decades state governments have given considerable attention to state governance issues, resulting in many universities operating in a more regulated setting today. This paper develops a classification of higher education structures and shows the effects of differences in these structures on university management and performance using a data set that covers the period from 1987 to 1998. The analysis suggests that, for most of the measures, productivity and resources are higher at universities with a statewide board that is more decentralized and has fewer regulatory powers. 2004 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]

The Role of Pre-collegiate Partnership Programs in Environments Ambivalent about Affirmative Action: Reflections and Outcomes from an Early Implementation

Geoffrey Maruyama
Preparing underrepresented students for college success though pre-collegiate partnership programs is one alternative to affirmative action programs. This article describes the Multicultural Excellence Program (MEP), a partnership program between an urban school district and 22 four-year higher education institutions. MEP, begun in 1987, targets 7th,12th-grade students from groups historically underrepresented in higher education. It helps them plan how to prepare themselves for continuing on to a four-year college. Analyses evaluating program effectiveness examined outcomes of over 4,000 secondary students and 243 college students. Despite substantial turnover, particularly at transition points, MEP has been very successful in enrolling its high school graduates immediately in four-year colleges. Although many MEP students have thrived in college, a smaller proportion has struggled. [source]

Resolution of student complaints in higher education institutions

LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 4 2007
Neville Harris
This paper examines the processes whereby students may bring complaints against higher education institutions. It stresses that a right to redress of grievance is fundamental to the relationship between students and universities. It focuses on internal complaints procedures and discusses the findings from a survey of a representative sample of institutions of which nearly two thirds (25 in total) responded with statistical and other data on the grounds of complaint, the ethnicity and other characteristics of complainants, and the outcome of adjudications. It reveals areas of commonality and divergence in practice and raises concerns about the fairness and accessibility of the procedures. The paper also includes discussion of the process for the external adjudication of student complaints established under the Higher Education Act 2004 and the way that complaints progress to it. The paper discusses the case for reform of higher education institutions' student complaints procedures, which are surprisingly unregulated, including the introduction of a more independent element such as ,campus ombudsmen'. [source]

Identifying challenges for academic leadership in medical universities in Iran

Ali Bikmoradi
Medical Education 2010: 44: 459,467 Context, The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. Objectives, This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. Methods, A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results, The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). Conclusions, This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance. [source]

Making sense of ethnography and medical education

Paul Atkinson
Objective, This paper aims to locate the ethnographic tradition in a socio-historical context. Method, In this paper we chart the history of the ethnographic tradition, explaining its roots and highlighting its value in enabling the ethnographic researcher to explore and make sense of the otherwise invisible aspects of cultural norms and practices. We discuss a number of studies that have provided detailed and context-sensitive accounts of the everyday life of medical schools, medical practitioners and medical students. We demonstrate how the methods of ethnographic fieldwork offer ,other ways of knowing' that can have a significant impact on medical education. Conclusions, The ethnographic research tradition in sociological and anthropological studies of educational settings is a significant one. Ethnographic research in higher education institutions is less common, but is itself a growing research strategy. [source]

Designing an Effective Concurrent Enrollment Program: A Focus on Quality of Instruction and Student Outcomes

Margaret Peterson
At Salt Lake Community College the concurrent enrollment department has structured a program that provides quality instruction for students by focusing on faculty development, and it creates a healthy partnership between public and higher education institutions. [source]

New definitions for new higher education institutions

Katrina A. Meyer
This chapter provides new definitions or descriptors for different types of virtual universities that have been proposed by several authors. [source]

Facilitating economic development through strategic alliances

John B. Noftsinger Jr
Economic development provides an opportunity for higher education institutions to collaborate on public service programs that contribute to national, regional, and community vitality. [source]

Using alumni research to align program improvement with institutional accountability

Victor M. H. Borden
This chapter uses a case study to develop a set of contexts and conditions for improving the alignment of purposes of alumni survey research within and across higher education institutions. [source]


Much recent scholarship concerning liberalization has emphasized the role of regulatees, rather than governments, in promoting liberalization. This article examines such scholarship in the light of an important development in the British and French public sectors,the creation of new agencies (the Education Counselling Service and EduFrance) to ,sell' British and French higher education to potential international students. The new agencies attempted to induce two things: competition amongst higher education institutions for the recruitment of international students from developed and emerging economy countries, and the commodification of these students. This article shows that, contrary to existing theories of liberalization, governments were pre-eminent in pushing forward this liberalization, while higher education institutions attempted to hold it back. [source]

Nurturing knowledge: the UK Higher Education Links scheme,

Derek A. Eldridge
This article examines the development of academic networks and expertise through the UK Higher Education Links scheme, which is funded by the UK Department for International Development, managed by the British Council and supported by the principals of UK higher education institutions. The links are established between UK and overseas universities primarily to enhance research and/or teaching capacity, with the ultimate aim of alleviating poverty and promoting sustainable development. This article draws on data gathered for a large-scale, multiple-method evaluation which endorsed the scheme's continuation. It is argued that a crucial factor helping to make individual links a success was good relationships between respective co-ordinators, although the nature of these relationships varied. The article discusses the extent to which the formation of fruitful academic networks and partnerships enabling knowledge transfer were encouraged. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]