High Separation Efficiency (high + separation_efficiency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Rapid capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry separations of peptides and proteins using a monoquaternarized piperazine compound (M7C4I) for capillary coatings

Anisa Elhamili
Abstract A monoquaternarized piperazine, 1-(4-iodobutyl) 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2,2,2] octane iodide (M7C4I), has been evaluated as a surface derivatization reagent for CE in combination with TOF MS for the analysis of proteins, peptides, and protein digests. The M7C4I piperazine, at alkaline pH, forms a covalent bond via alkylation of the ionized silanols producing a cationic surface with a highly stable and reversed EOF. The obtained surface yields rapid separations (less than 5,min) of peptides and proteins at acidic pH with high separation efficiencies (up to 1.1106 plates/m for peptides and up to 1.8106 plates/m for proteins) and no observed bleeding of the coating reagent into the mass spectrometer. The simplicity of the coating procedure also enables fast (2,min) regeneration of the surface, if necessary. This is useful in the analysis of complex samples in order to prevent possible memory effects. The potential of using M7C4I-coated capillaries for MS analysis of complex samples is demonstrated by the separation of peptides, proteins, and protein digests. Even more, the spectacular thing in which large intact proteins with molecular masses over 0.5,MDa could be separated. The coating showed good ability to handle these large proteins with high efficiency and retained peak shape as demonstrated by separation of IgG1 (150,kDa) and thyroglobulin (669,kDa). [source]

CE coupled to MALDI with novel covalently coated capillaries

Stefan Bachmann
Abstract CE offers the advantage of flexibility and method development options. It excels in the area of separation of ions, chiral, polar and biological compounds (especially proteins and peptides). Masking the active sites on the inner surface of a bare fused silica capillary wall is often necessary for CE separations of basic compounds, proteins and peptides. The use of capillary surface coating is one of the approaches to prevent the adsorption phenomena and improve the repeatability of migration times and peak areas of these analytes. In this study, new capillary coatings consisting of (i) derivatized polystyrene nanoparticles and (ii) derivatized fullerenes were investigated for the analysis of peptides and protein digest by CE. The coated capillaries showed excellent run-to-run and batch-to-batch reproducibility (RSD of migration time ,0.5% for run-to-run and ,9.5% for batch-to-batch experiments). Furthermore, the capillaries offer high stability from pH 2.0 to 10.0. The actual potential of the coated capillaries was tested by combining CE with MALDI-MS for analysing complex samples, such as peptides, whereas the overall performance of the CE-MALDI-MS system was investigated by analysing a five-protein digest mixture. Subsequently, the peak list (peptide mass fingerprint) generated from the mass spectra of each fraction was entered into the Swiss-Prot database in order to search for matching tryptic fragments using the MASCOT software. The sequence coverage of analysed proteins was between 36 and 68%. The established technology benefits from the synergism of high separation efficiency and the structure selective identification via MS. [source]

Capillary electrochromatography with monolithic silica column:,I.

Preparation of silica monoliths having surface-bound octadecyl moieties, applications to the separation of neutral, charged species, their chromatographic characterization
Abstract Monolithic silica columns with surface-bound octadecyl (C18) moieties have been prepared by a sol-gel process in 100 ,m ID fused-silica capillaries for reversed-phase capillary electrochromatography of neutral and charged species. The reaction conditions for the preparation of the C18-silica monoliths were optimized for maximum surface coverage with octadecyl moieties in order to maximize retention and selectivity toward neutral and charged solutes with a sufficiently strong electroosmotic flow (>,2 mm/s) to yield rapid analysis time. Furthermore, the effect of the pore-tailoring process on the silica monoliths was performed over a wide range of treatment time with 0.010 M ammonium hydroxide solution in order to determine the optimum time and conditions that yield mesopores of narrow pore size distribution that result in high separation efficiency. Under optimum column fabrication conditions and optimum mobile phase composition and flow velocity, the average separation efficiency reached 160,000 plates/m, a value comparable to that obtained on columns packed with 3 ,m C18-silica particles with the advantages of high permeability and virtually no bubble formation. The optimized monolithic C18-silica columns were evaluated for their retention properties toward neutral and charged analytes over a wide range of mobile phase compositions. A series of dimensionless retention parameters were evaluated and correlated to solute polarity and electromigration property. A dimensionless mobility modulus was introduced to describe charged solute migration and interaction behavior with the monolithic C18-silica in a counterflow regime during capillary electrochromatography (CEC )separations. The mobility moduli correlated well with the solute hydrophobic character and its charge-to-mass ratio. [source]

Computational investigation of the mechanisms of particle separation and "fish-hook" phenomenon in hydrocyclones

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2010
B. Wang
Abstract The motion of solid particles and the "fish-hook" phenomenon in an industrial classifying hydrocyclone of body diameter 355 mm is studied by a computational fluid dynamics model. In the model, the turbulent flow of gas and liquid is modeled using the Reynolds Stress Model, and the interface between the liquid and air core is modeled using the volume of fluid multiphase model. The outcomes are then applied in the simulation of particle flow described by the stochastic Lagrangian model. The results are analyzed in terms of velocity and force field in the cyclone. It is shown that the pressure gradient force plays an important role in particle separation, and it balances the centrifugal force on particles in the radial direction in hydrocyclones. As particle size decreases, the effect of drag force whose direction varies increases sharply. As a result, particles have an apparent fluctuating velocity. Some particles pass the locus of zero vertical velocity (LZVV) and join the upward flow and have a certain moving orbit. The moving orbit of particles in the upward flow becomes wider as their size decreases. When the size is below a critical value, the moving orbit is even beyond the LZVV. Some fine particles would recircuit between the downward and upward flows, resulting in a relatively high separation efficiency and the "fish-hook" effect. Numerical experiments were also extended to study the effects of cyclone size and liquid viscosity. The results suggest that the mechanisms identified are valid, although they are quantitatively different. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

Copper-coated microsprayer interface for on-line sheathless capillary electrophoresis electrospray mass spectrometry of carbohydrates

Alina D. Zamfir
Abstract A sturdy home-built sheathless CE/ESI-QTOF-MS system was developed and optimized for carbohydrate analysis. The interface and employed methodology provided a simple analytical solution to laborious CE/MS interfacing methods and to problems in characterization of complex carbohydrate mixtures that require high-resolution separation of the components. The CE/ESI interface, feasible in any MS laboratory, consists of a one-piece CE column having the CE terminus in-laboratory shaped as a microsprayer and coated with copper. The CE microsprayer was inserted into an in-house made stainless steel clenching device and the whole assembly was mounted onto a quadrupole TOF mass spectrometer. The analytical potential of the interface in terms of suitability, microsprayer performance, copper coat durability, ionization efficiency, spray stability, and sensitivity was tested first on a simple mixture of standard saccharides, which were separated, resolved, and detected with high separation efficiency. The approach was next assessed for the screening of a biological sample, a complex mixture of O -glycosylated sialylated amino acids from urine of a patient suffering from Schindler disease. Preliminary data allow this method to be considered as one of general applicability in structural glycobiology and glycomics and easy to be implemented for proteomic surveys as well. [source]