High School Graduates (high + school_graduate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

MRI of the Breast: Does the Internet Accurately Report its Beneficial Uses and Limitations?

Larissa Nekhlyudov MD
Abstract:, As consumer use of the Internet for medical information grows, continuing evaluation of the medical content on the Internet is needed. We evaluated Internet sites describing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an emerging technology tool in breast cancer diagnosis and screening. We searched Google for sites describing breast MRI and abstracted the affiliation, content, media type, readability, and quality of 90 most popular unique sites. Over half (56%) of the sites were commercially sponsored. The content varied by site and included medical and procedural facts, information about clinical trials, grants and journal articles, as well as human interest stories. Most (82%) sites described potentially beneficial uses of breast MRI, such as further evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancers (58%); screening women at high risk for breast cancer (54%); evaluation of abnormal breast findings (48%); screening women with dense breasts (48%) or implants (27%); and surveillance for breast cancer recurrences (24%). Approximately half (56%) of the sites described the limitations of breast MRI, most commonly false positive findings (44%) and costs (24%). Website quality, including the display of contact information, sponsorship, currency of information, authorship, and references varied. The reading level was close to high school graduate. Internet sites describing breast MRI were mostly commercially sponsored, more often described the potential beneficial uses of the procedure than its limitations, and were of variable quality and high reading level. With the lack of enforceable standards for display of medical information on the Internet, providers should encourage patients to direct their searches to the most credible sites. [source]


We investigate the impact of sex ratios by education and metropolitan area on spouses' bargaining power and labor supplies, to capture the local and qualitative nature of mate availability. Using Current Population Survey and Census data for 2000, 1990, and 1980, we estimate these effects in a collective household framework. We find that a higher relative shortage of comparably educated women in the couple's metropolitan area reduces wives' labor supply and increases their husbands'. The impact is stronger for couples in higher education groups but not significant for high school graduates. Results are similar across decades. No such effects are found for unmarried individuals. (JEL D1, J22) [source]

Equilibrium Search Models and the Transition From School To Work

Audra J. Bowlus
This paper applies the Burdett,Mortensen (1998) equilibrium search model to study the school to work transitions of U.S. high school graduates. We consider the case of discrete firm heterogeneity and provide a computational method to obtain the MLE. Our results show that unemployed blacks receive fewer offers than whites and employed blacks are more likely to lose their jobs. Importantly, employed blacks and whites receive job offers at the same rate. Assigning the whites' search parameters to the blacks and re-solving reveals that 75 percent of the observed wage differential is explained by the job destruction rate differences. [source]

Evaluation of the Mini-Mental State Examination's Internal Consistency in a Community-Based Sample of Mexican-American and European-American Elders: Results from the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

David V. Espino MD
This study examined the effect of scoring method, education, and language usage on internal consistency of the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Trained bilingual staff administered the MMSE in participants' homes as part of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging home-based assessment battery. Subjects included 833 community-dwelling Mexican-American (MA) and European-American (EA) elders, aged 65 and older, residing in three socioculturally distinct neighborhoods in San Antonio, Texas. Three methods of scoring the MMSE were examined: serial sevens only, spelling only, and serial sevens or spelling, whichever was higher. Mean MMSE scores±standard deviation ranged from 27.7±2.4 to 28.5±1.9 for EAs, from 25.6±3.2 to 27.2±2.9 for MAs interviewed in English, and from 22.5±4.5 to 25.5±3.5 for MAs interviewed in Spanish, depending on scoring method. Across the three ethnic-language subgroups, the lowest mean scores, largest coefficients of variation, and highest alpha coefficients were observed using serial sevens only. Stratification by educational level showed that alpha coefficients for all three scoring methods were consistently lower in high school graduates than in less-educated groups. Serial sevens only was the only scoring method that yielded acceptably high alpha coefficients across all ethnic, language, and education subgroups. Thus, clinicians should use the serial sevens,only method when administering the MMSE and be alert to the increased potential for false-negatives in more highly educated EA and MA elders, particularly in EAs and MAs proficient in English. [source]

Women, the labor market, and the declining relative quality of teachers

Sean P. Corcoran
School officials and policymakers have grown increasingly concerned about their ability to attract and retain talented teachers. A number of authors have shown that in recent years the brightest students,at least those with the highest verbal and math scores on standardized tests,are less likely to enter teaching. In addition, it is frequently claimed that the ability of schools to attract these top students has been steadily declining for years. There is, however, surprisingly little evidence measuring the extent to which this popular proposition is true. We have good reason to suspect that the quality of those entering teaching has fallen over time. Teaching has for years remained a predominately female profession; at the same time, the employment opportunities for talented women outside teaching have soared. In this paper, we combine data from five longitudinal surveys of high school graduates spanning the classes of 1957 to 1992 to examine how the propensity for talented women to enter teaching has changed over time. While the quality of the average new female teacher has fallen only slightly over this period, the likelihood that a female from the top of her high school class will eventually enter teaching has fallen dramatically. © 2004 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]

Attitudes Toward Nurse Practitioners: Influence of Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Education and Income

Carol Y. Phillips PhD
ABSTRACT Survey research was undertaken to measure relationships between gender, age, ethnicity, education, income level, and an individual's attitude toward using a nurse practitioner (NP) for health care. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical basis for the research initiative and instrument design. Following initial pilot work, 238 individuals were surveyed. While no significant differences on the basis of gender and race were found, high school graduates demonstrated significantly more positive attitudes toward NPs than non-high school graduates, and older subjects and those with lower incomes were less positively inclined to use NP services. These findings have implications for the marketing of NP services, NP education, and public education, and should be used as a basis for additional research in this area. [source]

High school profiles: Application of HTML for recruitment decision making

Iryna Y. JohnsonArticle first published online: 25 MAR 200
Because high school graduates are many colleges' primary target population, information on high school students' performance and sociodemographic characteristics becomes important for the recruitment process. [source]

Perception of Risk by Administrators and Home Health Aides

Mary Agnes Kendra Ph.D.
Increasing numbers of persons over 65, decreased length of hospital stay, and need for chronic (custodial) health care have placed a strain on home health care agencies. The second largest group of persons providing care is home health aides (HHAs), who perform in-home, nonskilled, technical procedures with little or no on-site supervision. They are generally high school graduates or hold GEDs. The purpose of this study was to compare home health care administrators' (HHCAs) and HHAs' perceptions of risk involved in home visiting. Given HHAs' educational preparation and limited supervision, they are basically on their own for work performed. Although agencies provide orientation sessions for new workers, periodic in-services often relate to tasks and competency testing and little attention directed toward protecting the self,specifically, strategies to decrease personal risk. In order to determine to what extent HHCAs and HHAs perceive risk, the Home Health Care Perception of Risk Questionnaire, a self-report measure, was administered to a national random sample of 93 HHCAs and 227 HHAs. Findings suggest that these groups differ in perception of risk and level of agency support in making home visits. Suggestions for meeting the needs of this HHA provider group are offered. [source]

Supply and Demand of Board-certified Emergency Physicians by U.S. State, 2005

Ashley F. Sullivan MS
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to estimate the emergency medicine (EM) board-certified emergency physician (EP) workforce supply and demand by U.S. state. Methods:, The 2005 National Emergency Department Inventories-USA provided annual visit volumes for U.S. emergency departments (EDs). We estimated full-time equivalent (FTE) EP demand at each ED by dividing the actual number of visits by the estimated average EP visit volume (3,548 visits/year) and then summing FTEs by state. Our model assumed that at least one EP should be present 24/7 in each ED. The number of EM board-certified EPs per state was provided by the American Board of Medical Specialties (American Board of Emergency Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics) and the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine. We used U.S. Census Bureau civilian population estimates to calculate EP population density by state. Results:, The supply of EM board-certified EPs was 58% of required FTEs to staff all EDs nationally and ranged from 10% in South Dakota to 104% in Hawai'i (i.e., there were more EPs than the estimated need). Texas and Florida had the largest absolute shortages of EM board-certified EPs (2,069 and 1,146, respectively). The number of EM board-certified EPs per 100,000 U.S. civilian population ranged from 3.6 in South Dakota to 13.8 in Washington, DC. States with a higher population density of EM board-certified EPs had higher percent high school graduates and a lower percent rural population and whites. Conclusions:, The supply and demand of EM board-certified EPs varies by state. Only one state had an adequate supply of EM board-certified EPs to fully staff its EDs. [source]

Who is Better Off from Trade Liberalization?

An Experience from Urban China
F16; O15; J31 Empirical studies have found that the skill wage gap (difference between wages earned by skilled and unskilled workers) narrowed in the case of the ,Four Asian Dragons' as they underwent trade liberalization during the 1960s and 1970s, whereas the gap widened in most of the Latin American countries after they liberalized their economies in the 1980s. China's integration into the world economy since 1978 has been used to explain this phenomenon, but few formal studies have been carried out in China regarding the effects of trade liberalization on the skill wage gap because of the limited availability of data. The present study uses unique household surveys conducted in ten provinces of China in 1988 and 1995 to study this issue. Results show that trade liberalization that occurred in China between 1988 and 1995 was responsible for an average increase of 28.73 yuan (approximately 20 percent of the total increase) in average monthly wages. However, trade liberalization significantly widened the urban skill wage gap in China by introducing an increase in income only for those who had 13 years or more of education (at least junior high school graduates). Interestingly, import liberalization also only benefited those who had more than 9 years of schooling; whereas export liberalization brought wage increases for people with 7,12 years of education. Finally, those with specific production skills from technical schools, rather than those with several years of general education, were mostly favored in the labor market in China between 1988 and 1995. [source]


Kosei Fukuda
J31; C51 ABSTRACT Aggregate data on US earnings, classified by period and by age, are decomposed into age, period and cohort effects, using the Bayesian cohort models, which were developed to overcome the identification problem in cohort analysis. The main findings, obtained by comparing college and high school graduates, are threefold. First, the age effects show a downward trend for the age group of 45,49 onwards for high school graduates but do not show any such trend for college graduates. Second, the period effects show a downward trend for high school graduates but reveal no such trend for college graduates. Third, the cohort effects are negligible for both college and high school graduates. [source]

Multicenter Study of Limited Health Literacy in Emergency Department Patients

Adit A. Ginde MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of limited health literacy and its association with sociodemographic variables in emergency department (ED) patients. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional survey in three Boston EDs. The authors enrolled consecutive adult patients during two 24-hour periods at each site. They measured health literacy by the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Using multivariate logistic regression, the authors evaluated associations between sociodemographic variables and limited health literacy, as classified by S-TOFHLA scores. Results:, The authors enrolled 300 patients (77% of eligible). Overall, 75 (25%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 20% to 30%) of participants had limited health literacy. Limited health literacy was independently associated with older age (compared to 18,44 years, odds ratio [OR] 4.3 [95% CI = 2.0 to 9.2] for 45,64 years and OR 3.4 [95% CI = 1.4 to 8.5] for ,65 years), less education (compared to high school graduates, OR 2.7 [95% CI = 1.1 to 7.3] for some high school or lower and OR 0.43 [95% CI = 0.21 to 0.88] for some college or higher), and lower income (OR 2.8 [95% CI = 1.2 to 6.6] for ,$40,000 compared to >$40,000). Although ethnicity, race, and language were associated with limited health literacy in unadjusted analyses, the associations were not significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions:, In this sample, one-quarter of ED patients would be expected to have difficulty understanding health materials and following prescribed treatment regimens. Advanced age and low socioeconomic status were independently associated with limited health literacy. The ability of a significant subgroup of ED patients to understand health information, especially during illness or injury, requires further study. [source]

Cancer patients' expectations of experiencing treatment-related side effects

CANCER, Issue 4 2004
A University of Rochester Cancer Center-Community Clinical Oncology Program study of 938 patients from community practices
Abstract BACKGROUND Adequate management of treatment-related side effects is important for patients and challenging for clinicians. Side effects generated by various treatments have been characterized reasonably well. However, to the authors' knowledge, less is known regarding what patients expect to experience regarding these side effects and how patient characteristics are related to these expectations. METHODS Patients with cancer (n = 1015 patients) from 17 Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) institutions affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center CCOP Research Base were surveyed regarding their expectations of experiencing side effects associated with cancer treatment, with 938 patients providing evaluable data. Patients responded to the item, "Indicate your expectations of having this side effect" for 12 common side effects. Patients rated their expectations using a 5-point Likert scale, from 1 ("I definitely will not have this") to 5 ("I definitely will have this"). RESULTS The median number of symptoms expected (characterized by any value other than one) was nine. The six most expected symptoms were fatigue, nausea, sleep disturbance, weight loss, hair loss, and skin problems. Patients age > 60 years expected to have fewer symptoms than younger patients; female patients expected more side effects than male patients; and patients who had some college education expected more side effects than patients who were high school graduates or had not completed high school. CONCLUSIONS Patients with cancer clearly exhibit expectations regarding treatment-related side effects; and age, gender, and education level appear to influence these expectations. Further careful characterization of patient expectations and how expectations relate to experience may lead to earlier and more effective management of side effects. Cancer 2004. © 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]