High Salt Diet (high + salt_diet)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hydrogen Peroxide-Dependent Arteriolar Dilation in Contracting Muscle of Rats Fed Normal and High Salt Diets

Paul J. Marvar
ABSTRACT Objective: High dietary salt intake decreases the arteriolar dilation associated with skeletal muscle contraction. Because hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be released from contracting muscle fibers, this study was designed to assess the possible contribution of H2O2 to skeletal muscle functional hyperemia and its sensitivity to dietary salt. Methods: The authors investigated the effect of catalase treatment on arteriolar dilation and hyperemia in contracting spinotrapezius muscle of rats fed a normal salt (0.45%, NS) or high salt (4%, HS) diet for 4 weeks. Catalase-sensitive 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence was measured as an index of H2O2 formation, and the mechanism of arteriolar dilation to H2O2 was probed in each group using pharmacological inhibitors. Results: DCF fluorescence increased with muscle contraction, but not if catalase was present. Catalase also reduced arteriolar dilation and hyperemia during contraction in both dietary groups. Exogenous H2O2 dilated arterioles in both groups, with greater responses in HS rats. Guanylate cyclase inhibition did not affect arteriolar responses to H2O2 in either group, but KCa or KATP channel inhibition equally reduced these responses, and KATP channel inhibition equally reduced functional hyperemia in both groups. Conclusions: These results indicate that locally produced H2O2 contributes to arteriolar dilation and hyperemia in contracting skeletal muscle, and that the effect of H2O2 on arteriolar tone in this vascular bed is mediated largely through K+ channel activation. High dietary salt intake does not reduce the contribution of H2O2 to active hyperemia, or alter the mechanism through which H2O2 relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle. [source]

High salt diets dose-dependently promote gastric chemical carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori -infected Mongolian gerbils associated with a shift in mucin production from glandular to surface mucous cells

Sosuke Kato
Abstract Intake of salt and salty food is known as a risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis. To examine the dose-dependence and the mechanisms underlying enhancing effects, Mongolian gerbils were treated with N -methyl- N -nitrosourea (MNU), Helicobacter pylori and food containing various concentrations of salt, and were sacrificed after 50 weeks. Among gerbils treated with MNU and H. pylori, the incidences of glandular stomach cancers were 15% in the normal diet group and 33%, 36% and 63% in the 2.5%, 5% and 10% NaCl diet groups, showing dose-dependent increase (p < 0.01). Intermittent intragastric injection of saturated NaCl solution, in contrast, did not promote gastric carcinogenesis. In gerbils infected with H. pylori, a high salt diet was associated with elevation of anti- H. pylori antibody titers, serum gastrin levels and inflammatory cell infiltration in a dose-dependent fashion. Ten percent NaCl diet upregulated the amount of surface mucous cell mucin (p < 0.05), suitable for H. pylori colonization, despite no increment of MUC5AC mRNA, while H. pylori infection itself had an opposing effect, stimulating transcription of MUC6 and increasing the amount of gland mucous cell mucin (GMCM). High salt diet, in turn, decreased the amount of GMCM, which acts against H. pylori infection. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated dose-dependent enhancing effects of salt in gastric chemical carcinogenesis in H. pylori -infected Mongolian gerbils associated with alteration of the mucous microenvironment. Reduction of salt intake could thus be one of the most important chemopreventive methods for human gastric carcinogenesis. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Aldosterone responsiveness of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in colon is increased in a mouse model for Liddle's syndrome

Marko Bertog
Liddle's syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of human hypertension, caused by gain-of-function mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) which is expressed in aldosterone target tissues including the distal colon. We used a mouse model for Liddle's syndrome to investigate ENaC-mediated Na+ transport in late distal colon by measuring the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial short circuit current (,ISC-Ami) ex vivo. In Liddle mice maintained on a standard salt diet, ,ISC-Ami was only slightly increased but plasma aldosterone (PAldo) was severely suppressed. Liddle mice responded to a low or a high salt diet by increasing or decreasing, respectively, their PAldo and ,ISC-Ami. However, less aldosterone was required in Liddle animals to achieve similar or even higher Na+ transport rates than wild-type animals. Indeed, the ability of aldosterone to stimulate ,ISC-Ami was about threefold higher in Liddle animals than in the wild-type controls. Application of aldosterone to colon tissue in vitro confirmed that ENaC stimulation by aldosterone was not only preserved but enhanced in Liddle mice. Aldosterone-induced transcriptional up-regulation of the channel's ,- and ,-subunit (,ENaC and ,ENaC) and of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was similar in colon tissue from Liddle and wild-type animals, while aldosterone had no transcriptional effect on the ,-subunit (,ENaC). Moreover, Na+ feedback regulation was largely preserved in colon tissue of Liddle animals. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that in the colon of Liddle mice, ENaC-mediated Na+ transport is enhanced with an increased responsiveness to aldosterone. This may be pathophysiologically relevant in patients with Liddle's syndrome, in particular on a high salt diet, when suppression of PAldo is likely to be insufficient to reduce Na+ absorption to an appropriate level. [source]