High Salt (high + salt)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by High Salt

  • high salt concentration
  • high salt diet
  • high salt intake

  • Selected Abstracts

    Actin and myosin in Gregarina polymorpha

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2004
    Matthew B. Heintzelman
    Abstract Actin and two class XIV unconventional myosins have been cloned from Gregarina polymorpha, a large protozoan parasite inhabiting the gut of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. These proteins were most similar to their homologues expressed in the coccidian and haemosporidian Apicomplexa such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium despite the significant morphological differences among these parasites. Both actin and G. polymorpha myosin A (GpMyoA), a 92.6-kDa protein characterized by a canonical myosin head domain and short, highly basic tail, localized to both the longitudinally-disposed surface membrane folds (epicytic folds) of the parasite as well as to the subjacent rib-like myonemes that gird the parasite cortex. G. polymorpha myosin B (GpMyoB), a 96.3-kDa myosin, localized exclusively to the epicytic folds of the parasite. Both myosins were tightly associated with the cortical cytoskeleton and were solubilized only with a combination of high salt and detergent. Both GpMyoA and GpMyoB could bind to actin in an ATP-sensitive fashion. The distribution of actin and the unconventional myosins in G. polymorpha was consistent with their proposed participation in both the rapid (1,10 ,m/sec) gliding motility exhibited by the gregarines as well as the myoneme-mediated bending motions that have been observed in these parasites. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 58:83,95, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Interactions between maternal subtotal nephrectomy and salt: effects on renal function and the composition of plasma in the late gestation sheep fetus

    Amanda C. Boyce
    Effects of altered maternal salt intake between 122 and 127 days gestation (term is 150 days) were studied in eight fetuses carried by ewes which had renal insufficiency caused by subtotal nephrectomy (STNxF) and seven fetuses carried by intact ewes (IntF). Plasma sodium and osmolality were increased in ewes with subtotal nephrectomy on a high-salt intake (0.17 m NaCl in place of drinking water for 5 days; P < 0.05). The STNxF had normal body weights. A high maternal salt intake did not affect fetal blood pressure or heart rate. Plasma osmolality was higher in STNxF (P < 0.001), and plasma sodium and osmolality were increased by high salt (P < 0.001 and P < 0.04, respectively). The STNxF had higher urinary osmolalities (P= 0.002), which were also increased by a high maternal salt intake (P= 0.03). Renal blood flow fell in STNxF in response to a high maternal salt intake, but increased in IntF (P= 0.003). In STNxF but not IntF, glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein excretion were positively related to fetal plasma renin levels (P, 0.01). It is concluded that the salt intake of pregnant ewes with renal insufficiency affects maternal and fetal osmolar balance, fetal plasma sodium and fetal renal function. Since STNxF also had altered renal haemodynamic responses to high maternal salt and evidence of renin-dependent glomerular filtration and protein excretion, we suggest that interactions between dietary salt and pre-existing maternal renal disease impair glomerular integrity and function in the fetus. [source]

    A comparison of the urea-induced unfolding of apoflavodoxin and flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 1 2002
    Brian Nuallain
    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the urea-induced unfolding of flavodoxin and apoflavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were investigated by measuring changes in flavin and protein fluorescence. The reaction of urea with flavodoxin is up to 5000 times slower than the reaction with the apoprotein (0.67 s,1 in 3 m urea in 25 mm sodium phosphate at 25 C), and it results in the dissociation of FMN. The rate of unfolding of apoflavodoxin depends on the urea concentration, while the reaction with the holoprotein is independent of urea. The rates decrease in high salt with the greater effect occurring with apoprotein. The fluorescence changes fit two-state models for unfolding, but they do not exclude the possibility of intermediates. Calculation suggests that 21% and 30% of the amino-acid side chains become exposed to solvent during unfolding of flavodoxin and apoflavodoxin, respectively. The equilibrium unfolding curves move to greater concentrations of urea with increase of ionic strength. This effect is larger with phosphate than with chloride, and with apoflavodoxin than with flavodoxin. In low salt the conformational stability of the holoprotein is greater than that of apoflavodoxin, but in high salt the relative stabilities are reversed. It is calculated that two ions are released during unfolding of the apoprotein. It is concluded that the urea-dependent unfolding of flavodoxin from D. vulgaris occurs because apoprotein in equilibrium with FMN and holoprotein unfolds and shifts the equilibrium so that flavodoxin dissociates. Small changes in flavin fluorescence occur at low concentrations of urea and these may reflect binding of urea to the holoprotein. [source]

    Ectoines as compatible solutes and carbon and energy sources for the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens

    C. Vargas
    Abstract Aims:, To investigate the catabolism of ectoine and hydroxyectoine, which are the major compatible solutes synthesized by Chromohalobacter salexigens. Methods and Results:, Growth curves performed in M63 minimal medium with low (075 mol l,1 NaCl), optimal (15 mol l,1 NaCl) or high (25 mol l,1 NaCl) salinity revealed that betaine and ectoines were used as substrate for growth at optimal and high salt. Ectoine transport was maximal at optimal salinity, and showed 3- and 15-fold lower values at low and high salinity respectively. The salt-sensitive ectA mutant CHR62 showed an ectoine transport rate 68-fold higher than that of the wild type. Incubation of C. salexigens in a mixture of glucose and ectoine resulted in a biphasic growth pattern. However, CO2 production due to ectoine catabolism was lower, but not completely abolished, in the presence of glucose. When used as the sole carbon source, glycine betaine effectively inhibited ectoine and hydroxyectoine synthesis at any salinity. Conclusions:, The catabolic pathways for ectoine and hydroxyectoine in C. salexigens operate at optimal and high (although less efficiently) salinity. Endogenous ectoine(s) may repress its own transport. Ectoine utilization was only partially repressed by glucose. Betaine, when used as carbon source, suppresses synthesis of ectoines even under high osmolarity conditions. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This study is a previous step to the subsequent isolation and manipulation of the catabolic genes, so as to generate strains with enhanced production of ectoine and hydroxyectoine. [source]

    Cell wall modifications during osmotic stress in Lactobacillus casei

    M. Piuri
    Abstract Aims:, To study the modification of the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 grown in high salt conditions. Methods and Results:, Differences in the overall structure of cell wall between growth in high salt (MRS + 1 mol l,1 NaCl; N condition) and control (MRS; C condition) conditions were determined by transmission electronic microscopy and analytical procedures. Lactobacillus casei cells grown in N condition were significantly larger than cells grown under unstressed C condition. Increased sensitivity to mutanolysin and antibiotics with target in the cell wall was observed in N condition. Purified cell wall also showed the increased sensitivity to lysis by mutanolysin. Analysis of peptidoglycan (PG) from stressed cells showed that modification was at the structural level in accordance with a decreased PG cross-link involving penicillin-binding proteins (PBP). Nine PBP were first described in this species and these proteins were expressed in low percentages or presented a modified pattern of saturation with penicillin G (Pen G) during growth in high salt. Three of the essential PBP were fully saturated in N condition at lower Pen G concentrations than in C condition, suggesting differences in functionality in vivo. Conclusions:, The results show that growth in high salt modified the structural properties of the cell wall. Significance and Impact of Study:, Advances in understanding the adaptation to high osmolarity, in particular those involving sensitivity to lysis of lactic acid bacteria. [source]

    Treatment with oxidizing agents damages the inner membrane of spores of Bacillus subtilis and sensitizes spores to subsequent stress

    D.E. Cortezzo
    Abstract Aims:, To determine if treatment of Bacillus subtilis spores with a variety of oxidizing agents causes damage to the spore's inner membrane. Methods and Results:, Spores of B. subtilis were killed 80,99% with wet heat or a variety of oxidizing agents, including betadine, chlorine dioxide, cumene hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, OxoneTM, ozone, sodium hypochlorite and t-butylhydroperoxide, and the agents neutralized and/or removed. Survivors of spores pretreated with oxidizing agents exhibited increased sensitivity to killing by a normally minimal lethal heat treatment, while spores pretreated with wet heat did not. In addition, spores treated with wet heat or the oxidizing agents, except sodium hypochlorite, were more sensitive to high NaCl in plating media than were untreated spores. The core region of spores treated with at least two oxidizing agents was also penetrated much more readily by methylamine than was the core of untreated spores, and spores treated with oxidizing agents but not wet heat germinated faster with dodecylamine than did untreated spores. Spores of strains with very different levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their inner membrane exhibited essentially identical resistance to oxidizing agents. Conclusions:, Treatment of spores with oxidizing agents has been suggested to cause damage to the spore's inner membrane, a membrane whose integrity is essential for spore viability. The sensitization of spores to killing by heat and to high salt after pretreatment with oxidizing agents is consistent with and supports this suggestion. Presumably mild pretreatment with oxidizing agents causes some damage to the spore's inner membrane. While this damage may not be lethal under normal conditions, the damaged inner membrane may be less able to maintain its integrity, when dormant spores are exposed to high temperature or when germinated spores are faced with osmotic stress. Triggering of spore germination by dodecylamine likely involves action by this agent on the spore's inner membrane allowing release of the spore core's depot of dipicolinic acid. Presumably dodecylamine more readily alters the permeability of a damaged inner membrane and thus more readily triggers germination of spores pretreated with oxidizing agents. Damage to the inner spore membrane by oxidizing agents is also consistent with the more rapid penetration of methylamine into the core of treated spores, as the inner membrane is likely the crucial permeability barrier to methylamine entry into the spore core. As spores of strains with very different levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their inner membrane exhibited essentially identical resistance to oxidizing agents, it is not through oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids that oxidizing agents kill and/or damage spores. Perhaps these agents work by causing oxidative damage to key proteins in the spore's inner membrane. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The more rapid heat killing and germination with dodecylamine, the greater permeability of the spore core and the osmotic stress sensitivity in outgrowth of spores pretreated with oxidizing agents is consistent with such agents causing damage to the spore's inner membrane, even if this damage is not lethal under normal conditions. It may be possible to take advantage of this phenomenon to devise improved, less costly regimens for spore inactivation. [source]

    Cellular stress triggers TEL nuclear export via two genetically separable pathways

    Caroline A. Hanson
    Abstract TEL (translocation ets leukemia, also known as ETV6) is a repressor of transcription that is disrupted by the t(12;21), which is the most frequent chromosomal translocation in pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia. TEL is modified by SUMOylation, and the lysine (Lys 99) that is conjugated to SUMO is required for TEL nuclear export. In addition, TEL is phosphorylated by p38 kinase, which is activated by cellular stress. Induction of cellular stress reduced the ability of TEL to repress transcription in vitro, but the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon was unclear. In this study, we show that osmotic stress causes re-localization of TEL to the cytoplasm and that p38-mediated phosphorylation of TEL is sufficient for this re-localization. However, impairment of both SUMOylation of Lys 99 and p38-dependent phosphorylation of Ser 257 of TEL were required to impair the re-localization of TEL in response to cellular stress induced by high salt, identifying two separate nuclear export pathways. Thus, alteration of the cellular localization of TEL may be a part of the cellular stress response and re-localization of TEL to the cytoplasm is an important step in the regulation of TEL. J. Cell. Biochem. 104: 488,498, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The sperm nuclear matrix is required for paternal DNA replication,

    Jeffrey A. Shaman
    Abstract The mammalian sperm nucleus provides an excellent model for studying the relationship between the formation of nuclear structure and the initiation of DNA replication. We previously demonstrated that mammalian sperm nuclei contain a nuclear matrix that organizes the DNA into loop domains in a manner similar to that of somatic cells. In this study, we tested the minimal components of the sperm nucleus that are necessary for the formation of the male pronucleus and for the initiation of DNA synthesis. We extracted mouse sperm nuclei with high salt and dithiothreitol to remove the protamines in order to form nuclear halos. These were then treated with either restriction endonucleases to release the DNA not directly associated with the nuclear matrix or with DNAse I to digest all the DNA. The treated sperm nuclei were injected into oocytes, and the paternal pronuclear formation and DNA synthesis was monitored. We found that restriction digested sperm nuclear halos were capable of forming paternal pronuclei and initiating DNA synthesis. However, when isolated mouse sperm DNA or sperm DNA reconstituted with the nuclear matrices were injected into oocytes, no paternal pronuclear formation or DNA synthesis was observed. These data suggest that the in situ nuclear matrix attachment organization of sperm DNA is required for mouse paternal pronuclear DNA synthesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 102: 680,688, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Ji Young Jang
    Abstract Although high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have been identified from a variety of plant species, their importance and functional roles in plant responses to changing environmental conditions are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional roles of a CsHMGB isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Under normal growth conditions or when subjected to cold stress, no differences in plant growth were found between the wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CsHMGB. By contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed retarded germination compared with the wild-type plants when grown under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Germination of the transgenic plants was delayed by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA), implying that CsHMGB affects germination through an ABA-dependent way. The expression of CsHMGB had affected only the germination stage, and CsHMGB did not affect the seedling growth of the transgenic plants under the stress conditions. The transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by the expression of CsHMGB in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of a CsHMGB in Arabidopsis modulates the expression of several germination-responsive genes, and thereby affects the germination of Arabidopsis plants under different stress conditions. [source]

    Hydrogen Peroxide-Dependent Arteriolar Dilation in Contracting Muscle of Rats Fed Normal and High Salt Diets

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 8 2007
    Paul J. Marvar
    ABSTRACT Objective: High dietary salt intake decreases the arteriolar dilation associated with skeletal muscle contraction. Because hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be released from contracting muscle fibers, this study was designed to assess the possible contribution of H2O2 to skeletal muscle functional hyperemia and its sensitivity to dietary salt. Methods: The authors investigated the effect of catalase treatment on arteriolar dilation and hyperemia in contracting spinotrapezius muscle of rats fed a normal salt (0.45%, NS) or high salt (4%, HS) diet for 4 weeks. Catalase-sensitive 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence was measured as an index of H2O2 formation, and the mechanism of arteriolar dilation to H2O2 was probed in each group using pharmacological inhibitors. Results: DCF fluorescence increased with muscle contraction, but not if catalase was present. Catalase also reduced arteriolar dilation and hyperemia during contraction in both dietary groups. Exogenous H2O2 dilated arterioles in both groups, with greater responses in HS rats. Guanylate cyclase inhibition did not affect arteriolar responses to H2O2 in either group, but KCa or KATP channel inhibition equally reduced these responses, and KATP channel inhibition equally reduced functional hyperemia in both groups. Conclusions: These results indicate that locally produced H2O2 contributes to arteriolar dilation and hyperemia in contracting skeletal muscle, and that the effect of H2O2 on arteriolar tone in this vascular bed is mediated largely through K+ channel activation. High dietary salt intake does not reduce the contribution of H2O2 to active hyperemia, or alter the mechanism through which H2O2 relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle. [source]

    Angiotensin II Is a Critical Mediator of Prazosin-Induced Angiogenesis in Skeletal Muscle

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 6 2007
    Matthew C. Petersen
    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-salt diet modulates physiological angiogenesis in skeletal muscle by altering angiotensin II (ANGII) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet (0.4% NaCl by weight) or high-salt diet (4.0% NaCl) prior to treatment with the vasodilator prazosin in the drinking water. In addition, a group of animals fed high salt were infused intravenously with ANGII at a low dose to prevent ANGII suppression by high salt, and a group of rats fed control diet were treated with the angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor blocker losartan and prazosin. Results: Prazosin induced significant angiogenesis in the tibialis anterior muscle after 1 week of treatment. High-salt-fed rats demonstrated a complete inhibition of this angiogenic response. Maintenance of ANGII levels restored prazosin-induced angiogenesis in animals fed a high-salt diet. In addition, losartan treatment blocked prazosin-induced angiogenesis in animals on a control diet. Western blot analysis indicated that prazosin-induced angiogenesis was independent of changes in muscle levels of VEGF. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an inhibitory effect of high salt intake on prazosin-induced angiogenesis. Further, these results indicate that ANGII acting through the AT1 receptor is a critical pathway in this model of angiogenesis. [source]

    Salt- and glyphosate-induced increase in glyoxalase I activity in cell lines of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Mukesh Jain
    Glyoxalase I (EC activity has long been associated with rapid cell proliferation, but experimental evidence is forthcoming, linking its role to stress tolerance as well. Proliferative callus cultures of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. JL24) showed a 3.3-fold increase in glyoxalase I activity during the logarithmic growth phase, correlating well with the data on FW gain and mitotic index. Inhibition of cell division decreased glyoxalase I activity and vice versa, thus further corroborating its role as a cell division marker enzyme. Cell lines of A. hypogaea selected in the presence of high salt (NaCl) and herbicide (glyphosate) concentrations, yielded 4.2- to 4.5-fold and 3.9- to 4.6-fold elevated glyoxalase I activity, respectively, in a dose dependent manner reflective of the level of stress tolerance. The stress-induced increase in enzyme activity was also accompanied by an increase in the glutathione content. Exogenous supplementation of glutathione could partially alleviate the growth inhibition of callus cultures induced by methylglyoxal and d -isoascorbic acid, but failed to recover the loss in glyoxalase I activity due to d -isoascorbic acid. The adaptive significance of elevated glyoxalase I activity in maintaining glutathione homeostasis has been discussed in view of our understanding on the role of glutathione in the integration of cellular processes with plant growth and development under stress conditions. [source]

    Glycinebetaine accumulation is more effective in chloroplasts than in the cytosol for protecting transgenic tomato plants against abiotic stress

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 8 2007
    ABSTRACT Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants were transformed with a gene for choline oxidase (codA) from Arthrobacter globiformis. The gene product (CODA) was targeted to the chloroplasts (Chl,codA), cytosol (Cyt,codA) or both compartments simultaneously (ChlCyt,codA). These three transgenic plant types accumulated different amounts and proportions of glycinebetaine (GB) in their chloroplasts and cytosol. Targeting CODA to either the cytosol or both compartments simultaneously increased total GB content by five- to sixfold over that measured from the chloroplast targeted lines. Accumulation of GB in codA transgenic plants was tissue dependent, with the highest levels being recorded in reproductive organs. Despite accumulating, the lowest amounts of GB, Chl,codA plants exhibited equal or higher degrees of enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. This suggests that chloroplastic GB is more effective than cytosolic GB in protecting plant cells against chilling, high salt and oxidative stresses. Chloroplastic GB levels were positively correlated with the degree of oxidative stress tolerance conferred, whereas cytosolic GB showed no such a correlation. Thus, an increase in total GB content does not necessarily lead to enhanced stress tolerance, but additional accumulation of chloroplastic GB is likely to further raise the level of stress tolerance beyond what we have observed. [source]

    Activation of AtMEK1, an Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, in vitro and in vivo: analysis of active mutants expressed in E. coli and generation of the active form in stress response in seedlings

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 5 2002
    Daisuke Matsuoka
    Summary The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, consisting of MAPK, MAPK kinase (MAPKK) and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), is the signaling system that relays various external signals, including mitogens and stresses in eukaryotes. MAPKK is activated by phosphorylation in the consensus motif, SXXXS/T, in animals, but the regulation mechanism for the plant MAPKK by phosphorylation, having the putative phosphorylation motif of S/TXXXXXS/T, is not yet fully clarified. Here we constructed a series of mutants of AtMEK1, an Arabidopsis MAPKK, having the sequence T218-X-S220-X-X-X-S224 that fits both of the plant- and animal-type motifs. We show that the two double-mutant proteins replacing Thr-218/Ser-224 and Ser-220/Ser-224 by Glu expressed in Escherichia coli show a constitutive activity to phosphorylate the Thr and Tyr residues of the kinase-negative mutant of an Arabidopsis MAPK, named ATMPK4, in vitro. The mutation analysis of AtMEK1 replacing Thr-218 and Ser-220 to Ala suggested that Thr-218 is autophosphorylated by the enzyme. The wild-type ATMPK4 was also phosphorylated by the active mutants of AtMEK1 and showed a high protein kinase activity toward myelin basic proteins. In contrast, ATMPK3, another Arabidopsis MAPK, was a poor substrate of this plant MAPKK, indicating that AtMEK1 has a substrate specificity preferring ATMPK4 to ATMPK3, at least in vitro. Furthermore, AtMEK1 immunoprecipitated from Arabidopsis seedlings stimulated with wounding, cold, drought, and high salt showed an elevated protein kinase activity toward the kinase-negative ATMPK4, while the amounts of the AtMEK1 protein did not change significantly. These data indicate that the AtMEK1 becomes an active form through phosphorylation and activates its downstream target ATMPK4 in stress response in Arabidopsis. [source]

    Candida albicans protein kinase CK2 governs virulence during oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Lisa Y. Chiang
    Summary To identify Candida albicans genes whose proteins are necessary for host cell interactions and virulence, a collection of C. albicans insertion mutants was screened for strains with reduced capacity to damage endothelial cells in vitro. This screen identified CKA2. CKA2 and its homologue CKA1 encode the catalytic subunits of the protein kinase CK2. cka2,/cka2, strains of C. albicans were constructed and found to have significantly reduced capacity to damage both endothelial cells and an oral epithelial cell line in vitro. Although these strains invaded endothelial cells similarly to the wild-type strain, they were defective in oral epithelial cell invasion. They were also hypersusceptible to hydrogen peroxide, but not to high salt or to cell wall damaging agents. A cka1,/cka1, mutant caused normal damage to both endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells, and it was not hypersusceptible to hydrogen peroxide. However, overexpression of CKA1 in a cka2,/cka2, strain restored wild-type phenotype. Although the cka2,/cka2, mutant had normal virulence in the mouse model of haematogenously disseminated candidiasis, it had significantly attenuated virulence in the mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Therefore, Cka2p governs the interactions of C. albicans with endothelial and oral epithelial cells in vitro and virulence during oropharyngeal candidiasis. [source]