High Salinity (high + salinity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Diversity of planktonic photoautotrophic microorganisms along a salinity gradient as depicted by microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis and DNA-based methods

Marta Estrada
Abstract The diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton was studied along a gradient of salinity in the solar salterns of Bras del Port in Santa Pola (Alacant, Spain) using different community descriptors. Chlorophyll a, HPLC pigment composition, flow cytometrically-determined picoplankton concentration, taxonomic composition of phytoplankton (based on optical microscopy) and genetic fingerprint patterns of 16S (cyanobacteria- and chloroplast-specific primers) and 18S rRNA genes were determined for samples from ponds with salinities ranging from 4% to 37%. Both morphological and genetical descriptors of taxonomic composition showed a good agreement and indicated a major discontinuity at salinities between 15% and 22%. The number of classes and the Shannon diversity index corresponding to the different descriptors showed a consistent decreasing trend with increasing salinity. The results indicate a selective effect of extremely high salinities on phytoplanktonic assemblages. [source]

Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: a fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany

Abstract An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study was carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite,barite,quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O,NaCl,(KCl) type, have low salinities (0,10 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150,350°C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8, to +12.2, and calculated ,18OH2O values of the fluid are between ,12.5, and +4.4,. The ,D values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between ,49, and +4,. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O,NaCl,CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22,25 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and lower Th values of 90,200°C. A low-salinity fluid (0,15 wt.% eqv. NaCl) was observed in late-stage fluorite, calcite, and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The ,18O values of quartz range between +11.1, and +20.9,, which translates into calculated ,18OH2O values between ,11.0, and +4.4,. This range is consistent with ,18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (,11.6, to +1.1,). The ,D values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between ,29, and ,1,, ,26, and ,15,, and ,63, and +9, for fluorite, quartz, and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite,barite,quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The ,18OH2O and ,D data, particularly the observed wide range in ,D, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl,CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma. [source]

Nutritional condition of Anguilla anguilla starved at various salinities during the elver phase

A. Rodríguez
The effects of food deprivation and environmental salinity (<1, 10 and 20) on survival, fish morphology, organization of the digestive system and body lipid reserves in European eel Anguilla anguilla during the transition from glass eel to elver, were evaluated. Fasted elvers kept in fresh water were able to withstand starvation for >60 days, while those in brackish environments (salinity 10 and 20) reached the level of irreversible starvation at 37 and 35 days, respectively. The high level of lipid reserves contained in liver inclusions and the abdominal cavity (perivisceral deposits) in elvers might explain their long resistance to starvation and differences in fasting tolerance under different salinities. Fasting resulted in a significant reduction of the elvers' condition factor and body depth. There were severe histopathological changes in the digestive system and musculature, such as the alteration of the liver organization, and hepatic glycogen and lipid content, shrinkage of enterocytes and reduction of their height, pancreas degeneration, autolysis of the oesophageal and intestinal mucosa and disarrangement of myofibrils and degeneration of trunk musculature. Degeneration of the oesophageal and intestinal mucosa as a consequence of fasting might have impaired digestive and osmoregulatory functions in feed-deprived fish, directly affecting the tolerance to starvation and survival. Length of food deprivation was associated with a significant increase in mortality, coefficient of variation, cannibalism and point of no return at high salinities. Mortality was dependent on food deprivation and salinity concentrations. Environmental salinity directly influenced the ability of elvers to withstand starvation; once glass eels metamorphosed into elvers, they tolerated starvation better in fresh water than in brackish environments. [source]

Helophyte germination in a Mediterranean salt marsh: Gut-passage by ducks changes seed response to salinity

J.L. Espinar
Abstract: Question: In seeds which are regularly consumed by waterbirds in the field, how does gut-passage modify their response to salinity gradients? Location: Doñana National Park salt marsh, south-west of Spain. Methods: Seeds of Scirpus litoralis and Scirpus maritimus were collected and force fed to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Both the ingested seeds (passage) and non-ingested seeds (controls) were exposed, in germination chambers, to a salinity range similar to that observed in the field (0,32 dS/m). After 30 days, the total percentage germination, the duration of the dormancy period and the germination speed were computed. The response of the different germination parameters to ingestion and salinity was analyzed using generalized lineal models. Recovery tests on seeds that did not germinate in the various treatments and tests of the effect of ingestion on the intrinsic variability in seed response were also performed. Results: An increase in salinity reduced germinability and increased the length of dormancy, while gut pas sage increased the intrinsic variability of the temporal seed response in both species. In S. litoralis there was a significant interaction between the effects of salinity and passage on germination rate. Passage increased germination rate at low salinities (,2 dS/m) but decreased it at high salinities (,4 dS/m). Conclusion: Gut-passage by ducks significantly changes seed response to salinity. The outcome of plant-animal interactions can be influenced by environmental gradients. Studies of germination in response to gut passage that do not take such gradients into account may produce misleading results. [source]

Physiological and behavioral responses of Bathynerita naticoidea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) and Methanoaricia dendrobranchiata (Polychaeta: Orbiniidae) to hypersaline conditions at a brine pool cold seep

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Ahna L. Van Gaest
Abstract Bathynerita naticoidea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) and Methanoaricia dendrobranchiata (Polychaeta: Orbiniidae) are two of the most abundant invertebrates associated with cold-seep mussel beds in the Gulf of Mexico. At the methane seep known as Brine Pool NR-1 (27 °43.415 N, 91 °16.756 W; 650 m depth), which is surrounded by a broad band of mussels (Bathymodiolus childressi), these species have distinctly different patterns of abundance, with the gastropod being found mostly at the outer edge of the mussel bed (average density in November 2003: 817 individuals·m,2 in outer zone, 20·m,2 in inner zone) and the polychaete being found almost exclusively near the inner edge (average density in November 2003: 3155 individuals·m,2 in inner zone, 0·m,2 in outer zone), adjacent to the brine pool itself. The salinity of the brine pool exceeds 120, so we hypothesized that M. dendrobranchiata should be more tolerant of high salinities than B. naticoidea. The opposite proved to be true. The gastropods were capable of withstanding salinities at least as high as 85, whereas the polychaetes died at salinities higher than 75. Both species were osmoconformers over the range of salinities (35,75) tested. Behavioral responses of B. naticoidea to salinities of 50, 60, and 70 were investigated in inverted vertical haloclines. Gastropods generally did not enter water of salinity greater than 60, but tolerated short periods at 60. Behavioral avoidance of brine should limit the vertical distribution of B. naticoidea in the inner zone to the top 2.5,5 cm of the mussel bed. Behavior is also a likely (though unproven) mechanism for controlling horizontal distribution of this species across the mussel bed. Methanoaricia dendrobranchiata can tolerate short excursions into the brine, but probably avoids hypersaline conditions by aggregating on the tops of the mussels. [source]

Gene expression profiling of Dunaliella sp. acclimated to different salinities

Minjung Kim
SUMMARY To investigate which genes may be important for growth under extreme conditions such as very low or high salinities, a survey of the Dunaliella sp. transcriptome was performed with a cDNA microarray which had been generated previously representing 778 expressed sequence tags. The comparative microarray analysis indicated that 142 genes differed in expression levels by more than twofold in cells grown at extreme salinities (0.08 M and 4.5 M NaCl) when compared with cells grown at intermediate salinity (1.5 M NaCl). Of these genes, 28 had increased expression and 57 were suppressed in cells grown at low salinity. In cells grown at high salinity, 43 genes showed increased expression and 69 genes showed suppressed expression. However, we did observe a large overlap in the expression of extreme salinity-responsive genes based on Venn diagram analysis, which found 55 genes that responded to both of the two extreme salinity conditions. Further, we found that several genes had similar expression levels under low and high salinities, including some general stress response genes that were upregulated in both extreme salinity conditions. For confirmation of the validity of the cDNA microarray analysis, expression of several genes was independently confirmed by the use of gene-specific primers and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The present study is the first large-scale comparative survey of the transcriptome from the microalga Dunaliella sp. acclimated to extreme salinities, thus providing a platform for further functional investigation of differentially expressed genes in Dunaliella. [source]

There are High Levels of Functional and Genetic Diversity in Oxyrrhis marina

Abstract. Oxyrrhis marina, a widely distributed marine protist, is used to model heterotrophic flagellate responses in microbial food webs. Although clonal variability occurs in protists, assessments of intraspecific diversity are rare; such assessments are critical, particularly where species are used as models in ecological studies. To address the extent of intraspecific variation within O. marina, we assessed diversity among 11 strains using 5.8S rDNA and ITS sequences. The 5.8S rDNA and ITS regions revealed high divergence between strains: 63.1% between the most diverse. To compare O. marina diversity relative to other alveolates, 18S rDNA sequences for five strains were analysed with sequences from representatives of the major alveolate groups. 18S rDNA also revealed high divergence in O. marina. Additionally, consistent with phylogenies based on protein coding genes, maximum likelihood analysis indicated that O. marina was monophyletic and ancestral to the dinoflagellates. To assess ecophysiological differences, growth rates of seven O. marina strains were measured at 10 salinities (10,55,). Two salinity responses occurred: one group achieved highest growth rates at high salinities; the other grew best at low salinities. There was no clear correlation between molecular, ecophysiological, or geographical differences. However, salinity tolerance was associated with habitat type: intertidal strains grew best at high salinities; open-water strains grew best at low salinities. These data indicate the need to examine many strains of a species in both phylogenetic and ecological studies, especially where key-species are used to model ecological processes. [source]

Effects of salinity on the growth and proximate composition of selected tropical marine periphytic diatoms and cyanobacteria

Helena Khatoon
Abstract Marine periphytic cyanobacteria and diatoms have been examined as a potential source of feed supplement for rearing aquatic larvae in the aquaculture industry. Culture of the periphytic diatom Amphora sp., Navicula sp., Cymbella sp. and the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. at different salinities showed significant changes in biomass and specific growth rates. Diatoms growth was significantly higher at 35 g L,1, while for cyanobacteria growth was better at 25 g L,1. Significantly higher levels of protein and lipid were found in diatoms at low salinities (15,25 g L,1) and an increase in carbohydrate at high salinities (30,35 g L,1). Conversely, cyanobacteria showed a significantly higher lipid content at 30,35 g L,1 compared with other salinity levels but no significant changes were observed in the protein and carbohydrate contents at different salinity levels. The present findings can be taken into consideration when culturing marine periphytic Amphora sp., Navicula sp., Cymbella sp. and Oscillatoria sp. to provide appropriate levels of protein, lipid and carbohydrate as feed supplement as well as for bioremediation in aquaculture. [source]

Acute copper toxicity in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa: implications for the development of an estuarine and marine biotic ligand model

Grasiela Lopes Leães Pinho
Abstract Copepods (Acartia tonsa) were exposed (48 h) to waterborne, diet-borne (non-Cu-equilibrated and Cu-equilibrated food), and waterborne plus diet-borne Cu in either the absence or the presence of food (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii). Toxicity tests were run in different salinities (5, 15, and 30 ppt) together with measurements of physicochemical parameters and total and dissolved Cu concentrations in the experimental media. Results show that most of the toxic Cu fraction was in the dissolved phase. In general, Cu toxicity was higher in low (5 ppt) than in high salinity (30 ppt), regardless of the pathway of Cu exposure tested. In the absence of food, data clearly indicate that differences in waterborne Cu toxicity can be explained by changes in water chemistry. However, addition of food (either non-Cu-equilibrated or Cu-equilibrated) to the experimental media protected against acute Cu toxicity in salinities 5 and 15 ppt, suggesting that A. tonsa requires extra energy to cope with the stressful condition imposed by Cu exposure associated with the ionoregulatory requirements in low salinities. For diet-borne exposure, a very high Cu concentration was necessary to precontaminate the diatoms to a level resulting in copepod mortality. Therefore, availability of food exerted a more important positive impact in protecting against acute Cu toxicity than its potential negative impact via contamination resulting in toxicity. Findings indicate the need for incorporation of both salinity and food in a future biotic ligand model (BLM) version for Cu in estuarine and marine waters. In this context, the euryhaline copepod A. tonsa would be a suitable model species with which to perform experiments to validate and calibrate any future saltwater BLM. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29:1834,1840. © 2010 SETAC [source]

ISC1-encoded inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C is involved in Na+/Li+ halotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2002
Christian Betz
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxic concentrations of Na+ orLi+ ions induce the expression of the cation-extrusion ATPase gene, ENA1. Several well-studied signal transduction pathways are known correlating high salinity to the transcriptional activation of ENA1. Nevertheless, information on the actual sensing mechanism initiating these pathways is limited. Here, we report that the ISC1 -encoded phosphosphingolipid-specific phospholipase C appears to be involved in stimulation of ENA1 expression and, consequently, in mediating Na+ and Li+ tolerance in yeast. Deletion of ISC1 distinctly decreased cellular Na+ and Li+ tolerance as growth of the ,isc1::HIS5 mutant, DZY1, was severely impaired by 0.5 m NaCl or 0.01 m LiCl. In contrast,K+ tolerance and general osmostress regulation wereunaffected. Isc1, mutant growth with 0.9 m KCl and glycerol accumulation in the presence of 0.9 m NaCl or 1.5 m sorbitol were comparable to that of the wild-type. ENA1 -lacZ reporter studies suggested that the increased salt sensitivity of the isc1, mutant is related to a significant reduction of Na+/Li+ -stimulated ENA1 expression. Correspondingly, Ena1p-dependent extrusion of Na+/Li+ ions was less efficient in the isc1, mutant than in wild-type cells. Itis suggested that ISC1 -dependent hydrolysis of an unidentified yeast inositol phosphosphingolipid represents an early event in one of the salt-induced signalling pathways of ENA1 transcriptional activation. [source]

The impact of salinity pulses on the emergence of plant and zooplankton from wetland seed and egg banks

Summary 1. In this study we compared the emergence of aquatic biota from sediments under 14-day pulses of high (5000 mg L,1) and low (1000 mg L,1) salinity with emergence under freshwater and equivalent constant salinity levels. We tested the hypothesis that pulses of high salinity and short duration have no impact on the emergence of aquatic plants and zooplankton from wetland sediment. 2. The way salt is moved through the landscape may alter the response of biota to increases in salinity. Under natural hydrological regimes in rivers and floodplains salinity pulses occur often at concentrations that exceed predicted tolerance levels for aquatic biota. The impacts of natural pulses of high salinity followed by rapid return to fresh conditions may be used to inform management guidelines for the potential release of non-natural saline water into river systems with minimal impact. 3. For both aquatic plants and zooplankton the abundance and richness of the emerging taxa decreased at higher salinities kept at constant levels. In contrast, pulses of salinity followed by return to freshwater conditions did not have a negative impact on the emergence of aquatic plants or zooplankton. For many taxa of zooplankton a positive impact was demonstrated with higher emergence following the salinity pulse. 4. The responses of aquatic plant and zooplankton taxa are grouped into five response types. Type 1: negatively impacted by all salt regimes. Type 2: preference for constant salinities. Type 3: no difference between fresh and either pulse regime. Type 4: preference for high concentration pulses. Type 5: emergence higher under a low concentration pulse. 5. Although previous studies indicate that constant high-level salinity in rivers and wetlands can decrease the species richness of aquatic communities, this current study shows pulses may not have the same impact. Our results support the hypothesis that pulses of high salinity and short duration do not impact on the emergence of aquatic plants and zooplankton from wetland sediments. For zooplankton, pulses of salt may trigger emergence. 6. These trends may be used to explore the potential to use managed water releases to move salt through the landscape with minimal impact of salinity on aquatic biota. However, before such preliminary results are applied in management of saline water releases we need to determine the implications for interacting processes in natural ecosystems. [source]

An examination of groundwater within the Hawara Pyramid, Egypt

K. Keatings
The Hawara Pyramid is an outstanding monument. However, the mudbrick structure shows signs of erosion, and the passages and chambers are currently submerged. The problem of water ingress has mainly arisen since the 1880s. In this study, an initial assessment of the pyramid structure was made and causes of water ingress were investigated through analysis of water samples. Stable oxygen isotope measurements indicate that the source of water within the pyramid is the Bahr Selah canal. Water within the pyramid is highly saline compared to the Bahr Selah, and evaporation can only partly account for this high salinity. The composition of dissolved ions suggests that dissolution of salts in soils and from bedrock in the vicinity of the pyramid has enhanced the salinity of water percolating into the pyramid structure. Water ingress and salt deposition are at present the main threat to the integrity of the monument. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The upper continental crust, an aquifer and its fluid: hydaulic and chemical data from 4 km depth in fractured crystalline basement rocks at the KTB test site

Abstract Detailed information on the hydrogeologic and hydraulic properties of the deeper parts of the upper continental crust is scarce. The pilot hole of the deep research drillhole (KTB) in crystalline basement of central Germany provided access to the crust for an exceptional pumping experiment of 1-year duration. The hydraulic properties of fractured crystalline rocks at 4 km depth were derived from the well test and a total of 23100 m3 of saline fluid was pumped from the crustal reservoir. The experiment shows that the water-saturated fracture pore space of the brittle upper crust is highly connected, hence, the continental upper crust is an aquifer. The pressure,time data from the well tests showed three distinct flow periods: the first period relates to wellbore storage and skin effects, the second flow period shows the typical characteristics of the homogeneous isotropic basement rock aquifer and the third flow period relates to the influence of a distant hydraulic border, probably an effect of the Franconian lineament, a steep dipping major thrust fault known from surface geology. The data analysis provided a transmissivity of the pumped aquifer T = 6.1 × 10,6 m2 sec,1, the corresponding hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is K = 4.07 × 10,8 m sec,1 and the computed storage coefficient (storativity) of the aquifer of about S = 5 × 10,6. This unexpected high permeability of the continental upper crust is well within the conditions of possible advective flow. The average flow porosity of the fractured basement aquifer is 0.6,0.7% and this range can be taken as a representative and characteristic values for the continental upper crust in general. The chemical composition of the pumped fluid was nearly constant during the 1-year test. The total of dissolved solids amounts to 62 g l,1 and comprise mainly a mixture of CaCl2 and NaCl; all other dissolved components amount to about 2 g l,1. The cation proportions of the fluid (XCa approximately 0.6) reflects the mineralogical composition of the reservoir rock and the high salinity results from desiccation (H2O-loss) due to the formation of abundant hydrate minerals during water,rock interaction. The constant fluid composition suggests that the fluid has been pumped from a rather homogeneous reservoir lithology dominated by metagabbros and amphibolites containing abundant Ca-rich plagioclase. [source]

Ectoines as compatible solutes and carbon and energy sources for the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens

C. Vargas
Abstract Aims:, To investigate the catabolism of ectoine and hydroxyectoine, which are the major compatible solutes synthesized by Chromohalobacter salexigens. Methods and Results:, Growth curves performed in M63 minimal medium with low (0·75 mol l,1 NaCl), optimal (1·5 mol l,1 NaCl) or high (2·5 mol l,1 NaCl) salinity revealed that betaine and ectoines were used as substrate for growth at optimal and high salt. Ectoine transport was maximal at optimal salinity, and showed 3- and 1·5-fold lower values at low and high salinity respectively. The salt-sensitive ectA mutant CHR62 showed an ectoine transport rate 6·8-fold higher than that of the wild type. Incubation of C. salexigens in a mixture of glucose and ectoine resulted in a biphasic growth pattern. However, CO2 production due to ectoine catabolism was lower, but not completely abolished, in the presence of glucose. When used as the sole carbon source, glycine betaine effectively inhibited ectoine and hydroxyectoine synthesis at any salinity. Conclusions:, The catabolic pathways for ectoine and hydroxyectoine in C. salexigens operate at optimal and high (although less efficiently) salinity. Endogenous ectoine(s) may repress its own transport. Ectoine utilization was only partially repressed by glucose. Betaine, when used as carbon source, suppresses synthesis of ectoines even under high osmolarity conditions. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This study is a previous step to the subsequent isolation and manipulation of the catabolic genes, so as to generate strains with enhanced production of ectoine and hydroxyectoine. [source]

Effect of culture conditions on lactic acid production of Tetragenococcus species

T. Kobayashi
Abstract Aims:, To investigate the effects of the salt concentration, incubation temperature and initial pH of the medium on the fermentative ability of the halophilic lactic acid bacteria, Tetragenococcus muriaticus and T. halophilus. Method and Results:, The growth, lactic acid production and pH reduction ability of five strains of T. muriaticus and T. halophilus in MRS broth medium under various culture conditions such as salt concentration (3, 7, 15 and 23% NaCl), temperature (20, 30 and 40°C), and initial medium pH (5·8, 6·5 and 7·5) were investigated. Those of T. halophilus were seriously affected by a high salinity (23% NaCl); in contrast, those of T. muriaticus were affected by a low initial pH (5·8). Conclusions:, The results indicate that high saline concentrations and low pH values have significant impact on the growth, lactic acid production and pH reduction ability of T. halophilus and T. muriaticus, respectively. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This study appears to be important in biopreservation during the manufacture of fermented food products. Both T. muriaticus and T. halophilus may support each other in reducing pH in hypersaline or low pH environment. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fermentation ability of T. muriaticus. [source]

Cardiac disorders in farmed adult brown trout, Salmo trutta L.

C Mercier
During summer in Brittany, France, sea farmed brown trout, Salmo trutta L., regularly experience a high mortality rate which is associated, at least in part, with cardiac disorders (aneurysms and infarcts). The present study is preliminary to a more extensive research programme, the objective of which is to determine to what extent the physiological performance of the cardiovascular system of brown trout is affected by the environmental conditions the fish experience in farm cages. We conducted a 2-week in situ experiment during which the heart rate of eight sea water acclimatized individuals was telemetered using acoustic tags. During the experimental period, water temperature ranged from 16.0 to 17.6 °C. Water oxygen saturation was above 80% at all times and salinity was very high (35.5,) but stable. Although they were unfed and not active, seven of out the eight tagged animals displayed near maximum heart beat frequencies, which ranged between 83 and 98 beats per minute (bpm). On the other hand, the eighth animal exhibited medium-range heart rates (50,70 bpm). Using phase delay maps, we established that the maximum heart rate of brown trout at 17 °C was in the range of 96,100 bpm. This result suggests that in our experimental conditions, the heart rate of most of our inactive fish was between 85 and 100% of maximum myocardial performance. We hypothesize that the cardiac failures observed in brown trout during summer are most likely a result of strenuous workloads imposed on the cardiovascular system by a combination of elevated temperature, high salinity and possibly season-related decreased hypo-osmoregulatory abilities. [source]

The 6-phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Genes Are Responsive to Abiotic Stresses in Rice

Fu-Yun Hou
Abstract Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, E.C. and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH, EC are both key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The OsG6PDH1 and Os6PGDH1 genes encoding cytosolic G6PDH and cytosolic 6PGDH were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.). We have shown that Os6PGDH1 gene was up-regulated by salt stress. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of Os6PGDH2 from rice, which encode the plastidic counterpart of 6PGDH. Genomic organization analysis indicated that OsG6PDH1 and OsG6PDH2 genes contain multiple introns, whereas two Os6PGDH1 and Os6PGDH2 genes have no introns in their translated regions. In a step towards understanding the functions of the pentose phosphate pathway in plants in response to various abiotic stresses, the expressions of four genes in the rice seedlings treated by drought, cold, high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. The results show that OsG6PDH1 and OsG6PDH2 are not markedly regulated by the abiotic stresses detected. However, the transcript levels of both Os6PGDH1 and Os6PGDH2 are up-regulated in rice seedlings under drought, cold, high salinity and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the enzyme activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in the rice seedlings treated by various abiotic stresses were investigated. Like the mRNA expression patterns, G6PDH activity remains constant but the 6PGDH increases steadily during the treatments. Taken together, we suggest that the pentose phosphate pathway may play an important role in rice responses to abiotic stresses and the second key enzyme of PPP, 6PGDH, may function as a regulator controlling the efficiency of the pathway under abiotic stresses. (Handling editor: Kang Chong) [source]

The Influence Of Salinity On Verticillium dahliae In Stem Cuttings Of Five Olive Cultivars

A. G. Levin
Abstract Verticillium dahliae represents one of the main limiting factors in olive production in the Mediterranean countries. Increasing shortage of fresh water and land, increase the pressure on using alternative sources of marginal or saline water, and land previously cropped with V. dahliae host plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of salinity on V. dahliae expression in olive stem cuttings. V. dahliae- inoculated cuttings of cvs. Picual, Frantoio, Mansanillo and Barnea, showed higher senescence symptoms than their non-inoculated controls. Colonization levels obtained in cv. Picual were significantly higher than in cv. Frantoio. Manzanillo was the most sensitive cultivar to salinity alone, with significant senescence symptoms in 4 and 6 dS/m NaCl treatments. When cv. Manzanillo was exposed to both salinity and V. dahliae, significantly higher senescence symptoms were obtained as compared with each of them separately. Senescence symptoms of cv. Picual exposed to V. dahliae, whether or not in combination with saline solutions, were significantly higher than those when cuttings were exposed to a saline solution alone. In cv. Frantoio, which is more resistant to salinity than the other cultivars, significantly high senescence symptoms were observed only in combination of V. dahliae and high saline concentration (8 dS/m). The fungal colonization index in cv. Manzanillo in high salinity (8 dS/m) was significantly higher than in the treatment without salt. In cv. Barnea, colonization index in 8 dS/m salinity was significantly higher than in the 4 dS/m concentration or control (fresh water). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the interaction between V. dahliae and saline irrigation in various cultivars. Thus, stem cuttings could serve as an effective screening method in breeding olive clones for V. dahliae resistance, salt tolerance and their interaction. [source]

Interaction Effects of Citrus Rootstocks, Salinity and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Parasitism on Osmotically Active Ions

High densities of Tylenchulus semipenetrans and slow decline symptoms are dominant in citrus-producing areas with high salinity. Currently, no commercial citrus rootstock is both nematode-resistant and salt-tolerant. Interaction effects of citrus rootstocks, salinity and T. semipenetrans were evaluated for the partitioning of salinity ions (Cl and Na) and K in microplots. Treatments comprised six citrus rootstocks with wide ranges of salt tolerance, 0 and 3 mols NaCl + 0.25 mols CaCl2 l,1 water and 0 and 856 300 nematodes. At harvest, eight months after salinity treatments, the three,factor interaction was significant (P=0.05) for the alteration in the partitioning of salinity ions and K. Nematodes generally increased salinity ions in leaves and reduced salinity ions in roots and K in both leaves and roots. Thus, management of nematodes is critical in areas with salinity problems. [source]

Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen on seedling emergence, ion accumulation, and seedling growth under salinity in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa

Jie Song
Abstract Recently nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signal molecule in plants. However, little is known about the role of NO in the salt tolerance of halophytes. Effects of the NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitrate (NO) on growth and ion accumulation in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa under salinity were investigated in the present study. The results showed that higher SNP supply increased seedling emergence, but SNP had no effect on shoot growth and the concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl,, and NO. Higher NO had no effect on seedling emergence of the species. Shoot Cl, decreased, but NO3, increased markedly, with a higher NO supply. The decrease in the estimated contribution of Cl, to the osmotic potential was compensated for by an increase in that of NO. It appears that NO plays an important osmotic role in S. salsa under high salinity with a higher NO supply, and this trait may increase salt tolerance of the species under high salinity. [source]

Gene expression profiling of Dunaliella sp. acclimated to different salinities

Minjung Kim
SUMMARY To investigate which genes may be important for growth under extreme conditions such as very low or high salinities, a survey of the Dunaliella sp. transcriptome was performed with a cDNA microarray which had been generated previously representing 778 expressed sequence tags. The comparative microarray analysis indicated that 142 genes differed in expression levels by more than twofold in cells grown at extreme salinities (0.08 M and 4.5 M NaCl) when compared with cells grown at intermediate salinity (1.5 M NaCl). Of these genes, 28 had increased expression and 57 were suppressed in cells grown at low salinity. In cells grown at high salinity, 43 genes showed increased expression and 69 genes showed suppressed expression. However, we did observe a large overlap in the expression of extreme salinity-responsive genes based on Venn diagram analysis, which found 55 genes that responded to both of the two extreme salinity conditions. Further, we found that several genes had similar expression levels under low and high salinities, including some general stress response genes that were upregulated in both extreme salinity conditions. For confirmation of the validity of the cDNA microarray analysis, expression of several genes was independently confirmed by the use of gene-specific primers and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The present study is the first large-scale comparative survey of the transcriptome from the microalga Dunaliella sp. acclimated to extreme salinities, thus providing a platform for further functional investigation of differentially expressed genes in Dunaliella. [source]

NaCl treatment markedly enhances H2O2 -scavenging system in leaves of halophyte Suaeda salsa

Pang Cai-Hong
The C3 halophyte Suaeda salsa L. grown under the high concentration of NaCl (200 mM) was used to investigate the role of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-scavenging system [catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, and glutathione (GSH)] in removal of reactive oxygen species. The activity of catalase (CAT, EC, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC, and GR (EC increased significantly after 7 days of NaCl treatment. The isoform patterns of CAT and GR were not affected, but the staining intensities were significantly increased by NaCl treatment. Activities of both the thylakoid-bound APX or GR and stromal APX (S-APX) or GR in the chloroplasts were markedly enhanced under high salinity. Fifty percent of APX in the chloroplasts is thylakoid-bound APX. S-APX and GR activity represented about 74,78 and 64,71% of the total soluble leaf APX and GR activity, respectively. Salt treatment increased the contents of ascorbic acid and GSH. By contrast, a decreased content of H2O2 was found in the leaves of NaCl-treated S. salsa. The level of membrane lipid peroxidation decreased slightly after NaCl treatment. The plants grew well with high rate of net photosynthesis under high salinity. These data suggest that upregulation of the H2O2 -scavenging system in plant cells, especially in the chloroplasts, is at least one component of the tolerance adaptations of halophytes to high salinity. [source]

Differences in efficient metabolite management and nutrient metabolic regulation between wild and cultivated barley grown at high salinity

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Sabah Yousfi
Abstract Physiological and biochemical responses of Hordeum maritimum and H. vulgare to salt stress were studied over a 60-h period. Growth at increasing salinity levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl) was assessed in hydroponic culture. H. maritimum was shown to be a true halophyte via its typical behaviour at high salinity. Shoot growth of cultivated barley was gradually reduced with increasing salinity, whereas that of wild barley was enhanced at 100 and 200 mm NaCl then slightly reduced at 300 mM NaCl. The higher salt tolerance of H. maritimum as compared to H. vulgare was due to its higher capacity to maintain cell turgor under severe salinity. Furthermore, H. maritimum exhibited fine regulation of Na+ transport from roots to shoots and, unlike H. vulgare, it accumulated less Na+ in shoots than in roots. In addition, H. maritimum can accumulate more Na+ than K+ in both roots and shoots without the appearance of toxicity symptoms, indicating that Na+ was well compartmentalized within cells and substituted K+ in osmotic adjustment. The higher degree of salt tolerance of H. maritimum is further demonstrated by its economic strategy: at moderate salt treatment (100 mm NaCl), it used inorganic solutes (such as Na+) for osmotic adjustment and kept organic solutes and a large part of the K+ for metabolic activities. Indeed, K+ use efficiency in H. maritimum was about twofold that in H. vulgare; the former started to use organic solutes as osmotica only at high salinity (200 and 300 mm NaCl). These results suggest that the differences in salt tolerance between H. maritimum and H. vulgare are partly due to (i) differences in control of Na+ transport from roots to shoots, and (ii) H. maritimum uses Na+ as an osmoticum instead of K+ and organic solutes. These factors are differently reflected in growth. [source]

The SUI-homologous translation initiation factor eIF-1 is involved in regulation of ion homeostasis in rice

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
C. J. Diédhiou
Abstract Halophytes survive high salinity by using complex adaptive mechanisms. In a search for novel molecular mechanisms involved in salt acclimation, transcript analyses revealed increased expression of a SUI-homologous translation initiation factor eIF-1 in the salt-tolerant grass species Festuca rubra ssp. littoralis but not in rice. Upon analysis of the cell specificity of eIF-1 transcription by in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR), predominant signals were detected in rice leaf mesophyll. To further examine the role of eIF-1 in salt tolerance, transgenic rice plants were generated that over-express this factor under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter. The eIF-1 over-expressing lines showed improved growth under salt stress that was correlated with maintenance of photosynthetic activity and reduced Na+ and Cl, accumulation in leaves. The transgenic rice lines also activated expression of the vacuolar H+ -ATPase. In addition, an oxidoreductase that belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family was identified as a gene with modified expression in the eIF-1 over-expressing lines, compared with wild-type rice. Our data suggest that eIF-1 has a central function in salt-stress adaptation in rice by regulating ion accumulation and the intracellular redox status. [source]

Transgenic salt-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) constitutively expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene, AtNHX3, accumulates more soluble sugar but less salt in storage roots

ABSTRACT In Arabidopsis thaliana, six vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters (AtNHX1-6) were identified. Among them, AtNHX1, 2 and 5 are functional Na+/H+ antiporters with the most abundant expression levels in seedling shoots and roots. However, the expression of AtNHX3 in Arabidopsis can only be detected by RT-PCR, and its physiological function still remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of AtNHX3 in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) conferred augmented resistance to high salinity on transgenic plants. In the presence of 300 or 500 mm NaCl, transgenic plants showed very high potassium accumulation in the roots and storage roots. Furthermore, the transcripts of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS) and cell wall sucrose invertase (SI) genes were maintained in transgenic plants. The accumulation of soluble sugar in the storage roots of transgenic plants grown under high salt stress condition was also higher. Our results implicate that AtNHX3 is also a functional antiporter responsible for salt tolerance by mediating K+/H+ exchange in higher plants. The salt accumulation in leaves but not in the storage roots, and the increased yield of storage roots with enhanced constituent soluble sugar contents under salt stress condition demonstrate a great potential use of this gene in improving the quality and yield of crop plants. [source]

Comparison of mitochondrial ascorbate peroxidase in the cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, and its wild, salt-tolerant relative, L. pennellii, a role for matrix isoforms in protection against oxidative damage

ABSTRACT Mitochondria require robust antioxidant defences to prevent lipid peroxidation and to protect tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes from oxidative damage. Mitochondria from wild, salt-tolerant tomato, Lycopersicon pennellii (Lpa) did not exhibit lipid peroxidation in response to high salinity (100 mm NaCl), whereas those isolated from cultivated tomato, L. esculentum (Lem), accumulated malondialdehyde. The activity, intraorganellar distribution and salt response of mitochondrial ascorbate peroxidase (mAPX) differed dramatically in the two species. In Lem mitochondria, the majority (84%) of mAPX was associated with membranes, being located either on the inner membrane, facing the intermembrane space, or on the outer membrane. Total mAPX activity did not increase substantially in response to salt, although the proportion of matrix APX increased. In contrast, 61% of Lpa mAPX activity was soluble in the matrix, the remainder being bound to the matrix face of the inner membrane. Salt treatment increased the activity of all mAPX isoforms in Lpa, without altering their intramitochondrial distribution. The membrane-bound isoforms were detected in mitochondria of both species by western blotting and found to be induced by salt in Lpa. These observations suggest that matrix-associated APX isoforms could act in concert with other mitochondrial antioxidants to protect against salt-induced oxidative stress. [source]

Molecular and genetic aspects of plant responses to osmotic stress

L. Xiong
Abstract Drought, high salinity and freezing impose osmotic stress on plants. Plants respond to the stress in part by modulating gene expression, which eventually leads to the restoration of cellular homeostasis, detoxification of toxins and recovery of growth. The signal transduction pathways mediating these adaptations can be dissected by combining forward and reverse genetic approaches with molecular, biochemical and physiological studies. Arabidopsis is a useful genetic model system for this purpose and its relatives including the halophyte Thellungiella halophila, can serve as valuable complementary genetic model systems. [source]

Mineral Paragenesis and Fluid Inclusions of Some Pluton-hosted Vein-type Copper Deposits in the Coastal Cordillera, Northern Chile

Dania Trista
Abstract. Formation conditions of some vein-type copper deposits of the Tocopilla district (Deseada, San Jose, Santa Rosa) and the Gatico district (Yohanita, Toldo-Velarde, Argentina) in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile were inferred from mineral paragenesis and fluid inclusion data, and were compared with those of neighboring stratiform copper deposits. The vein-type copper deposits are hosted in Late Jurassic dioritic to quartz-dioritic plutons intruding extensively an andesite-dominant volcanic pile of the Jurassic La Negra Formation. Primary mineralization is characterized by chalcopyrite + magnetite + pyrite + bornite, and supergene alteration of these minerals produced anilite, covellite, atacamite and chrysocolla. The hypogene mineral assemblage indicates relatively high sulfur fugacity and weakly oxidized conditions, distinct from the stratiform copper deposits formed under low sulfur fugacity and moderately oxidized conditions. Furthermore, the fluid inclusion data of the vein-type deposits indicate high temperature (401,560d,C) and high salinity (39,68 wt% NaCl equiv.) ranges in contrast to the stratiform deposits, suggesting that this type of deposits formed by magma-associated hypersaline ore fluids. [source]

Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Age Constraints on the Beni Bou Ifrour Skarn Type Magnetite Deposit, Northeastern Morocco

Mohammed EL RHAZI
Abstract: The Beni Bou Ifrour deposit of northeastern Morocco is a skarn type magnetite deposit. K-Ar age determination suggests that the mineralization occurred at 7.040.47 Ma. The spatial relationship between skarn and dikes of microgran-odiorite derived from the batholith of Wiksane Granodiorite, and the similarity of age (8.020.22 Ma), confirms that the Wiksane Granodiorite is the igneous rock most probably related to mineralization. The skarn is distributed asymmetrically in the limestone, and magnetite ore was developed just below the calc-silicate skarn as two parallel beds separated by 100 m of barren limestone and schist. The mineralization can be divided into three stages. The early stage is characterized by the formation of calc-silicate minerals, mainly clinopyroxene (80,70 % diopside) and garnet (early almost pure andradite to the late 60 % andradite). The main stage is characterized by the formation of a large amount of magnetite. Epidote and quartz formed simultaneously with magnetite. Fluid temperatures exceeded 500 C during the early to main stages. Fluid with very high salinity (50,75 wt% NaCl equiv.) was responsible for the formation of the magnetite ore. The oxygen isotope composition, together with the fluid inclusion data, suggests that magmatic fluid was significant for the formation of calc-silicate skarn minerals and magnetite. Low temperature (-230C) and low salinity (-10 % NaCl equiv.) hydrothermal fluids dominated by meteoric water were responsible for the late stage quartz and calcite formation. [source]

Salinity stress adaptation competence in the extremophile Thellungiella halophila in comparison with its relative Arabidopsis thaliana

Qingqiu Gong
Summary In stark contrast to Arabidopsis, a related species, Thellungiella halophila (Thellungiella salsuginea; salt cress), displays extreme tolerance to high salinity, low humidity and freezing. High nucleotide sequence identity permits the use of tools developed for Arabidopsis for Thellungiella transcript profiling, for which a microarray platform with >25 000 DNA elements (70-mer oligonucleotides) was used. Microarray transcript profiling and intensity analysis, quantitative RT-PCR, and metabolite profiles define genes and pathways that showed shared and divergent responses to salinity stress in the two species. Shared responses are exemplified by 40% of the regulated genes functioning in confining ribosomal functions, photosynthesis and cell growth, as well as activating osmolyte production, transport activities and abscisic acid-dependent pathways. An additional 60% of regulated genes distinguished Thellungiella from Arabidopsis. Analysis of the differences showed that Arabidopsis exhibited a global defense strategy that required bulk protein synthesis, while Thellungiella induced genes functioning in protein folding, post-translational modification and protein redistribution. At 150 mm NaCl, Thellungiella maintained unimpeded growth. Transcript intensity analyses and metabolite profiles supported the microarray results, pointing towards a stress-anticipatory preparedness in Thellungiella. [source]