High Genetic Divergence (high + genetic_divergence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The divergence of two independent lineages of an endemic Chinese gecko, Gekko swinhonis, launched by the Qinling orogenic belt

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2010
JIE YAN
Abstract The genetic structure and demographic history of an endemic Chinese gecko, Gekko swinhonis, were investigated by analysing the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 10 microsatellite loci for samples collected from 27 localities. Mitochondrial DNA data provided a detailed distribution of two highly divergent evolutionary lineages, between which the average pairwise distance achieved was 0.14. The geographic division of the two lineages coincided with a plate boundary consisting of the Qinling and Taihang Mts, suggesting a historical vicariant pattern. The orogeny of the Qinling Mts, a dispersal and major climatic barrier of the region, may have launched the independent lineage divergence. Both lineages have experienced recent expansion, and the current sympatric localities comprised the region of contact between the lineages. Individual-based phylogenetic analyses of nucDNA and Bayesian-clustering approaches revealed a deep genetic structure analogous to mtDNA. Incongruence between nucDNA and mtDNA at the individual level at localities outside of the contact region can be explained by the different inheritance patterns and male-biased dispersal in this species. High genetic divergence, long-term isolation and ecological adaptation, as well as the morphological differences, suggest the presence of a cryptic species. [source]


High genetic divergence in miniature breeds of Japanese native chickens compared to Red Junglefowl, as revealed by microsatellite analysis

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2008
R. Tadano
Summary A wide diversity of domesticated chicken breeds exist due to artificial selection on the basis of human interests. Miniature variants (bantams) are eminently illustrative of the large changes from ancestral junglefowls. In this report, the genetic characterization of seven Japanese miniature chicken breeds and varieties, together with institute-kept Red Junglefowl, was conducted by means of typing 40 microsatellites located on 21 autosomes. We drew focus to genetic differentiation between the miniature chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl in particular. A total of 305 alleles were identified: 27 of these alleles (8.9%) were unique to the Red Junglefowl with high frequencies (>20%). Significantly high genetic differences (FST) were obtained between Red Junglefowl and all other breeds with a range of 0.3901,0.5128. Individual clustering (constructed from combinations of the proportion of shared alleles and the neighbour-joining method) indicated high genetic divergence among breeds including Red Junglefowl. There were also individual assignments on the basis of the Bayesian and distance-based approaches. The microsatellite differences in the miniature chicken breeds compared to the presumed wild ancestor reflected the phenotypic diversity among them, indicating that each of these miniature chicken breeds is a unique gene pool. [source]


VICARIANCE AND DISPERSAL ACROSS BAJA CALIFORNIA IN DISJUNCT MARINE FISH POPULATIONS

EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
Giacomo Bernardi
Abstract., Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent from the Cape (Cabo San Lucas) region. We studied the genetic makeup of disjunct populations for 12 of these 19 fish species. Phylogeographic patterns for the 12 species can be separated into two major classes: a first group (eight species) showed reciprocal monophyly and high genetic divergence between disjunct populations. A second group (four species) displayed what appeared to be panmictic populations. Population structure between Pacific Coast populations, across the Punta Eugenia biogeographic boundary, was also evaluated. While dispersal potential (inferred by pelagic larval duration) was a poor predictor of population structure between Gulf of California and Pacific populations, we found that population genetic subdivision along the Pacific Coast at Punta Eugenia was always positively correlated with differentiation between Pacific and Gulf of California populations. Vicariant events, ongoing gene flow, and ecological characteristics played essential roles in shaping the population structures observed in this study. [source]


Fine scale genetic population structure of the freshwater and Omono types of nine-spined stickleback Pungitius pungitius (L.) within the Omono River system, Japan

JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 2006
T. Tsuruta
The fine scale geographic population structure of two types of nine-spined stickleback Pungitius pungitius (the widely distributed freshwater type and a local endemic, the Omono type) within the Omono River system, Japan, was investigated. A principal components analysis of allele frequencies and neighbour-joining tree for pair-wise FST values, based on 10 allozyme loci, revealed that the Omono type was comprised of four regional groups with relatively high genetic divergence. This grouping was also supported by hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) with a higher variance component among the regional groups, and by an exact test with significant genotypic differentiation for all sample pairs among the regional groups. Moreover, in the clustering of individuals using the Bayesian method, most of individuals in each regional group were assigned the corresponding cluster. On the other hand, there were less pronounced regional groups of the freshwater type, although AMOVA, exact test for genotypic differentiation and Bayesian analysis indicated genetic divergence between two sampling sites in lower reach of the Omono River and other sites. The results suggest that the Omono type represented an earlier colonization, with subsequent invasion of the freshwater type. [source]


Genetic variation within the Lidia bovine breed

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2008
J. Can
Summary The results of an exhaustive data collection from a bovine population with a low level of exchangeability, the Lidia breed, are presented. A total of 1683 individuals from 79 herds were sampled and genetic diversity within and among lineages was assessed using 24 microsatellite loci on 22 different chromosomes. Expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.46 and 0.68 per lineage and there was significant inbreeding in the lineages, which included several farms [mean FIS = 0.11, bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.09, 0.14)], mainly because of the high genetic divergence between herds within those lineages. High genetic differentiation between lineages was also found with a mean FST of 0.18 [bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.17, 0.19)], and all pairwise values, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.35, were highly significant. The relationships among lineages showed weak statistical support. Nonetheless, lineages were highly discrete when analysed using correspondence analysis and a great proportion of the individuals were correctly assigned to their own lineage when performing standard assignment procedures. [source]


High genetic divergence in miniature breeds of Japanese native chickens compared to Red Junglefowl, as revealed by microsatellite analysis

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2008
R. Tadano
Summary A wide diversity of domesticated chicken breeds exist due to artificial selection on the basis of human interests. Miniature variants (bantams) are eminently illustrative of the large changes from ancestral junglefowls. In this report, the genetic characterization of seven Japanese miniature chicken breeds and varieties, together with institute-kept Red Junglefowl, was conducted by means of typing 40 microsatellites located on 21 autosomes. We drew focus to genetic differentiation between the miniature chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl in particular. A total of 305 alleles were identified: 27 of these alleles (8.9%) were unique to the Red Junglefowl with high frequencies (>20%). Significantly high genetic differences (FST) were obtained between Red Junglefowl and all other breeds with a range of 0.3901,0.5128. Individual clustering (constructed from combinations of the proportion of shared alleles and the neighbour-joining method) indicated high genetic divergence among breeds including Red Junglefowl. There were also individual assignments on the basis of the Bayesian and distance-based approaches. The microsatellite differences in the miniature chicken breeds compared to the presumed wild ancestor reflected the phenotypic diversity among them, indicating that each of these miniature chicken breeds is a unique gene pool. [source]