Health Screening (health + screening)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Health Screening and Developmental Disabilities

Teresa Iacono
Abstract, Adults with developmental disabilities often experience health disparities when compared with the general population. Early detection of risk of disease may help to reduce such disparities, but many adults often do not participate in preventive health care at recommended levels. The aim of the present study was to describe health screening activities involving a large group of adults and explore how factors, such as living arrangement, type and severity of disability, and age, influence reported rates of participation. The study involved administering surveys to adults with disabilities and their immediate support persons (parents, carers, and professional support workers) and asking whether adults had visited a general practitioner (GP) and what was their participation in preventive services during the previous 12-month period. Participation in preventive screening services ranged between 3% (screening for sexually transmitted infection) and 58% (screening for elevated blood pressure), and rates for certain services appeared low, particularly in comparison with equivalent screenings in the general population. Results showed a relationship between participation rates and living situation, type of disability, and age, but not severity of disability. The results suggest that higher rates of participation in preventative health activities among those enrolled in formal services may reflect a greater obligation or concern among paid workers and possibly a lack of awareness of health issues by families, and also that screening disparities may be attributed to GPs who may be applying guidelines from the general population but who are not aware of disability-specific issues when examining adults with disabilities. [source]

Preventive medicine beyond 65

Lionel S. Lim
Preventive health care in adults aged 65 and older is essential to ensure that quality of life is maintained with longevity. The first half of this article will focus on the two major causes of mortality in the US adult population: cancer and cardiovascular disease. We will address current screening and chemoprevention issues pertaining to breast, cervical, colorectal, prostate and skin cancer. For cardiovascular disease prevention, we will discuss the importance of screening for and treating hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the use of aspirin chemoprophylaxis and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In the latter half, we will discuss other aspects of preventive health care including fall prevention, motor vehicle safety, immunizations and screening issues. Health screening can help detect conditions like osteoporosis, subclinical thyroid disease, hearing impairment, nutritional status, and oral and dental problems. Finally, we will also address psychosocial health issues that affect older people including dementia, depression, elder abuse, lifestyle habits and advanced directives. Our recommendations are based on the latest available evidence and include the US Preventive Services Task Force and other leading health professional organizations. [source]

Associations Between Helicobacter pylori Infection, Co-Morbid Infections, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Circulating Cytokines in African Children

HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2010
Sarah Cherian
Abstract Background:, Refugee children have complex medical needs and often have multiple infections. The relationship between infection, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic inflammation is poorly understood. We investigated these parameters in refugee children with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, helminth, and malaria infection. Materials and Methods:, African refugee children were recruited at resettlement health screening. Data were collected on demography, gastrointestinal symptoms, co-morbid infection, and serum for peripheral cytokine levels. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed by a fecal-based immunoassay. Results:, Data from 163 children were analyzed, of which 84.0% were positive for H. pylori. Infected children were significantly older (9.2 years ± 3.7 vs 7.1 years ± 3.9, p = .01). Half the cohort (84/163, 51.5%) described gastrointestinal symptoms but these were not strongly associated with co-morbid infections. Helicobacter pylori -infected children had significantly lower circulating log-interleukin-8 (IL-8) (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40, 0.94, p = .025). Helminth infections were common (75/163, 46%) and associated with elevated log-IL-5 (,: 0.42, 95% CI 0.077, 0.76). Children with malaria (15/163, 9.2%) had elevated log-tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF,) and log-IL-10 (,: 0.67, 95% CI 0.34, 1.0 and ,: 1.3, 95% CI 0.67, 1.9, respectively). IL-10 : IL-12 ratios were increased in H. pylori- infected children with malaria or helminth infections. Symptoms were generally not associated with levels of circulating peripheral cytokines irrespective of co-morbid infection diagnosis. Conclusions:, There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic H. pylori infection in recently resettled African refugee children. Gastrointestinal symptoms were not predictive of H. pylori nor of helminth infections. Serum cytokines, particularly IL-5, IL-10, and TNF,, were significantly elevated in children with malaria and helminth infections but not in those with H. pylori infection. [source]

Using NIC to Describe the Role of the Nurse Practitioner

Cindy S. Haugsdal
PURPOSE To have nurse practitioners (NPs) identify the 20 most prevalent NIC interventions describing their nursing practice; to determine if the NIC is applicable to the NP role. METHODS The study used a descriptive survey design. NPs with prescriptive privileges in the state of Minnesota received a cover letter and survey that included a description of NIC and a list of the 486 intervention labels and their definitions from the NIC (3rd ed.). Each participant was asked to identify all interventions performed at least once per month in their practice and to provide basic demographic data, including identification of NP specialty. FINDINGS A total of 1,190 surveys were mailed with a return rate of 37%. NPs' average age was 45 years; the average number of years of NP practice was 9. Employment in a clinic represented the work setting of 72% of respondents followed by hospital practice (11%) and long-term care (10%). Specialty (certified) areas were family practice (27%), pediatrics (21%), adult (19%), women's health (16%), geriatrics (11%), psychiatric (5%), and oncology (1%). The educational level was primarily master's degree (73%). NPs identified an average of 120 interventions they performed at least once per month. These interventions reflected areas of patient education and support, as well as documentation and physician collaboration. The 20 most frequently selected interventions were reported by 71%, 90% of respondents. Four core interventions ,"documentation,""telephone consultation,""teaching: prescribed medication," and "emotional support", were used at least once per month by all specialties. DISCUSSION The level of consistency (70%) among responses validates the strong foundation that professional nursing, as described by NIC, provides NPs in their role. Four core interventions and the remaining 16 most frequently selected interventions that are more specific to each specialty practice indicates that NIC is comprehensive enough to meet the needs of a variety of NP practices. CONCLUSIONS NIC encompasses key areas of interventions (health screening, treatment and management, health promotion and education, psychosocial support, indirect activities) central to the role of NPs, but qualitative comments described the need for more language within NIC to characterize the NP role related to the prescribing of medications and treatments. Some respondents found the definitions to be unclear as to whether they were performing or ordering/prescribing the intervention. This lack of clarity could be addressed by further development of the NIC definitions and activities so the advanced role of the NP is more fully described. Development of documentation systems using the core interventions identified by the various NP specialties is needed. Using standardized nursing language for documentation will enable NPs to build clinical databases that reflect and describe the role. Future research needs to be focused by NP specialty and to go beyond the NIC definition and include analysis at the activity level. [source]

Urinary tract cancer screening through analysis of urinary red blood cell volume distribution

Mamoru Wakui
Abstract Background: Hematuria is differentiated between glomerular and urinary tract origins on the basis of urinary red cell morphology. We used this distinction in a program of mass screening for urinary tract cancer to achieve cost-effective and safe hematuria screening. Methods: Of a total of 21 372 adults (mean age 52.3 years; range 20,79 years) participating in a health screening, 912 (4.3%) had a positive dipstick for hematuria and were enrolled in the present study. Urinary red cell volume distribution curves (RDC), the simplest method of assessing urinary red cell morphology, were calculated and subjects were divided into two groups based on their RDC patterns. Group I subjects had a normocytic or mixed pattern and they were immediately investigated for urinary tract malignancy because of the associated risk for urological disease. Group II subjects had a microcytic pattern and, therefore, were judged to be at a low risk of urologic malignancy and were followed up 3 years later without urologic investigations. Results: Among the 38 subjects in group I (4% of all dipstick-positive subjects), one case of bladder cancer was detected. In the remaining 37 patients, 15 cases of benign diseases were discovered. Group II was composed of 869 subjects (96%). The inquiry into their health status conducted 3 years later revealed that 831 (95.6%) were healthy and, of these, 13 had experienced gross hematuria during the period but urological malignancies were ruled out by their urologists, two (0.2%) had died of diseases other than urological cancer and 36 (4.1%) were lost to follow-up. With our method, total costs have been reduced by 93.8% against a conventional setting of a full evaluation for all cases of hematuria. Conclusions: Microcytic hematuria, accounting for 96% of asymptomatic microhematuria cases in the present study, was not associated with a risk for urinary tract malignancy. Compared with conventional hematuria screening with a complete work-up of all cases of hematuria, investigating only subjects with mixed or normocytic RDC patterns was safe and cost effective. [source]

Breast cancer risk factors in Korean women: a literature review

S.-M. Lee rn
Aim:, To compile a complete list of risk factors from the Korean breast cancer studies to obtain relevant predictor information essential in developing a predictive model for breast cancer. Background:, Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer in Korea. However, the breast cancer-screening rate in Korea is relatively low compared with that in other countries. In order to promote early health screening, there is a need to identify those individuals who are most likely to develop breast cancer by using an accurate predictive model. Methods:, Thirty-four breast cancer studies were selected from MEDLINE and two Korean literature databases. Two researchers summarized the risk factors and their effects in each article using a checklist. Findings:, Most of the studies were case,control studies conducted after 2000. In 34 articles, a total of 84 risk factors for breast cancer in Korean women were identified; of these, 58 factors were determined as statistically significant factors. The factors identified most often were body mass index, menarche, menopause, family history, pregnancy and delivery, breastfeeding, alcohol use, smoking habits, diet, education and use of oral contraceptives. None of 34 studies looked at stress as a risk factor of which influence on cancer has been reported in other populations. Conclusion:, The next steps will be to construct a questionnaire consisting of relevant variables based on these study results and to develop a predictive model. This would be used to encourage those Koreans who are more likely to develop breast cancer to have early check-ups. [source]

Effectiveness of Structured Questionnaires for Screening Heavy Drinking in Middle-Aged Women

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2006
Mauri Aalto
Background: There is a need for an effective and feasible alcohol screening instrument. The aim of the study was to evaluate how the abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire perform in comparison with the original AUDIT and what the optimal cutoffs are when screening for heavy drinking among women. Methods: All the 40-year-old women in the city of Tampere, Finland, are invited yearly for a health screening. From 1 year, data from 894 women (response rate 68.2%) invited for a health screening were utilized in the study. The original 10-item AUDIT, AUDIT-C, Five Shot, AUDIT-PC, AUDIT-3, AUDIT-QF, and CAGE were evaluated against the Timeline Followback. Consumption of at least 140 g of absolute ethanol per week on average during the past month was considered heavy drinking. Results: In the Timeline Followback, the mean±SD weekly reported alcohol consumption was 45±67 g (range 0,936 g) of absolute ethanol. Of the women, 6.2% (55/894) were heavy drinkers. The optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was reached for the AUDIT with cutoff ,6, for the AUDIT-C with cutoff ,5, for the Five Shot with cutoff ,2.0, for the AUDIT-PC with cutoff ,4, and for the AUDIT-QF with cutoff ,4. When choosing the optimal cutoffs, the AUDIT-C, the Five Shot, the AUDIT-PC, and the AUDIT-QF performed as well as the 10-item AUDIT. With these cutoffs, sensitivities were 0.84 to 0.93 and specificities were 0.83 to 0.90. The AUDIT-3 and the CAGE did not perform as well as the other questionnaires. Conclusions: The 10-item AUDIT, AUDIT-C, Five Shot, AUDIT-PC, and AUDIT-QF seem to be equally effective tools in screening for heavy drinking among middle-aged women. However, their applicability is achieved only if the cutoffs are tailored according to gender. [source]

The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

Comfort B. Asanbe PhD
ABSTRACT:,Context:A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing psychological problems. Methods: The participants were 58 white children between the ages of 4 and 5 years; 31 with a history of living in methamphetamine-producing homes and 27 children who live in non-methamphetamine producing homes in rural Tennessee. The groups were similar in age, gender, and socioeconomic background. The groups were compared for behavioral and emotional adjustment using the behavior assessment system for children-parent rating scale-preschool (BASC-PRS-P) form. Biological or custodian parents completed a rating on their preschoolers that provided information about the children's pattern of behavior and feelings. Findings: Preschoolers from the methamphetamine-producing homes showed more externalizing problems than their peers, but were comparable on internalizing problems. On specific behaviors, the data indicate that preschoolers in the methamphetamine group showed higher aggression symptoms than their peers from non-methamphetamine-producing homes. Conclusions: These findings, if replicated, point to the need for mental health screening when a child is removed from a methamphetamine-producing home. [source]

Emergency Department Chlamydia Screening Through Partnership with the Public Health Department

Charlene Babcock Irvin MD
Abstract Background:, The emergency department (ED) serves a population that may benefit from numerous screening initiatives but screening in the ED is challenging due to crowding as well as resource and time constraints. One option may be to collect specimens in the ED and then partner with the public health department (PHD) to analyze the specimens off-site and arrange follow-up treatment. Objectives:, The objective was to explore the feasibility of chlamydia screening in females using a partnership model in which the ED is responsible for urine collection and the PHD is responsible for chlamydia testing, notification, and treatment. Methods:, A collaborative partnership-based chlamydia screening project was initiated at a large (90,000 visits/yr), urban, teaching ED from April 2007 to April 2008. Study information sheets were handed out to a convenience sample of eligible female patients and visitors (15,24 yr of age). Those wishing to participate provided a urine sample and follow-up contact information. The information sheet also asked if they had either lower abdominal pain or vaginal discharge (affirmative answer for either was considered symptomatic). Specimens collected in the ED were retrieved by PHD staff for off-site testing. The PHD contacted those participants testing positive using the patient provided contact information and arranged for treatment. Results:, Of the 633 women offered screening, 296 (47%) agreed to testing and provided samples. Of the 296 tested, 38 (12.8%) were positive for chlamydia infection, and 25 (66%) received follow-up and treatment; 13 could not be contacted through information they provided. A higher percentage of symptomatic subjects (23 of 115, or 20%) tested positive for chlamydia than asymptomatic subjects (15 of 181, or 8.3%; p < 0.01). Conclusions:, This study demonstrates the feasibility of an ED,PHD partnership for chlamydia screening in young women. This model can potentially be applied to other initiatives and may improve public health screening without creating significant additional burdens for crowded EDs. [source]

Skin manifestations in acute arsenic poisoning from the Wakayama curry-poisoning incident

K. Uede
Summary Background Four people died and 63 others became ill after eating arsenic-laced curry served at a community festival in Wakayama, Japan, on 25 July 1998. Although dermatological manifestations after the acute ingestion of arsenic have seldom been documented, they were observed in 56% of the victims in the Wakayama curry-poisoning incident. Objectives To characterize the skin manifestations due to acute arsenic poisoning. Methods Four of the 67 patients with arsenic poisoning died, and the remaining 63 patients served as subjects for this study. The dermatological findings were extracted from the medical charts at the institutions which admitted the victims, and from the results of a medical inquiry and examinations during a health screening 3 months after the incident. Results Dermatological findings were observed in 56% of the victims during the acute stage of poisoning. Facial oedema was observed in 13 patients, transient flushing erythema in five, conjunctival haemorrhage in 15, maculopapular eruptions in the intertriginous areas in eight, acral desquamation in 11, and herpesvirus infection in three. The histopathological findings of the maculopapular eruptions showed moderate to marked perivascular infiltration with endothelial swelling. Examination of 21 patients at 3 months after their exposure to arsenic revealed ungual changes including Mee's or Beau's lines in 17 cases, periungual pigmentation in nine, and acral desquamation in four cases. Conclusions Our observations indicate that skin lesions are common in patients with acute arsenic poisoning; these findings may provide information of diagnostic significance. [source]

Hair diagnoses and signs: the use of dermatoscopy

M. P. Wallace
Summary Background., Hair-shaft examination is diagnostically useful in a range of adult and paediatric conditions. Objective., To evaluate the usefulness of dermatoscopy in hair-shaft microscopy. Methods., Typical examples of selected conditions from an extensive collection of scalp hair were examined using a dermatoscope and a light microscope with paired cross-polarizing filters. Hair-shaft characteristics were photographed using a digital camera. Results., Dermatoscopy was helpful in detecting tapered hairs, weathering, monilethrix, pediculosis capitis, peripilar casts, ,exclamation-mark' hairs of alopecia areata, bubble hair and pili torti. It was less helpful in pili annulati and unhelpful in detecting ,tiger-tail' banding in trichothiodystrophy. Light microscopy provided greater detail in almost all cases; it was necessary for detection of cuticle changes and added significant information in detecting characteristic features of trichothiodystrophy, pili annulati, bubble hair and pili torti. Conclusions., Dermatoscopy is most revealing in conditions resulting in gross changes in shaft outline and colour, where reflected light is valuable. It is unhelpful for detection of features within the shaft or at higher levels of resolution. When added to its ability to aid evaluation of scalp surface characteristics, dermatoscopy provides an excellent first-line method of assessment in clinics. In vivo it may aid screening and selection of hairs of greatest diagnostic yield for further assessment. In some instances, it may obviate the need for obtaining hair specimens and have implications for public health screening. Where detailed or cortical hair-shaft features need assessment, transmitted light microscopy remains the standard tool. [source]

Cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors of persons with mental retardation

Christopher C. Draheim
Abstract This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also reviewed. Adults with mild to moderate MR residing in community settings appear to have an elevated disease prevalence, elevated CVD-related mortality, more adverse physiological CVD risk factors, and elevated behavioral risk compared to others with and without MR. Preliminary evidence supports the benefits of participating in the recommended physical activity levels and consuming the recommended diets to reduce the risk for CVD. The lack of large-scale longitudinal or experimental research indicates a gap in the research. The development of research-based, appropriate, primary prevention programs and intervention strategies aimed at lowering the risk for CVD is highly recommended. Programs should focus on educating individuals with MR along with direct care providers and family members on the importance of appropriate dietary concepts, physical activity habits, and regular health screenings by physicians. Programs should be individualized to regional and cultural issues. MRDD Research Reviews 2006;12:3,12. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Childhood negative experiences and subclinical psychosis in adolescence: a longitudinal general population study

Ellen De Loore
Abstract Background:, Accumulating evidence suggests that experiences of trauma and victimization during childhood are associated with an increased risk to develop clinical and subclinical psychosis in adulthood. A recent cross-sectional study showed a significant association between trauma and psychotic experiences in adolescents. The current study aimed to extend these findings by investigating the longitudinal effects of negative life experiences on the risk for subclinical psychotic symptoms 2 years later in an adolescent general community sample. Methods:, Data were derived from the standard health screenings of the Youth Health Care Divisions of the Public Health Services, in the South of the Netherlands. A total of 1129 adolescents filled out a self-report questionnaire at age 13/14 years and 2 years later (15/16 years), assessing psychotic experiences, as well as experiences of being bullied, sexual trauma, and negative life events. Results:, Logistic regression analyses revealed that sexual trauma increased the risk for psychotic symptoms 2 years later. Life events contributed to the risk for psychosis over time and psychosis in turn gave rise to new life events. No significant association with bullying was found after controlling for confounders. Conclusion:, The results provide further evidence for an association between childhood environment and psychosis in the crucial developmental period of early adolescence. Early and later psychological stress, if severe, may impact on the risk for psychosis in adolescence through mechanisms of person,environment interaction and correlation. [source]

Using Insurance Claims and Demographic Data for Surveillance of Children's Oral Health

Keith E. Heller DDS
ABSTRACT Objectives: This paper examines the utility of using private insurance and Medicaid dental claims as well as demographic data for assessing the oral health of children aged 5,12 years in Genesee County, Michigan, communities. Methods: Dental insurance claims data from Delta Plan of Michigan and Michigan Medicaid, plus demographic data from the 1990 US Census (percent poverty) and from the 1995 National Center for Educational Statistics (percent free or reduced lunch eligibility), were compared to findings from two school-based oral health surveys. These surveys were the 1995 Genesee County Oral Health Survey and the 1998,2001 Mott Children's Health Center oral health screenings. Data were analyzed using zip codes, representing communities, as the comparison unit. Statistical comparisons using correlation coefficients were used to compare the findings from the six data sets. Results: Using the insurance claims and school-based data, some communities consistently demonstrated high levels of dental caries or treatment for the primary dentition. The demographic measures were significantly associated with many of the primary dentition survey measures. The demographic data were more useful in identifying communities with high levels of dental disease, particularly in the primary teeth, than the insurance claims data. Conclusions: When screening is not practical, readily available demographic data may provide valuable oral health surveillance information for identification of high-risk communities, but these data do not identify high-risk individuals. In these analyses, demographic data were more useful than dental insurance claims data for oral health surveillance purposes. [source]

Faculty and Staff Health Promotion: Results From the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

Danice K. Eaton PhD
ABSTRACT Background:, US schools employ an estimated 6.7 million workers and are thus an ideal setting for employee wellness programs. This article describes the characteristics of school employee wellness programs in the United States, including state-, district-, and school-level policies and programs. Methods:, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in 49 states plus the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of school districts (n = 445). Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a nationally representative sample of elementary, middle, and high schools (n = 873). Results:, During the 2 years preceding the study, 67.3% of states provided assistance to districts or schools on how to develop or implement faculty and staff health promotion activities or services. Although nearly all schools offered at least 1 health promotion service or activity, few schools offered coordinated activities and services within a comprehensive employee wellness program. During the 12 months preceding the study, none of the health screenings were offered by more than one third of schools; only a few of the health promotion activities and services were offered by more than one third of schools; about one third of schools offered physical activity programs, employee assistance programs, and subsidies or discounts for off-site health promotion activities; and only 1 in 10 schools provided health-risk appraisals for faculty and staff. Conclusions:, More schools should implement comprehensive employee wellness programs to improve faculty and staff health behaviors and health status. [source]