Health Profile (health + profile)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Health Profile

  • nottingham health profile

  • Selected Abstracts

    Diabetes Care Protocol: effects on patient-important outcomes.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial in primary care
    Diabet. Med. 27, 442,450 (2010) Abstract Aims, The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP) combines task delegation, intensification of diabetes treatment and feedback. It reduces cardiovascular risk in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. This study determines the effects of DCP on patient-important outcomes. Methods, A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial, by self-administered questionnaires in 55 Dutch primary care practices: 26 practices DCP (1699 patients), 26 usual care (1692 patients). T2DM patients treated by their general practitioner were included. Main outcome was the 1-year between-group difference in Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) total score. Secondary outcomes: DHP-18 subscales, general perceived health [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Euroqol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and Euroqol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS)], treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire; DTSQ status) and psychosocial self-efficacy (Diabetes Empowerment Scale Short Form; DES-SF). Per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed: non-inferiority margin , = ,2%. At baseline 2333 questionnaires were returned and 1437 1 year thereafter. Results, Comparing DCP with usual care, DHP-18 total score was non-inferior: PP ,0.88 (95% CI ,1.94 to 0.12), ITT ,0.439 (95% CI ,1.01 to 0.08), SF-36 ,health change' improved: PP 3.51 (95% CI 1.23 to 5.82), ITT 1.91 (95% CI 0.62 to 3.23), SF-36 ,social functioning' was inconclusive: PP ,1.57 (95% CI ,4.3 to 0.72), ITT ,1.031 (95% CI ,2.52 to ,0.25). Other DHP and SF-36 scores were inconsistent or non-inferior. DHP-18 ,disinhibited eating' was significantly worse in PP analyses. For EQ-5D/EQ-VAS, DTSQ and DES-SF, no significant between-group differences were found. Conclusion, DCP does not seem to influence health status negatively, therefore diabetes care providers should not shrink from intensified treatment. However, they should take possible detrimental effects on ,social functioning' and ,disinhibited eating' into account. [source]

    Patient-assessed health outcome measures for diabetes: a structured review

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2002
    A. M. Garratt
    Abstract Aims To identify available disease-specific measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for diabetes and to review evidence for the reliability, validity and responsiveness of instruments. Methods Systematic searches were used to identify instruments. Instruments were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Letters were sent to authors requesting details of further instrument evaluation. Information relating to instrument content, patients, reliability, validity and responsiveness to change was extracted from published papers. Results The search produced 252 references. Nine instruments met the inclusion criteria: Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS), Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-1, DHP-18), Diabetes Impact Measurement Scales (DIMS), Diabetes Quality of Life Measure (DQOL), Diabetes-Specific Quality of Life Scale (DSQOLS), Questionnaire on Stress in Diabetic Patients-Revised (QSD-R), Diabetes-39 (D-39) and Well-being Enquiry for Diabetics (WED). The shortest instrument (ADS) has seven items and the longest (WED) has 50 items. The ADS and ADDQoL are single-index measures. The seven multidimensional instruments have dimensions covering psychological well-being and social functioning but vary in the remainder of their content. The DHP-1 and DSQOLS are specific to Type 1 diabetes patients. The DHP-18 is specific to Type 2 diabetes patients. The DIMS and DQOL have weaker evidence for reliability and internal construct validity. Patients contributed to the content of the ADDQoL, DHP-1/18, DQOL, DSQOLS, D-39, QSD-R and WED. The authors of the ADDQoL, DHP-1/18, DQOL, DSQOLS gave explicit consideration to content validity. The construct validity of instruments was assessed through comparisons with instruments measuring related constructs and clinical and sociodemographic variables. None of the instruments has been formally assessed for responsiveness to changes in health. Conclusions Five of the diabetes-specific instruments have good evidence for reliability and internal and external construct validity: the ADDQoL, DHP-1/18, DSQOLS, D-39 and QSD-R. Instrument content should be assessed for relevance before application. The instruments should be evaluated concurrently for validity and responsiveness to important changes in health. [source]

    Amitriptyline Treatment in Chronic Drug-Induced Headache: A Double-Blind Comparative Pilot Study

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2001
    S. Descombes MD
    Objective.,To assess the effects of amitriptyline and sudden analgesic withdrawal on headache frequency and quality of life in patients suffering from chronic daily headache related to analgesics abuse. Methods.,Seventeen nondepressed patients with chronic drug-induced headache were included in a 9-week, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After abrupt analgesic withdrawal, amitriptyline or an active placebo (trihexyphenidyl) was started. The primary efficacy variable was headache frequency recorded on a headache diary in the last 4 weeks of each treatment. The secondary efficacy variable was quality of life (Nottingham Health Profile). Results.,Headache frequency decreased by 45% in the amitriptyline group and by 28% in the trihexyphenidyl group. Amitriptyline enhanced all the dimensions of quality of life and significantly improved emotional reaction and social isolation. Conclusion.,This pilot study suggests a beneficial effect of amitriptyline on headache frequency and quality of life for patients with chronic drug-induced headache. [source]

    Quality of life in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Renée Eugénie Poupon
    The impact of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly documented. We assessed quality of life in a group of 276 unselected patients with PBC using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). This is a generic scale that assesses six major areas commonly associated with HRQOL. Data were compared with those of a sex- and age-matched control group. The associations between NHP scores and the severity of PBC were tested. Patients (86% women) had a median age of 62 years (range 33,87). Most patients were treated with UDCA. PBC patients showed a strong statistically significant difference in energy compared to controls (respectively, 40.6 vs. 22.9, P < .0001) and had worse scores for emotional reactions (22.2 vs. 16.1, P < .005). No other differences were observed. No associations of the dimension subscores were found with biochemical liver tests, histological stages, or duration of the disease. Among the signs or symptoms, fatigue was the finding most often associated with the dimension subscores. In conclusion, patients with PBC feel that their overall quality of life is worse than that of the control population. This difference is mainly due to the decrease in the subscores of energy and emotional reactions, both associated with fatigue. These effects must be taken into account by clinicians when treating these patients, as they constitute the clinical outcomes that have the most impact on patients' lifestyle and adherence to treatment. (HEPATOLOGY 2004;40:489,494.) [source]

    Agreement between dementia patient report and proxy reports using the Nottingham Health Profile

    F. Boyer
    Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to examine the agreement between patient reports and their proxy reports (family and care provider proxies) on Health Status in a sample of patients with dementia. Method Ninety-nine patients with mild to moderate dementia and proxies completed the 38-item Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) questionnaire. Results Completion rates for the different NHP dimensions ranged from 78 to 90% for the dementia subjects. Inter-rater agreement between different proxies and subject was from moderate to good for physical assessment (ICCs from 0.54 to 0.78 for physical mobility scales). Patient/family proxy concordance was moderate to good for five out of six dimensions (physical mobility, social isolation, pain, energy, sleep) and poor for emotional reaction. Family proxies systematically reported lower functioning than did patients in the four subscales assessing: physical mobility (p,<,0.0001), energy (p,<,0.005), social isolation (p,<,0.01) and sleep (p,<,0.03). Care provider proxies only estimated physical mobility as lower (p,<,0.0001). Conclusion Age and physical status of the patient significantly affected agreement in patient-care provider proxy ratings. Thus, caution is appropriate when resorting to proxies to estimate the Health Status of a dementia patient. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An Evaluation of the Implementation of Hand Held Health Records with Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Vicky Turk
    Background, Personal health records were implemented with adults with learning disabilities (AWLD) to try to improve their health-care. Materials and Method, Forty GP practices were randomized to the Personal Health Profile (PHP) implementation or control group. Two hundred and one AWLD were interviewed at baseline and 163 followed up after 12 months intervention (PHP group). AWLD and carers of AWLD were employed as research interviewers. AWLD were full research participants. Results, Annual consultation rates in the intervention and control groups at baseline were low (2.3 and 2.6 visits respectively). A slightly greater increase occurred over the year in the intervention group 0.6 (,0.4 to 1.6) visits/year compared with controls. AWLD in PHP group reported more health problems at follow-up 0.9 (0.0 to 1.8). AWLD liked their PHP (92%) but only 63% AWLD and 55% carers reported PHP usage. Carers had high turnover (34%). Conclusions, No significant outcomes were achieved by the intervention. [source]

    Quality of life in chronic disease: a comparison between patients with heart failure and patients with aphasia after stroke

    Åsa Franzén-Dahlin
    Objectives., This study aimed to describe the impact of heart failure and of stroke with aphasia on quality of life (QoL) and to compare the different domains of QoL in these groups. Background., The prevalence of chronic conditions has increased during the last decades, and chronic diseases such as stroke and heart failure may have a great impact on QoL. Design., Comparative study of patients from two randomised controlled studies. Method., Seventy-nine patients with heart failure and 70 patients with aphasia after stroke were evaluated concerning the severity of their disease and by QoL, as measured with the Nottingham Health Profile, in the acute phase and after six months. Results., The severity of the disease improved between baseline and six month for both groups. Correlations between New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and all QoL domains were seen in patients with heart failure after six months. The degree of aphasia correlated to mobility, social, emotional and total score after six month. QoL in patients with heart failure was more affected in the domains of sleep and energy in the acute phase and in the energy domain at six months. Conclusion., Although low energy is more frequent among patients with heart failure, both groups report poor QoL. Improvement in severity of the disease is not necessarily accompanied by improvement in QoL. Relevance to clinical practice., Nottingham Health Profile can easily be used as a screening instrument, aiming to identify patients at risk for adverse effects on QoL. A better understanding of the subjective QoL of patients with chronic disease is fundamental for health care professionals to be able to identify and support vulnerable patients. [source]

    Comparison of Short Form-36 Health Survey and Nottingham Health Profile in moderate to severe patients with COPD

    Sevgi Ozalevli
    Abstract Objective, To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed by Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) on the basis of lung function and exercise capacity parameters in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and materials, The investigation was a prospective, quality-of-life survey and cross-sectional study of 130 consecutive COPD patients. The NHP and SF-36 as generic HRQoL instruments, the Chronic Respiratory Disease questionnaire (CRQ) as a disease-specific HRQoL instrument and 6-minute walking test, severity of dyspnea, leg fatigue and lung function, were the measurements and instruments used in the study. Results, It was determined that the subscales of both questionnaires were generally related with the FEV1, walking distance, CRQ, severity of dyspnea and leg fatigue values (P < 0.05). The much higher correlation coefficient was determined between these parameters and NHP compared with the SF-36. Only NHP was found to be correlated with the age, body mass index and smoking consumption (P < 0.05). Conclusions, The stronger relation of NHP with the clinical and physical parameters of the patients compared with that of SF-36 may be associated with the increased sensitivity of NHP to the clinical state owing to the increasing respiratory symptoms of our old patients with moderate to severe obstruction and/or the more intelligible and easy-to-respond nature of NHP compared with SF-36. [source]

    Improvement in Quality of Life After Treatment for Alcohol Dependence With Acamprosate and Psychosocial Support

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2004
    Marsha Y. Morgan
    Abstract: Background: The impact of disease on health-related quality of life is now well recognized, as is the importance of this variable as a measure of treatment efficacy. Methods: Patients from five European countries were enrolled in an open, multicenter, prospective study designed to observe outcome in dependent drinkers treated for 6 months with acamprosate and psychosocial support. Version 1 of the 36-item Short Form Health Profile (SF-36v1) questionnaire was administered at inclusion and at 3 and 6 months. Responses were described as handicaps compared with an appropriately matched, healthy reference population. One-way fixed ANOVA and simultaneous stepwise linear regression analysis were used to identify potential predictors of quality of life at baseline and after treatment. Results: Baseline SF-36v1 data were obtained from 1216 patients (mean age, 43 ± 9 years; 77% male). Mean values for all SF-36v1 dimensions were significantly lower in the patient population than in the normative reference population; the most important deficits were observed in physical and emotional role limitations and in social functioning. The most important predictors of baseline quality of life were severity of alcohol dependence, employment status, psychiatric history, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous, global alcohol health status, age, gender, and education. SF-36v1 data were obtained from 686 patients at 3 months and from 497 at 6 months. Significant improvements were observed in all SF-36v1 dimensional and summary scores after 3 months of treatment (p < 0.001); further marginal improvements were observed between 3 and 6 months. The most important predictors of quality of life following treatment were the SF-36v1 profile at baseline, followed by abstinence duration; patients who completed the trial and remained abstinent throughout showed the greatest improvement. Conclusions: Health-related quality of life is severly impaired in dependent drinkers. Treatment with acamprosate and psychosocial support, by promoting abstinence, improves the quality of life profile to levels comparable to those observed in healthy individuals. [source]

    Quality of life after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease

    Stephen P. Pereira
    There are few data on predictive factors for alcohol relapse or long-term functional outcome after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In all 56 surviving UK patients (47 men, 9 women; mean age: 51 years; range: 33 to 69 years) who underwent transplantation for ALD at King's College Hospital over a 10-year period, alcohol relapse and outcome were assessed by outpatient and case-note review and by postal questionnaire containing (1) the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), (2) the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey, and (3) a drug and alcohol questionnaire. At a median of 2.5 years (range: 0.5 to 10 years), 13 of the 47 respondents (28%) and 2 of the 9 nonrespondents (22%) had evidence of potentially harmful drinking (>3 units daily) at some time posttransplantation. An additional 13 patients admitted to drinking some alcohol at least once, corresponding to an overall relapse rate of 50%. The patients with harmful drinking (1) had started drinking regularly at a younger age (18 v 25 years; P = .01), (2) began drinking heavily at a younger age (30 v 40 years; P = .01), (3) had shorter pretransplantation abstinence periods (10 v 23 months; P = .02), and (4) had a longer time since transplantation (median, 5.7 v 1.5 years; P = .0004) than those with no or mild alcohol relapse. They were also more likely to report sleep disturbance (NHP sleep problem score, 45 v 16; P = .01) and use benzodiazepines regularly (7 of 13 v 3 of 34 patients; P = .002). Despite these differences, health dimension scores in the SF-36 and NHP posttransplantation were similar between the groups and to those of UK community controls. In the long term, at least 50% of the patients will drink again at some time posttransplantation, although at lower levels of alcohol intake than previously. Those patients with multiple predictive factors for alcohol relapse may be at greatest risk for harmful drinking and be the group that would benefit most from professional counseling. Overall, the quality of life after liver transplantation for ALD is high and broadly similar to the levels expected in the normal population. [source]

    Assessment of quality of life in adults receiving long-term growth hormone replacement compared to control subjects

    I. A. Malik
    Summary objective There are few studies of quality of life (QOL) in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) compared to matched control populations without GHD. These have shown impairments in a variety of QOL measures, which improve but do not normalize after short-term replacement with GH. There is little information on QOL in long-term treated GHD patients compared with controls without GHD. patients and methods A total of 120 adults with GHD who had received GH replacement for at least 1 year were identified from the neuroendocrine clinic. Patients were asked to complete eight QOL questionnaires and an Energy Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results were compared with 83 control subjects without GHD from the local population who agreed to complete seven of the QOL questionnaires (excluding Disease Impact scale) and the energy VAS. The eight questionnaires were a combination of generic and disease-specific questionnaires used to assess health related QOL, namely: Short Form-36 (SF-36), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Disease Impact, Life Fulfilment and Satisfaction scales, Mental Fatigue Questionnaire (MFQ) and Self Esteem scale, Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale and QOL-AGHDA (assessment of GHD in adults). results Eighty-nine patients returned questionnaires and 85 (71%) had complete data for analysis. The mean (SD) duration of GH replacement was 36·0 ± 26·4 (range 13,159) months. Mean age was 43·9 ± 15·8 years (37 males) in treated GHD patients compared to a mean age 41·7 ± 10·5 years (32 males) in the controls. Mean IGF-1 levels were 22·5 ± 13·6 nmol/l in the GHD patients and the mean dose of GH replacement was 1·2 ± 0·4 IU daily. Analysis of the QOL questionnaires from the GH treated patients revealed highly significant impairments in all measures (most P , 0·0001, except life fulfilment-material, P = 0·33) compared to the control population. conclusions This large population with treated GH deficiency have significant impairments in multiple aspects of QOL despite replacement with GH and other pituitary hormones for at least 1 year (mean 3 years). It is likely therefore that other factors in addition to GH deficiency must influence QOL in these patients. Further strategies to improve QOL in these individuals should therefore be considered, e.g. psychological support and treatments and physical treatments (such as exercise programmes). [source]

    Sociodemographic and Health Profiles of the Oldest Old In China

    Zeng Yi
    Unique data from a 1998 healthy longevity baseline survey provide demographic, socio-economic, and health characteristics of the oldest old, aged 80,105, in China. This subpopu-lation is growing rapidly and is likely to need extensive social and health services. A large majority of Chinese oldest old live with their children and rely mainly on children for financial support and care. Most Chinese oldest old had no or very little education. Ability to function independently in daily living declines rapidly and self-rated health declines moderately across the oldest old ages. As compared to their urban counterparts, the rural oldest old have far less pension support, are significantly less educated, and are more likely to be widowed and to rely on children for support. Apart from higher rates of survival, the female oldest old in China are far more disadvantaged than the male oldest old. [source]

    Health profiles and quality of life of 518 survivors of thyroid cancer

    Pamela N. Schultz RN
    Abstract Background. Available literature describes the long-term outcome of thyroid cancer survivors with respect to thyroid cancer but not their overall medical and social well-being. Methods. Five hundred eighteen thyroid cancer survivors responded to a survey regarding medical and social impacts of their cancer experience. Results. All had surgery, and 417 (80.5%) also had some radiation. Two thirds (64.5%) reported that cancer created health effects varying by gender and passage of time; neurologic, musculoskeletal, and psychologic problems seemed most prominent. They reported more memory loss and psychologic problems than other cancer survivors and more migraine headaches than both other cancer survivors and the general population. Regarding family and work, they integrated well in society overall. However, unsolicited comments by 24.5% of responders disclosed symptoms reminiscent of thyroid hormone imbalance. Conclusion. Thyroid cancer survivors generally report good health long term but describe distinct, lasting medical problems including symptoms of thyroid dysregulation. The extent and manner in which cancer therapy contributes to the health profile of the group merits further inquiry. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 000,000, 2003 [source]


    ABSTRACT Consumer demand for low-fat "healthy" snacks challenges manufacturers to improve the health profile of their products while maintaining their appetizing taste. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the effect of addition levels of honey on texture and consumer acceptability of extruded, baked low-fat/honey-flavored chips; (2) determine the degree of liking for the product; (3) and evaluate the influence of honey on storage stability. The product, consisting of grade A light amber honey (0, 6, 12, and 18%) in a corn masa/flour blend, was extrusion formed into a ribbon through a slit die. The product was baked, dried, packaged, and stored in an ambient environment. Increased honey level significantly increased flavor liking, sweetness and honey flavor intensity for the fresh and 10 week storage samples, and positively influenced consumer overall acceptability. [source]

    Social contexts, syndemics, and infectious disease in northern Aboriginal populations,

    D. Ann Herring
    Until the last half of the 20th century, infectious diseases dominated the health profile of northern North American Aboriginal communities. Research on the 1918 influenza pandemic exemplifies some of the ways in which the social context of European contact and ensuing economic developments affected the nature of infectious disease ecology as well as the frequency and severity of the problem. To understand these impacts it is necessary to consider the web of interactions among multiple pathogens, the biology of the human host, and the social environment in which people lived. At the very least, an understanding of the history of the impact of infectious diseases on northern North American communities requires attention not only to potential interactions among cocirculating pathogens, but their links to key social, historical, and economic factors that exacerbated their adverse effects and contributed to excess mortality. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19:190,202, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Paleopathology and the origin of agriculture in the Levant

    Vered Eshed
    Abstract This study addresses changes in health which were consequential to the Neolithic transition in the southern Levant, judged on the basis of the study of specific and nonspecific stress indicators, trauma, and degenerative joint disease in 200 Natufian (hunter-gatherer) skeletons (10,500,8300 BC) and 205 Neolithic (agricultural) skeletons (8300,5500 BC) from the southern Levant. The comparison of the health profiles of pre-Neolithic (Natufian) and Neolithic populations reveals a higher prevalence of lesions indicative of infectious diseases among the Neolithic population, and an overall reduction in the prevalence of skull trauma among males. No change over time was observed in the prevalence of degenerative joint disease. These results indicate that in the southern Levant the Neolithic transition did not simply lead to an overall deterioration in health but rather resulted in a complex health profile which was shaped by 1) an increase exposure to disease agents, 2) changes in diet, 3) population aggregation in larger and denser settlements, 4) changes in activity patterns and the division of labor, and possibly 5) a higher resistant immunological system and response capacity to environmental aggressions (mainly infections). Am J Phys Anthropol 143:121,133, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Towards a better QALY model

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 7 2006
    José-María Abellán-Perpiñán
    Abstract This paper presents a test of the predictive validity of various classes of QALY models (i.e. linear, power and exponential models). We first estimated TTO utilities for 43 EQ-5D chronic health states and next these states were embedded in nonchronic health profiles. The chronic TTO utilities were then used to predict the responses to TTO questions with nonchronic health profiles. We find that the power QALY model clearly outperforms linear and exponential QALY models. Optimal power coefficient is 0.65. Our results suggest that TTO-based QALY calculations may be biased. This bias can be corrected using a power QALY model. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Roman Period fetal skeletons from the East Cemetery (Kellis 2) of Kellis, Egypt

    M. W. Tocheri
    Abstract Much can be learned about the religious ideology and mortuary patterns as well as the demographic and health profiles of a population from archaeological human fetal skeletons. Fetal skeletons are rare, however, largely due to poor preservation and recovery, misidentification, or non-inclusion in general burial populations. We present an analysis of 82 fetal/perinatal skeletons recovered from Kellis 2, a Roman Period cemetery dated to the third and fourth centuries AD, located in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Most of the fetal remains were individually wrapped in linen and all were buried among the general cemetery population in a supine, east,west orientation with the head facing to the west. Gestational age estimates are calculated from diaphysis lengths using published regression and Bayesian methods. The overall similarity between the fetal age distributions calculated from the regression and Bayesian methods suggests that the correlation between diaphysis length and gestational age is typically strong enough to avoid the ,regression' problem of having the age structure of reference samples adversely affecting the age distribution of target samples. The inherent bias of the regression methods, however, is primarily reflected in the gestational age categories between 36 and 42 weeks corresponding with the expected increase in growth variation during the late third trimester. The results suggest that the fetal age distribution at Kellis 2 does not differ from the natural expected mortality distribution. Therefore, practices such as infanticide can be ruled out as having a significant effect on the observed mortality distribution. Moreover, the Kellis 2 sample is well represented in each gestational age category, suggesting that all premature stillbirths and neonatal deaths received similar burial rites. The age distribution of the Kellis 2 fetal remains suggests that emerging Christian concepts, such as the ,soul' and the ,afterlife', were being applied to everyone including fetuses of all gestational ages. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Paleopathology and the origin of agriculture in the Levant

    Vered Eshed
    Abstract This study addresses changes in health which were consequential to the Neolithic transition in the southern Levant, judged on the basis of the study of specific and nonspecific stress indicators, trauma, and degenerative joint disease in 200 Natufian (hunter-gatherer) skeletons (10,500,8300 BC) and 205 Neolithic (agricultural) skeletons (8300,5500 BC) from the southern Levant. The comparison of the health profiles of pre-Neolithic (Natufian) and Neolithic populations reveals a higher prevalence of lesions indicative of infectious diseases among the Neolithic population, and an overall reduction in the prevalence of skull trauma among males. No change over time was observed in the prevalence of degenerative joint disease. These results indicate that in the southern Levant the Neolithic transition did not simply lead to an overall deterioration in health but rather resulted in a complex health profile which was shaped by 1) an increase exposure to disease agents, 2) changes in diet, 3) population aggregation in larger and denser settlements, 4) changes in activity patterns and the division of labor, and possibly 5) a higher resistant immunological system and response capacity to environmental aggressions (mainly infections). Am J Phys Anthropol 143:121,133, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: Baseline Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in a Prostate Cancer Screening Population

    Jochen Walz MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in older men and can be worsened by prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. True ED rates before PCa treatment are mandatory, in order to assess the rate of ED attributable to PCa treatment. Data derived from population-based studies or from patients surveyed after PCa diagnosis, as well as just prior to treatment may not represent a valid benchmark, as health profiles of the general population might be different to those undergoing PCa screening or as anxiety may worsen existent ED. Aim., To circumvent these limitations, we assessed the baseline rate of ED in PCa diagnosis-free men participating in a PCa awareness event. Methods., ED was classified according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score as absent (IIEF: 25,30), mild (22,24), mild to moderate (17,21), moderate (11,16), or severe (,10). Analyses were adjusted according to age and socioeconomic status. Main Outcome Measures., Of 1,273 asymptomatic men who participated in the event, 1,134 (89.1%) completed the IIEF score. Results., Mean age was 57.6 years (range 40,89 years). Of all participating men, 50.0% (N = 566) were potent, 8.8% (N = 100) reported mild, 10.4% (N = 118) mild to moderate, 9.4% (N = 107) moderate, and 21.4% (N = 243) severe ED. Men with ED were significantly older (P < 0.001), had no stable partner (P < 0.001), lower education (P < 0.001), and lower annual income (P < 0.001) than men without ED. Conclusions., One in two men who participated in this PCa awareness event is affected by ED, independent of PCa diagnosis or treatment. Such high prevalence of baseline ED in a PCa screening cohort suggests that in patients treated for PCa, ED may represent a common disorder already present prior to treatment. Moreover, socioeconomic variables were seen to have an important influence on erectile function in this patient cohort. Walz J, Perrotte P, Suardi N, Hutterer G, Jeldres C, Bénard F, Valiquette L, Graefen M, Montorsi F, and Karakiewicz PI. Baseline prevalence of erectile dysfunction in a prostate cancer screening population. J Sex Med 2008;5:428,435. [source]