Health Examination (health + examination)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Health Examination

  • health examination survey

  • Selected Abstracts

    Estimation of psycholeptic and psychoanaleptic medicine use in an adult general population sample using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification

    U. John
    Abstract Little is known about psycholeptic and psychoanaleptic medicine (PM) use in the general population. This study presents prevalence data about PM use. The sample included 4310 individuals aged 20,79 from a general population health examination in a northern German area (participation proportion: 68.8%; Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Medicines taken during the past seven days were assessed from the medicine packages or self-reports and classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification developed by the World Health Organization. In total, 6.3% of the sample reported PM intake, 8.7% of the women and 4.7% of the men. During the past 12 months prior to the health examination, 49.2% of the individuals with PM use consulted a general practitioner but not a neurologist or a psychiatrist. Among the study participants with PM use, 88.8% had one or more mental disorders during lifetime according to a screening questionnaire. It is concluded that considerable proportions of individuals with current PM use exist although lower than may be expected on the basis of the number of individuals with mental disorder in the general population. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Lower urinary tract symptoms in relation to lifestyle and medical conditions in Japanese workers

    Kentaro Tomita
    Objectives: To examine the association of medical conditions and lifestyle with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a population of Japanese male workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey on LUTS was conducted at the time of a periodic health examination among workers of a group of engineering and shipbuilding companies in Southern Kanto, Japan. A total of 1278 (85%) men responded. LUTS were assessed by using a modified International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire. Men having at least one point of the score were regarded as positive. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of the LUTS to age, smoking, drinking, body mass index, and medical treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results: Age was a strong determinant of LUTS. Men undergoing medical treatment for diabetes mellitus were significantly more likely to have LUTS than men without treatment (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0,3.2). Increased odds of LUTS were also observed in men undergoing medical treatment for hypertension or dyslipidemia. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and obesity were not related to LUTS. Conclusions: Our present findings, together with previous epidemiological and experimental evidence, suggest that LUTS might share common etiological factors with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. [source]

    Analysis of bone mineral density in urolithiasis patients

    Abstract Background:, The association between hypercalciuria and bone mineral density (BMD) has been already recognized. The aim of the present study is to relate BMD to age and sex and to evaluate the calcium metabolism and hypercalciuria-defined dietary or non-dietary category in patients with urolithiasis. Methods:, The BMI of the L2,L4 lumbar vertebrae was measured in 310 renal stone patients (191 men and 119 women). Percent age matched score (%AMS), which is the percent ratio of measured BMD to the mean BMD of age-matched control subjects, was utilized for the appraisal of BMD. Low BMD groups were defined by lower than 90% of %AMS. Results:, Low BMD was observed in 27.7% of urinary stone patients, which was not a significant difference to that of control subjects (23.5%) who were measured in the health examination. In male patients with urolithiasis, the frequency of patients in whom BMD had been apt to decrease since youth was high, but there was not a proven significant difference among the three age groups (20,39 years old, 40,59 years old and 60 years old or older). In contrast, for female stone patients, the frequency of low BMD markedly increased in patients aged 40 years or older, when menopause occurs. Furthermore, in female stone patients with hypercalciuria, the frequency of reduced BMD reached more than 40%. When the cause was non-dietary hypercalciuria (classified mainly on the daily amount of urinary calcium excretion after ingestion of calculus test diet), the frequency of reduced BMD reached 65% (P < 0.01). Conclusions:, In case female stone patients with non-dietary hypercalciuria become menopausal, not only the risk of recurrent lithiasis increases, but the possibility of developing osteopenia in the future also increases. Appropriate treatments for prophylactic effects on urolithiasis or osteopenia should be considered, as judged from BMD, diet, sex, urinary calcium excretion and other factors synthetically. [source]

    Self-reported gingivitis and tooth loss poorly predict C-reactive protein levels: a study among Finnish young adults

    Pekka V. Ylöstalo
    Abstract Objectives: Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether self-reported gingivitis and tooth loss were associated with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) using the same study population where these dental conditions have earlier been associated with prevalent angina pectoris. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of those Northern Finland birth cohort 1966 members who lived in Northern Finland or in the Helsinki region (n=8463) at the time of the survey (1996,1997). The participation rate in a health examination was 71% (n=6033). Gingivitis and tooth loss were determined on the basis of self-reported questions. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariate regression models. Results: The results showed that self-reported gingivitis and tooth loss were weakly associated with elevated levels of CRP (>3 mg/l): adjusted PPR 1.1, CI 1.0,1.3 and PPR 1.1, CI 0.7,1.7, respectively. The proportion of variation in CRP explained by self-reported gingivitis and tooth loss was small, being <1%. Conclusion: The results suggest that self-reported gingivitis and tooth loss have a miniscule effect on CRP levels among a general population of young adults. [source]

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 2 2007
    D. F. Schokker
    Summary This paper shows the trends in the prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI] , 25 kg m,2) and obesity (BMI , 30 kg m,2) in the Netherlands. Overweight (obesity) prevalence in adult males increased from 37% (4%) in 1981 to 51% (10%) in 2004, and in adult females from 30% (6%) in 1981 to 42% (12%) in 2004, according to self-reported data. In boys and girls, obesity prevalence doubled or even tripled from 1980 to 1997, and again from 1997 to 2002,2004 a two- or threefold increase was seen for almost all ages. According to the most recent data, overweight (obesity) prevalence figures range, depending on age, from 9.2% to 17.3% (2.5,4.3%) in boys, and from 14.6% to 24.6% (2.3,6.5%) in girls. There is a lack of data on the national prevalence of overweight and obesity based on measured height and weight and on prevalences in different subgroups of the population. Regular national representative health examination surveys that measure height and weight are needed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its distribution over subgroups in the population, and to properly direct and evaluate prevention activities. [source]

    Assessing children's statements: the impact of a repeated experience on CBCA and RM ratings

    Leif A. Strömwall
    This study examined the extent to which the Criteria-based Content Analysis (CBCA) technique and the Reality Monitoring (RM) technique were affected by the number of times children had experienced or imagined an event. Children (age 10,13, N,=87,) participated in an experiment where half the sample experienced a health examination (either one or four times), and the other half imagined (either one or four times) that they took part in a health examination. One week after the final occasion, the children were interviewed. The results showed that RM was sensitive to both the authenticity of the statements (increased presence of the criteria for real events) and whether the event had been repeatedly experienced/imagined (increased presence of the criteria for the repeated actions). The CBCA did not successfully distinguish the real from the imagined. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Original Article: Relationship between the serum CA-125 level and bone mineral density in healthy pre- and post-menopausal women

    Ki Hoon AHN
    Background:, Osteoporosis and tumour-associated antigen (TAA) levels are associated with inflammatory processes, but little remains known about TAA levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Aims:, We determined whether or not high-normal TAA levels are associated with a lower BMD in healthy women. Methods:, A total of 3769 healthy women were enrolled from the health screening programme over 5 years. Each participant had undergone a basic health examination. Serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125, CA-19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein levels were evaluated as tumour markers. The correlations between serum TAA levels and BMD were analysed. Results:, Carbohydrate antigen 125 and CEA levels were positively associated with a higher BMD in the pre-menopause. In the post-menopause, the CA-125 level was positively associated with BMD. In the pre-menopause, CA-125 (r = 0.102; P < 0.001) and CEA levels (r = 0.134; P < 0.001) had a significant correlation with BMD. In the post-menopause, CA-125 was negatively associated with alkaline phosphatase (r = ,0.298; P < 0.001). Conclusions:, There was a significant positive association between CA-125 and BMD in healthy women. Additional basic and clinical studies on the relationship between CA-125 and bone are needed. [source]

    Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding Protein-3 and Colorectal Adenomas in Japanese Men

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2002
    Satoshi Teramukai
    Several epidemiological studies have found that high levels of plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and low levels of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 are related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer or late-stage adenomas. We examined the relation of body mass index, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose levels and plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 to colorectal adenomas in middle-aged Japanese men. The study subjects comprised 157 cases of histologically diagnosed colorectal adenomas and 311 controls with normal colonoscopy or non-polyp benign lesions in a consecutive series of 803 men receiving a preretirement health examination at two hospitals of the Self Defense Forces (SDF). After adjustment for rank in the SDF, hospital, smoking and IGFBP-3, a statistically nonsignificant modest increase in the prevalence odds of colorectal adenomas was observed for the highest versus the lowest quartile level of IGF-I. The increase was slightly greater with further adjustment for 2-h glucose concentrations (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0,4.5, trend P=0.06). Men with high levels of IGFBP-3 showed only a minimal decrease in risk after adjustment for IGF-I. The association with IGF-I was less evident for advanced adenomas (,5 mm in size or tubulovillous/villous). Fasting and 2-h glucose and body mass index were more strongly positively associated with colorectal adenomas than IGF-I, especially with advanced adenomas, independently of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. The findings suggest that plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 may be involved in colorectal tumorigenesis regardless of the stage in growth of adenoma, but not as a mediator for the effects of being overweight or of hyperglycemia. [source]

    Association between peer relationship problems and childhood overweight/obesity

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2009
    Anja Boneberger
    Abstract Aims:, To assess the association between peer relationship problems and childhood overweight and obesity. Methods:, Data on 4718 preschool children were obtained at the obligatory school entry health examination in Bavaria. Parentally reported peer relationship problems (,normal', ,borderline' or ,abnormal') were assessed from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Overweight and obesity were defined according to age- and gender-specific BMI cut-off points. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to control potential confounders. Results:, The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among children with ,borderline' or ,abnormal' peer relationship problems compared to ,normal' children. The association of ,abnormal' peer relationship problems was still significant in the final logistic regression model for girls [odds ratio (OR) for overweight 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4,3.0; OR for obesity 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3,5.0]. Among boys the adjusted odds ratio were lower and no longer significant. Conclusion:, The significantly increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children with peer relationship problems could not be explained by confounding. It seems evident that there is a relevant co-morbidity of peer relationship problems and obesity in pre-school children pointing to the need of interventions focusing on both physical as well as psychosocial health. [source]

    Chronic fatigue in adolescence,autonomic dysregulation and mental health: an exploratory study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 8 2009
    Helene Gjone
    Abstract Aim:, The present study investigates associations between autonomic cardiovascular dysregulation, psychosocial load and mental health in adolescents presenting with chronic fatigue. Method:, Twenty-two adolescents, mean age 15.7 years (12.7,19.1), underwent a clinical mental health examination as part of a broad medical investigation which included autonomic tests. Adolescents and their parents were also interviewed with regard to psychosocial stress factors, family health and previous illnesses. A count of psychosocial load was made for each adolescent based on the interview. Results:, Of 22 fatigued adolescents in the present sample, 14 had psychiatric diagnoses. There was no significant difference in psychosocial load for the fatigued adolescents classified with normal autonomic regulation compared to those with deviant or borderline autonomic regulation. The present psychiatric diagnosis did not differ between the two groups. In a subsample, there was a significant negative association between depressive symptoms and abnormal blood pressure responses during orthostatic challenge. Conclusion:, No significant psychiatric or psychosocial differences between fatigued adolescents with or without autonomic dysregulation were found in this study. The trends towards higher psychosocial load and greater burden of depressive symptoms in fatigued adolescents with normal autonomic regulation warrant further studies. [source]

    Utilization of parenting groups and consultation services as parenting support services by Japanese mothers of 18 month old children

    Azusa ARIMOTO
    Abstract Aim:, To clarify the factors related to the utilization of parenting groups and consultation services by mothers with children aged 18 months. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional study using a self-report questionnaire survey at health examinations in five health centers of an urban city in Tokyo, Japan, from July to September 2003. The final study population was comprised of the 371 mothers who provided information on both demographics and the utilization of services. Results:, Of these 371 mothers, 166 participated in parenting groups since the birth of their 18 month old child. Logistic regression analyses indicated the following factors related to such participation: past experience in the use of services provided by the local government, trust in the specific group, and worries about their children. Participation in the parenting groups was not related to child-rearing anxiety or mental health status. The participants indicated that the groups provided friends and child-rearing information and alleviated stress. Worries about children and past experience in the use of public services would enhance the utilization of services. Conclusion:, It is essential for service-providers to offer services specific to the situation or desires of mothers. Mothers might need both consultation services and support groups to reinforce the mother,child relationship, for social support, and to freely discuss worries with both professionals and peers. [source]

    Health perceptions and health behaviours of poor urban Jordanian women

    Sawsan Majali Mahasneh PhD RN
    Health perceptions and health behaviours of poor urban Jordanian women Background.,The economic recession and stringent economic adjustment programme that Jordan has gone through since the early 1980s have resulted in lower living standards and higher rates of poverty and unemployment. Poverty debilitates women and impairs their access to health care, proper nutrition and well-being in general. Rationale.,Women's health behaviours and problems need to be analysed from the perspective of women themselves. The purpose of this study was to describe the health perceptions and health behaviours of poor urban Jordanian women aged 15,45 years in the context of the family and community in which they live. The sample consisted of 267 Jordanian women aged 18,45 years, whose household income was below the poverty line. Method.,This was a community-based study that collected data using semi-structured interviews with women. Health perceptions were measured by asking the women to describe their health status, as they perceived it. Health behaviours were measured by asking the women about their personal hygiene, diet, activity and exercise, sleep, smoking, drinking alcohol, and safety and security. Results.,The average age of women was 33 years, 93% were or had been married, and 87·5% had received some form of education. Although the mean age at marriage was about 20 years, 13·6% were married when they were less than 16 years of age. Study women gave a lower rating of their health status than those reported in national studies. Although they reported bathing once a week, eating about three meals a day, and getting 8 hours sleep, there remain areas for improvement in their health behaviours in terms of performing regular exercise, carrying out regular health examinations, and the type and amount of food consumed. Recommendations.,Implications for nursing, with a special focus on health education and meeting the health needs of these women, are presented. [source]

    Fracture Prediction From Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Men and Women,

    Saeko Fujiwara
    Abstract In a cohort of 2356 Japanese elderly, after adjusting for age and prevalent vertebral fracture, baseline BMD predicted the risk of spine and hip fracture with similar RR to that obtained from previous reports in whites. The RR per SD decrease in BMD for fracture declined with age. Introduction: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important predictors of a future fracture. However, we are not aware of any reports among Japanese in Japan. Materials and Methods: We examined the association of BMD with risk of fracture of the spine or hip among a cohort of 2356 men and women aged 47,95 years, who were followed up by biennial health examinations. Follow-up averaged 4 years after baseline measurements of BMD that were taken with the use of DXA. Vertebral fracture was assessed using semiquantitative methods, and the diagnosis of hip fracture was based on medical records. Poisson and Cox regression analysis were used. Results: The incidence was twice as high in women as in men, after adjusting for age. After adjusting for baseline BMD and prevalent vertebral fracture, however, the gender difference was no longer significant. Age, baseline BMD of spine and femoral neck, and prior vertebral fracture predicted vertebral fracture and hip fracture. Loss of absolute BMD of the femoral neck predicted spine fracture, after adjusting for baseline BMD; rates of change in percent BMD, weight, height, body mass index, and age at menopause did not. The predictive value of baseline BMD for vertebral fracture risk was similar in men and women. The relative risk (RR) for vertebral fracture and hip fracture per SD decrease in BMD declined with age, after adjustment for prevalent vertebral fractures. Conclusions: Baseline BMD, loss of femoral neck BMD, and prior vertebral fracture predict the risk of spine and hip fracture in Japanese with similar RR to that obtained from previous reports in whites. The RR per SD decrease in BMD for fracture declined with age, suggesting that factors other than BMD might play a greater role in the elderly. [source]

    The association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal disease is confounded by age and smoking in a Korean population: the Shiwha,Banwol Environmental Health Study

    Dong-Hun Han
    Han D-H, Lim S-Y, Sun B-C, Paek D, Kim H-D. The association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal disease is confounded by age and smoking in a Korean population: the Shiwha,Banwol Environmental Health Study. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 609,616. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01580.x. Abstract Aim: Because metabolic syndrome (MS) is pro-inflammatory and periodontitis is inflammatory, we issued the hypothesis that MS (the explanatory variable) is associated with periodontitis (the outcome variable). This study aimed to examine the link between MS and periodontitis among Koreans. Materials and Methods: From the Shiwha,Banwol Environmental Health Study, 1046 subjects aged 18 years or older were cross-sectionally surveyed. All participants underwent comprehensive dental and medical health examinations. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis. Age, gender, monthly family income, smoking, drinking, frequency of daily teeth brushing, and physical activity were evaluated as confounders. Results: MS was strongly associated with periodontitis [odds ratio (OR): 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22,2.37], and MS with more components had a higher association. The association was higher for elders aged 65 years or more, males, and smokers. MS including both high glucose and hypertension had a higher association with the OR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.23,3.90) comparing with other types of MS. Conclusions: Our results suggested that MS might be associated with periodontitis and the association was confounded by age, gender, and smoking. MS with high glucose and hypertension showed the higher impact on this link. [source]

    Relationship of Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Male Office Workers

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2002
    Noriyuki Nakanishi
    Background A close relationship between alcohol consumption and hypertension has been established, but the effect of light to moderate alcohol consumption on blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. Methods A total of 5275 Japanese male office workers aged 23 to 59 years partook in a survey. Subjects were classified as nondrinkers or current drinkers who averaged less than 12, 12 to 22, 23 to 45, or ,46 g/day of ethanol. BPs were measured at annual health examinations from May 1996 through May 2000. A total of 3784 hypertension-free (systolic BP <140 mm Hg, diastolic BP <90 mm Hg, no medication for hypertension, and no history of hypertension) men were observed for 4 years. Men in whom hypertension (systolic BP ,140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ,90 mm Hg, or both or receipt of antihypertensive medication) was found during repeated surveys were defined as incident cases of hypertension. Results After controlling for potential predictors of hypertension, systolic and diastolic BP levels and the incidence of hypertension were lowest in nondrinkers in all three age ranges (23,35, 36,47, and 45,59 years) and increased in a dose-dependent manner as alcohol consumption increased. For individuals aged 23 to 35 years, systolic and diastolic BP levels and the incidence of hypertension were significantly higher among those who drank an average of ,23 g/day of ethanol than among nondrinkers. For those aged 36 to 59, the diastolic BP level was significantly higher among those who drank any alcohol at all than among nondrinkers, and the systolic BP level and the incidence of hypertension were significantly higher among those who drank an average of ,12 g/day of ethanol than among nondrinkers. Conclusions Light to moderate alcohol consumption seems to have an important influence on BP in both young and middle-aged Japanese men. [source]

    Trends in overweight and obesity in Swedish schoolchildren 1999,2005: has the epidemic reached a plateau?

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 8 2010
    L. Lissner
    Summary The aim of this review is to synthesize published evidence on the most recent trends in overweight and obesity among Swedish children. Specifically, trends are reported among fourth graders (10,11 years) from six different municipalities between 1999 and 2005. Weights and heights in representative samples of children within each area were measured by school nurses as part of routine school health examinations. Standardized definitions of overweight, obesity and thinness were calculated by methods described by Cole et al. in 2000 and 2007. In Stockholm, obesity prevalence during academic years starting 1999 and 2003 decreased non-significantly from 4.4% to 2.8% in girls, and increased non-significantly from 3.2% to 3.8% among boys. In Gothenburg, comparing academic years starting 2000 and 2004, prevalence of overweight in girls decreased from 19.6% to 15.9% (P < 0.01) while thinness increased from 9.5% to 11.9% (P < 0.05); no significant changes were observed in boys. Finally, the Swedish National Institute of Public Health released figures from Karlstad, Umeå, Västerås and Ystad in 2003,2005 during which time no trends in prevalence could be clearly shown. The stabilized rates are probably a result of regional and local actions that have taken place in many sectors of society, rather than one specific measure or national political action. [source]

    The Impact of the Components of Metabolic Syndrome on Heart Rate Variability: Using the NCEP-ATP III and IDF Definitions

    Background: This study examined the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and heart rate variability (HRV) in Korean adults. Methods: Data were collected from family health examinations performed from December 2003 through January 2004, and 1,041 subjects consisting of males and females aged 20,87 years were included in this study. Measurement of the 5-minute HRV and several examinations for MetS were completed. The HRV was analyzed in both the time domain with the standard deviation of NN (SDNN) intervals and the frequency domain with the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components. MetS was defined by the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results: There were significant differences in the MetS components and HRV indices between the two groups (with vs without MetS). The adjusted means of the HRV indices in the group with MetS were significantly lower than those in the group without MetS (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between all components of MetS and the HRV indices; additionally, as the number of MetS components increased, the HRV indices gradually decreased. Conclusions: Decreased cardiac autonomic tone was strongly associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, and HRV measurement could become an indispensable part of evaluating one's risk of cardiovascular disease, though we currently do not have sufficient information to identify the cutoff values for the HRV indices. [source]

    Birth order and sibship size as independent risk factors for asthma, allergy, and eczema

    Roos M. D. Bernsen
    This study was carried out to disentangle the independent relations of birth order and sibship size with the presence of asthma, allergy and eczema. In a retrospective study, 700 families in the Netherlands were selected with index children born in 1988,90. Data were extracted from reports of health examinations at the age of 6 years of these children and their siblings. Birth order, and not sibship size, appeared to be a strong risk factor for allergy (excluding eczema). Children with higher birth order had a lower risk of allergy compared with first-borns (adjusted odds ratios: 0.43, 0.26 and 0.05 for second-, third- and fourth- or higher borns, respectively; p < 0.0001). Allergy including eczema also had a significant relation with birth order (p = 0.01). For asthma there appeared no clear relation with birth order. For asthma a non-significant relationship with sibship size (adjusted for birth order) was found (p = 0.06): first-born children in small sibships were more at risk than those in larger sibships. For allergy and eczema no such trend was observed. In conclusion, birth order is inversely related to the risk of allergy, independent of the size of the sibship. [source]

    New Danish reference values for height, weight and body mass index of children aged 0,5 years

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2010
    AM Nielsen
    Abstract Aim:, To derive new reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children aged 0,5 years in Denmark and to compare them with the national reference from the 1970s and the 2006 WHO standard. Methods:, The height and weight of 4105 healthy singleton children born in 1995 were obtained from a cohort study. Children were measured at birth and at seven regular health examinations by a general practitioner up to 5 years of age. Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used to construct percentile curves. Results:, Mean length, weight and BMI at birth and during the first months of life increased significantly, but the differences diminished thereafter, and at 1 year BMI had decreased. In boys, weight and BMI had decreased by 2 years of age but had increased, together with height, at 5 years. Children were taller, heavier and had a higher BMI than that referred to in the WHO standard. Conclusion:, New references for length or height, weight and BMI by age were constructed for children in Denmark. Since the 1970s, weight, length and BMI at birth increased, and growth during the first year of life appears to be healthier. [source]

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 5- and 12-year-old Finnish children in 1986 and 2006

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2009
    Nina Vuorela
    Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence and the trends of overweight and obesity in Finnish 5- and 12-year-old children in 1986 and 2006. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods: Anthropometric data were collected retrospectively from health examinations in Tampere and in three rural municipalities. The size of the 5- and 12-year-old cohorts were 2108 in 1986 and 4013 in 2006, respectively. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overweight and obesity was estimated using the International Obesity Task Force cutoff values (ISO BMI). Results: The prevalence of overweight (ISO BMI >25) and obesity (ISO BMI >30) in 5-year-old boys in 2006 was 9.8% and 2.5% and in girls 17.7% and 2.5%, respectively. At the age of 12 years, the corresponding figures in boys were 23.6% and 4.7% and in girls 19.1% and 3.2%. Between 1986 and 2006, the prevalence of overweight in 12-year-old children had increased 1.8 fold in boys (p < 0.001) and 1.5 fold in girls (p = 0.008). Overweight was significantly more common in rural than in urban areas. Conclusion: During the last 20 years the prevalence of overweight has markedly increased in 12-year-old Finnish children, but remained nearly unchanged in 5-year-old children. [source]