Health Care Professions (health + care_profession)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Novel tools and resources for evidence-based practice in psychology

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
Barbara B. Walker
Given the vast proliferation of scientific research in the behavioral and social sciences, there is a growing need for psychologists to be able to access the most current, clinically relevant research quickly and efficiently and integrate this information into patient care. In response to a similar need within the field of medicine, evidence-based medicine took hold in the early 1990s to provide both a framework and set of skills for translating research into practice. Since then, this method has been adopted by every major health care profession including psychology, and is now widely known as evidence-based practice (EBP). In this article, the authors present a general overview of the skills required for EBP along with an introduction to some of the tools and resources that have been developed in other health care professions to support EBP. Using a case example, we illustrate how these tools and resources can be applied in psychological settings. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 633,642, 2007. [source]


The Medical History of South Africa: An Overview

HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2008
Anne Digby
The article surveys half a century of historical writing on South African medicine, which is defined widely to include discussion of health care professions, public health, hospitals and asylums, and indigenous medicine as well as the cross-overs and hybridisation between biomedicine and indigenous medicine. A rapidly growing historiography has been influenced both by general literature in the history of medicine as well as by the more specific context of South Africa. Here the colonial and post-colonial pasts shape the present to an unusual extent and the legacy both of apartheid and of an ongoing democratic transformation impact on the historian's choice of subject. [source]


The impact of portfolios on health professionals' practice: a literature review

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 6 2008
Andrzej Jerzy Kostrzewski senior principal pharmacist in education
Objectives The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the use of a portfolio and discuss the evidence for the impact of a portfolio on professional practice, in particular pharmacy practice. Method A literature review was performed using databases from health care and education, namely AMED, BEI, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, IPA, MedLine, PHARM-LINE, Psycinfo, TIMELIT and ZETOCs, as well as a manual search of relevant journals and documents between 1991 and 2007. The search terms included portfolio, progress files and assessment, and these were linked with pharmacy. Articles were included in the review if they had a focus on the portfolio as a contribution to professional practice. Key findings Portfolios have been used in the education field for over decade. A total of 26 out of 1901 papers were identified which examined portfolios in a post-registration setting. The majority of these publications were from medicine (12), with education (six), pharmacy (five) and nursing (three) making up a small proportion. Portfolios were seen as (a) a tool for use in feedback, (b) a useful trigger for reflection and (c) a link between academic learning and practice. A similar set of findings were seen in the educational context. In addition, a portfolio (a) requires motivation to record and (b) can change behaviour towards colleagues. Conclusions There is still confusion about the meaning of a professional portfolio in health care professions. It is suggested that portfolios should be classified according to a modified system from the teaching profession. The evidence that portfolios can contribute to practice is limited. This review suggests the need for more studies into the impact of portfolios on professional practice, in particular in a pharmacy context. [source]


Aggression towards health care staff in a UK general hospital: variation among professions and departments

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 1 2004
Sue Winstanley BSc
Background., Aggression towards health care staff is an increasing problem and although many studies have examined psychiatric settings, few have considered general hospitals and in particular, variation among professions and locations. In addition, studies often fail to include all forms of aggression such as threatening behaviour and verbal aggression. Methods., This study extends existing research by evaluating physical assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression from patients/visitors towards general hospital staff in the context of different professions and departments. Results and conclusions., The survey of staff showed that aggression is widespread. Within the preceding year, 27% of the respondents were assaulted, 23% experienced threatening behaviour from patients and 15.5% experienced threatening behaviour from visitors. Over 68% reported verbal aggression, 25.7% experiencing it more regularly than monthly. By departments, over 42% of the medical department staff, 36% of the surgical staff and over 30% of the Accident and Emergency staff were assaulted. By profession, staff nurses and enrolled nurses reported the most assaults (43.4%) and doctors, the fewest (13.8%). Other nursing grades and health care professions all reported levels of physical assault in excess of 20%. Correspondingly high levels of threatening behaviour and verbal aggression were also reported although the patterns of victimization differed according to the various professions and departments. Independently, significant levels of assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression were reported. When aggregated they demonstrate the higher levels of victimization that general hospital staff experienced on a regular basis. Relevance to clinical practice., Institutional averages actually obscure the much higher levels of aggression experienced by the particular professions in particular departments. This study helps to localize the problem and identify those at most risk, but more research is needed into the aetiology of the aggression and of vulnerability factors associated with victimization. [source]


Novel tools and resources for evidence-based practice in psychology

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
Barbara B. Walker
Given the vast proliferation of scientific research in the behavioral and social sciences, there is a growing need for psychologists to be able to access the most current, clinically relevant research quickly and efficiently and integrate this information into patient care. In response to a similar need within the field of medicine, evidence-based medicine took hold in the early 1990s to provide both a framework and set of skills for translating research into practice. Since then, this method has been adopted by every major health care profession including psychology, and is now widely known as evidence-based practice (EBP). In this article, the authors present a general overview of the skills required for EBP along with an introduction to some of the tools and resources that have been developed in other health care professions to support EBP. Using a case example, we illustrate how these tools and resources can be applied in psychological settings. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 633,642, 2007. [source]


Interprofessional collaboration: Implications for Combined-Integrated doctoral training in professional psychology

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
Carolyn E. Johnson
Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is becoming "best practice" in the field of professional psychology and other health care professions. It was named as a core competency at Competencies 2002 and the Consensus Conference and has been endorsed by the American Psychological Association on several occasions. The authors provide a definition of IPC, present conceptual, scholarly, and pragmatic support for IPC, and offer guidance on how Combined-Integrated (C-I) doctoral programs in professional psychology can include IPC to ensure students are well equipped to respond to a client's complex needs. Furthermore, although C-I programs might be particularly well prepared to incorporate IPC into their training, it is argued that programs in the single practice areas of clinical, counseling, and school psychology also may benefit from the inclusion of IPC. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]


Prosecuting ,Gross' Medical Negligence: Manslaughter, Discretion, and the Crown Prosecution Service

JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
Oliver Quick
This article examines prosecutions of health care professionals for gross negligence manslaughter following fatal errors committed in the course of their work. Unease has long surrounded the use of ,gross negligence' as a form of criminal liability, and particularly as it applies to health care professions operating in high-risk settings. The recent dramatic rise of such prosecutions calls for a closer understanding of the processes by which important prosecutorial decisions are made. In particular, this calls for an investigation into the exercise of discretion by prosecutors in interpreting the loosely defined and contested concept of gross negligence. This article analyses data obtained from a statistical analysis of ,medical manslaughter' cases and also from interviews with crown prosecutors. Discussion of the main findings leads to the conclusion that the offence of gross negligence manslaughter is incapable of any objective and fair measurement and ought to be abolished. [source]


The anatomy of interprofessional leadership: An investigation of leadership behaviors in team-based health care

JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES, Issue 3 2009
June M. S. Anonson
Increasing specialization among health care professions has heightened the need for proficient interprofessional teamwork. Within the team context for practice, leadership becomes a competency expected of all practitioners who must recognize the necessity of situational leadership dependent on patient needs and the professional competencies to meet those needs. Although this need for leadership within interprofessional practice is recognized, the behavioral components of that leadership competency have not been delineated. In this article, the authors report on a study to identify the behavioral components of interprofessional practice and highlight the indicators of leadership competency in interprofessional patient-centered care. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 24 participants from nine professions engaged in collaborative team care of clients or patients in a variety of community and acute-based health care facilities. Interprofessional competencies were explored using grounded theory, with coding of participants' responses. In this article, the authors have highlighted leadership in interprofessional practice, and discussed the behavioral indicators of leadership that could be used in preparation of students, faculty, and practitioners for interprofessional practice, as well as in evaluation of that practice for purposes of professional growth. [source]


Entry and regulation: evidence from health care professions

THE RAND JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, Issue 4 2008
Catherine Schaumans
In many countries, pharmacies receive high regulated markups and are protected from competition through geographic entry restrictions. We develop an empirical entry model for pharmacies and physicians with two features: entry restrictions and strategic complementarities. We find that the entry restrictions have directly reduced the number of pharmacies by more than 50%, and also indirectly reduced the number of physicians by about 7%. A removal of the entry restrictions, combined with a reduction in the regulated markups, would generate a large shift in rents to consumers, without reducing the availability of pharmacies. The public interest motivation for the current regime therefore has no empirical support. [source]


The role of proxies in treatment decisions: evaluating functional capacity to consent to end-of-life treatments within a family context,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 3 2002
Rebecca S. Allen Ph.D.
Psychology as a profession has entered the arena of palliative and hospice care later in the process than other health care professions. Through the use of Familial Advance Planning Evaluations (FAPEs), however, psychologists can assist individuals and families in facing end-of-life transitions in important ways. Hospice and palliative care philosophy treats the patient and family as the unit of care. End-of-life decision-making is therefore a family matter as well as a normative developmental transition. Yet, little is known about the decision-making process. This paper reviews the literature regarding informed consent, advance care planning, and proxy decision-making and outlines a theoretical model for familial decision-making. Previous models of end-of-life capacity evaluations and family assessments are presented and serve as the basis for a comprehensive assessment of familial decision-making at the end of life. Functional capacity evaluations of individuals at the end of life regarding decisions about life-sustaining medical treatments enable both the individual patient and one identified proxy from his or her family to discuss important issues families may face during medical crises at the end of life. The information gleaned from such evaluations has the potential to assist psychologists and other professionals in designing family-specific interventions to reduce caregiving distress, improve quality of life for dying patients, and ease the transition to bereavement for caregivers. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]