Health Care Outcomes (health + care_outcome)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment and Interpretation of Comorbidity Burden in Older Adults with Cancer

Siran M. Koroukian PhD
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between comorbidities, functional limitations, geriatric syndromes, treatment patterns, and outcomes in a population-based cohort of older patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and receiving home health care. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Data from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicare claims and enrollment files, and the home health care Outcome and Assessment Information Set. PARTICIPANTS: Ohio residents diagnosed with incident colorectal cancer in 1999 to 2001 and receiving home health care in the 30 days before or after cancer diagnosis (N=957). MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures included receipt of cancer treatment and survival through 2005. RESULTS: Not having surgery was associated negatively with comorbidities but positively with functional limitations and geriatric syndromes. Receipt of chemotherapy was negatively associated with comorbidities and functional limitations. The presence of two or more geriatric syndromes was significantly associated with unfavorable survival outcomes when analyzing overall survival and disease-specific survival (DSS). Having limitations in two or more activities of daily living was associated with unfavorable overall survival but not with DSS. Comorbity was associated with favorable DSS at borderline level of statistical significance but not with overall survival. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the importance of incorporating functional limitations and geriatric syndrome data in geriatric oncology outcomes studies. [source]

Is multidisciplinary learning effective among those caring for people with diabetes?

N. Munro
Abstract The role of multi-professional learning for those providing clinical services to people with diabetes has yet to be defined. Several assumptions are generally made about education in the context of multi-professional settings. It is argued that different professions learning together could potentially improve professional relationships, collaborative working practices and ultimately standards of care. Greater respect and honesty may emerge from a team approach to learning with a commensurate reduction in professional antagonism. Personal and professional confidence is reportedly enhanced through close contact with other professionals during team-based learning exercises. We have examined current evidence to support multidisciplinary learning in the context of medical education generally as well as in diabetes education. Previous investigation of available literature by Cochrane reviewers, aimed at identifying studies of interprofessional education interventions, yielded a total of 1042 articles, none of which met the stated inclusion criteria. Searches involving more recent publications failed to reveal more robust evidence. Despite a large body of literature on the evaluation of interprofessional education, studies generally lacked the methodological rigour needed to understand the impact of interprofessional education on professional practice and/or health care outcomes. Nevertheless, planners continue to advocate, and endorse, joint training between different groups of workers (including nurses, doctors and those in professions allied to medicine) with the objective of producing an integrated workforce of multidisciplinary teams. Whilst the concept of multi-professional learning has strong appeal, it is necessary for those responsible for educating health care professionals to demonstrate its superiority over separate learning experiences. [source]

Setting performance standards for medical practice: a theoretical framework

L Southgate
Background The assessment of performance in the real world of medical practice is now widely accepted as the goal of assessment at the postgraduate level. This is largely a validity issue, as it is recognised that tests of knowledge and in clinical simulations cannot on their own really measure how medical practitioners function in the broader health care system. However, the development of standards for performance-based assessment is not as well understood as in competency assessment, where simulations can more readily reflect narrower issues of knowledge and skills. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the development of standards that reflect the more complex world in which experienced medical practitioners work. Methods The paper reflects the combined experiences of a group of education researchers and the results of literature searches that included identifying current health system data sources that might contribute information to the measurement of standards. Conclusion Standards that reflect the complexity of medical practice may best be developed through an ,expert systems' analysis of clinical conditions for which desired health care outcomes reflect the contribution of several health professionals within a complex, three-dimensional, contextual model. Examples of the model are provided, but further work is needed to test validity and measurability. [source]

Constructing a patient education system: A performance technology project

Edith E. Bell
The purpose of the patient education system described here was to distribute patient education material to and within medical practices managed by a small medical practice management company. The belief was that patient education opportunities improved health care outcomes and increased patient participation in health care decisions and compliance with health care plans. This tool reinforced medical practices' commitment to having patients participate actively in their treatment, differentiated them from other practices, and contributed to the generation of new patients. [source]

Databases for outcomes research: what has 10 years of experience taught us?

Lynn Bosco MD
Abstract This paper describes how the mission of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is being executed through the many programs that it has developed and implemented. The Evidence-based Practice Center program was developed to provide systematic reviews on common and expensive conditions and health technologies and to ensure that this information is used to improve health care outcomes and costs. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse provides an internet-based source of clinical practice guidelines that are produced by clinical specialty organizations for the primary purpose of improving health care delivery and outcomes. Relevant to this symposium on databases, AHRQ has supported the development of databases to track hospital utilization on a state-by-state basis. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) allows comparisons between states and within regions of individual states. New initiatives have been launched to evaluate interventions across systems rather than focusing on the individual patient (Translating Research into Practice,TRIP). The Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) program was developed to conduct real world evaluations to better understand the benefits and risks of single and combined therapy. Both programs further the mission of the AHRQ to improve the outcomes and quality of health care, with additional focus on the cost-effectiveness, patient safety, and increasing access to care for all. Information on programs developed by the AHRQ is available in more detail at the Agency Web site Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]