Health Care (health + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Health Care

  • acute mental health care
  • allied health care
  • appropriate health care
  • basic health care
  • behavioral health care
  • child health care
  • home health care
  • mental health care
  • modern health care
  • oral health care
  • primary health care
  • quality health care
  • reproductive health care
  • routine health care
  • rural health care
  • special health care

  • Terms modified by Health Care

  • health care access
  • health care administrator
  • health care assistant
  • health care center
  • health care centre
  • health care clinic
  • health care cost
  • health care coverage
  • health care decision
  • health care delivery
  • health care delivery system
  • health care demand
  • health care disparity
  • health care encounter
  • health care environment
  • health care ethics
  • health care expenditure
  • health care expense
  • health care facility
  • health care field
  • health care financing
  • health care industry
  • health care information
  • health care institution
  • health care intervention
  • health care leader
  • health care literature
  • health care management
  • health care managers
  • health care need
  • health care network
  • health care organisation
  • health care organization
  • health care outcome
  • health care personnel
  • health care plan
  • health care planning
  • health care policy
  • health care practice
  • health care practitioner
  • health care problem
  • health care profession
  • health care professional
  • health care program
  • health care provider
  • health care provision
  • health care quality
  • health care research
  • health care resource
  • health care sector
  • health care services
  • health care setting
  • health care staff
  • health care system
  • health care team
  • health care today
  • health care unit
  • health care use
  • health care utilization
  • health care worker

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Russell Mannion
    Delegating greater authority and decision making power to front line organisations, including devolution of control through the system of ,Earned Autonomy' is a key component of the UK Government's modernisation agenda for the public services. The principle of Earned Autonomy is that the highest performing organisations are subject to less central control and allowed increased operating freedoms. This paper explores the implementation of Earned Autonomy in the English NHS and addresses the question of whether the incentives implicit within Earned Autonomy are both sufficiently powered and aligned to the motivations of senior hospital managers to secure the desired improvements in organisational performance. [source]


    Michael C. M. Leung
    We study the endogenous relationship between health care, life expectancy and output in a neoclassical growth model. Although health care directly diverts resources away from goods production, it prolongs life expectancy, which in turn leads to higher savings and, hence, capital formation through a private annuity market. We show that savings and health care are complements in equilibrium, with both rising with economic development. Our model is therefore consistent with several observed stylized development patterns across countries. Moreover, through the longevity-enhancing channel, health care and health production technology are found by simulation to be growth and welfare promoting. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 8 2010
    ABSTRACT Background: Biomedical science is producing an avalanche of data about risk factors, often with a small predictive value, associated with a broad diversity of diseases. Prevention and screening are increasingly moving from public health into the clinic. Therefore, the question of which risk factors to investigate and disclose in the individual patient, becomes ethically increasingly urgent. In line with Wilson and Jungner's public health-related 10 principles for screening, it seems crucial to distinguish important from unimportant health risks. Aim: to explore the ways in which clinicians distinguish important from unimportant health risks. Methods: We interviewed 36 respondents (gastroenterologists and gynaecologists/obstetrics) in 5 focus group interviews and 15 open in-depth interviews on their interpretation of what makes a health risk important. Results: Physicians primarily interpreted importance as the severity of the possible harm, less often its probability. Possibilities of prevention or reassurance strongly influenced their judgment on importance. Discussion: It is not likely that interpreting ,important' as ,severe' will help in differentiating meaningful from meaningless risk knowledge. A more fundamental change in our ways of dealing with risk may be called for. We discuss existing literature on resilience as an alternative way to deal with risk. Balancing prevention and risk reduction with resilience could be a fruitful direction. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 4 2008
    ABSTRACT Despite broad agreement that the vulnerable have a claim to special protection, defining vulnerable persons or populations has proved more difficult than we would like. This is a theoretical as well as a practical problem, as it hinders both convincing justifications for this claim and the practical application of required protections. In this paper, I review consent-based, harm-based, and comprehensive definitions of vulnerability in healthcare and research with human subjects. Although current definitions are subject to critique, their underlying assumptions may be complementary. I propose that we should define vulnerability in research and healthcare as an identifiably increased likelihood of incurring additional or greater wrong. In order to identify the vulnerable, as well as the type of protection that they need, this definition requires that we start from the sorts of wrongs likely to occur and from identifiable increments in the likelihood, or to the likely degree, that these wrongs will occur. It is limited but appropriately so, as it only applies to special protection, not to any protection to which we have a valid claim. Using this definition would clarify that the normative force of claims for special protection does not rest with vulnerability itself, but with pre-existing claims when these are more likely to be denied. Such a clarification could help those who carry responsibility for the protection of vulnerable populations, such as Institutional Review Boards, to define the sort of protection required in a more targeted and effective manner. [source]

    Adverse Event Reporting: Lessons Learned from 4 Years of Florida Office Data

    Brett Coldiron MD, FACP
    Background Patient safety regulations and medical error reporting systems have been at the forefront of current health care legislature. In 2000, Florida mandated that all physicians report, to a central collecting agency, all adverse events occurring in an office setting. Purpose To analyze the scope and incidence of adverse events and deaths resulting from office surgical procedures in Florida from 2000 to 2004. Methods We reviewed all reported adverse incidents (the death of a patient, serious injury, and subsequent hospital transfer) occurring in an office setting from March 1, 2000, through March 1, 2004, from the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration. We determined physician board certification status, hospital privileges, and office accreditation via telephone follow-up and Internet searches. Results Of 286 reported office adverse events, 77 occurred in association with an office surgical procedure (19 deaths and 58 hospital transfers). There were seven complications and five deaths associated with the use of intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. There were no adverse events associated with the use of dilute local (tumescent) anesthesia. Liposuction and/or abdominoplasty under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation were the most common surgical procedures associated with a death or complication. Fifty-three percent of offices reporting an adverse incident were accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgical Facilities, or American Association for Ambulatory Health Care. Ninety-four percent of the involved physicians were board certified, and 97% had hospital privileges. Forty-two percent of the reported deaths were delayed by several hours to weeks after uneventful discharge or after hospital transfer. Conclusions Requiring physician board certification, physician hospital privileges, or office accreditation is not likely to reduce office adverse events. Restrictions on dilute local (tumescent) anesthesia for liposuction would not reduce adverse events and could increase adverse events if patients are shifted to riskier approaches. State and/or national legislation establishing adverse event reporting systems should be supported and should require the reporting of delayed deaths. [source]

    When Popular Participation Won't Improve Service Provision: Primary Health Care in Uganda

    Frederick Golooba-Mutebi
    Advocates of participatory approaches to service delivery see devolution as key to empowering people to take charge of their own affairs. Participation is portrayed as guaranteeing the delivery of services that are in line with user preferences. It is assumed that people are keen to participate in public affairs, that they possess the capacity to do so, and that all they need is opportunities. Using evidence from ethnographic research in Uganda, this article questions these views. It shows that, to succeed in the long term, devolution and participation must take place in the context of a strong state, able to ensure consistent regulation, and a well-informed public backed up by a participatory political culture. [source]

    Mental health care reform in Sweden, 1995

    C.-G. Stefansson
    Objective:,To describe the content of the Community Mental Health Care reform in Sweden, in effect from 1995 and directed to severely mentally ill people (SMI). Method:,Evaluating changes, at local and national level, in living conditions among SMI and resources of services directed to them, by using registers, questionnaires, interviews and case studies. Results:,A survey, covering 93% of the population, identified 43 000 SMI (prevalence of 0.63%); 4000 long-stay patients and 400 rehabilitation programmes were transferred from psychiatric services to social services (15% of the budget of psychiatric services). Employment and rehabilitation projects, family support and user programmes and educational projects for social services staff, were launched (funded by state subsidies). Conclusion:,SMI still have difficulties in obtaining adequate support on the basis of disability laws and there continue to be barriers between social services and psychiatric services. [source]

    Development of the International Classification of Mental Health Care (ICMHC)

    A. De Jong
    Objective: Evaluations of the process of providing mental health care have been hampered because a tool to systematically describe the interventions actually provided by the services was lacking. In this paper the development of such a tool (the International Classification of Mental Health Care; ICMHC) is described. Method: Subsequent versions of the ICMHC were developed, using comments from experts in 24 WHO field centres and results from a number of field trials. In the final version 10 Modalities of Care can be used to describe Modules of Care, using the Level of Specialization scale. The inter-rater reliability of this version was evaluated by the Italian research team, using data from 43 services. Results: Reliability ranged from excellent for nine modalities to reasonably good for the remaining modality. Conclusion: In the context of evaluation studies, the ICMHC can be used to describe systematically mental health care interventions. [source]

    Motivational Interviewing in Health Care: Helping Patients Change Behavior

    Dana Wong

    Patient Safety: A Curriculum for Teaching Patient Safety in Emergency Medicine

    Karen S. Cosby MD
    Abstract The last decade has witnessed a growing awareness of medical error and the inadequacies of our health care delivery systems. The Harvard Practice Study and subsequent Institute of Medicine Reports brought national attention to long-overlooked problems with health care quality and patient safety. The Committee on Quality of Health Care in America challenged professional societies to develop curriculums on patient safety and adopt patient safety teaching into their training and certification requirements. The Patient Safety Task Force of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) was charged with that mission. The curriculum presented here offers an approach to teaching patient safety in emergency medicine. [source]

    Empirical evidence of underutilization of referrals for epilepsy surgery evaluation

    P. De Flon
    Background:, Epilepsy surgery is a treatment that can cure patients with intractable epilepsy. This study investigates whether referrals for epilepsy surgery evaluation are underutilized. Methods:, Patients with epilepsy aged 18,60 years were identified in a computerized registry held by public health care providers in a Swedish county using ICD codes. Clinical data and data on referral status for epilepsy surgery were obtained from the patients' medical records. Potential candidates for epilepsy surgery evaluation were identified using pre-specified criteria. Obstacles for referral were analysed by comparing clinical data in patients who were considered for referral and those who were not. Appropriateness of non-referral was evaluated against recommendations from the Swedish Council on Technology in Health Care (SBU). Results:, Of 378 patients with epilepsy in the registry, 251 agreed to participate. Of 251, 40 were already referred patients and 48 patients were identified as potential candidates for epilepsy surgery evaluation by study criteria. Referral had been considered but not performed in 15 of the potential candidates. Potential candidates not considered for referral were less likely to have seen a neurologist, to have had an EEG, CT and MRI, and more likely to have cognitive disturbances. Following the recommendations by the SBU, 28 of 48 potential candidates were identified as inappropriately not referred patients. Conclusion:, The number of missed referrals for epilepsy surgery evaluation was estimated to be 60 per 100 000 inhabitants. Several important obstacles were found for not referring patients for epilepsy surgery evaluation. [source]

    Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta-analysis in Context

    MH Pittler

    Guidelines for Oral Health Care for Long-stay Patients and Residents

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    J. Fiske
    First page of article [source]

    Survey findings on characteristics and health status of clients treated by the federally funded (US) Health Care for the Homeless Programs

    Cheryl Zlotnick RN DrPH
    Abstract For almost two decades, the US Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) Program has funded clinics across the country for homeless populations. Between October and December 2003, for the first time ever, a nationally representative sample of the almost 200 HCH clinics with a response rate of approximately 71% (the HCH User Visit Survey) was created to examine the health status of its users (n = 1017). This study employed the HCH User Visit Survey's cross-sectional data set to evaluate health indicators of individuals using HCH Services with the US population, and compare individuals who reported they routinely used HCH clinics (,usual' HCH users) to those who did not (,non-usual' users). HCH users had poorer health status than the US population (44.0% versus 12.3%, respectively). Usual HCH users had similar healthcare status compared to non-usual users, but were more likely to be uninsured, non-English speakers, and walking or taking public transportation to their medical appointments. Usual versus non-usual HCH users were also more apt to have slept in cars, buses or on the streets in the week prior to the survey (14.8% versus 4.3%, respectively). This study shows that the HCH clinics are serving homeless individuals who have a variety of complex health and psychosocial needs, and its most frequent users are those who experience the most barriers accessing care. [source]

    Lay Involvement in Health Care and Other Research

    Article first published online: 20 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    REALISE-ing their potential?: implementing local library projects to support evidence-based health care

    Louise Falzon
    Librarian involvement in Evidence-based Health Care provides many opportunities at a local level. Unfortunately, the potential for innovative projects to inform future developments is generally lost by a failure to ,pass the baton',to identify lessons learnt and transferable principles. The ,Library Support for Evidence-based Health Care' Project, funded by the NHS Executive Northern and Yorkshire, resulted in the implementation of locally responsive packages of hardware and software in six of the Region's libraries. The opportunity to evaluate the collective experience of these sites, and to synthesize principles of good practice, was provided by a separately funded post-hoc evaluation, the Research Evaluation to Audit Library and Information Support for EBHC (REALISE). This paper reports on how this evaluation was conducted, documents the strengths and weaknesses of the Project itself, and attempts to provide a checklist for use in similar projects. The paper concludes by outlining the relevance of the findings to the introduction of planned organizational approaches to quality (clinical governance) and the development of local implementation strategies across the UK, required by the NHS Information Strategy, Information for Health. [source]

    Health Care Reform: What the United States Can Learn from the Experience of Other Developed Nations

    The panel discussion took place on June , at the AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting in Washington
    First page of article [source]

    Improving Efficiency and Value in Health Care: Introduction

    Irene Fraser
    First page of article [source]

    Effects of Poverty and Lack of Insurance on Perceptions of Racial and Ethnic Bias in Health Care

    Irena Stepanikova
    Objective. To investigate whether poverty and lack of insurance are associated with perceived racial and ethnic bias in health care. Data Source. 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Health Care, a nationally representative telephone survey. We use data on black, Hispanic, and white adults who have a regular physician (N=4,556). Study Design. We estimate multivariate logistic regression models to examine the effects of poverty and lack of health insurance on perceived racial and ethnic bias in health care for all respondents and by racial, ethnic, and language groups. Principal Findings. Controlling for sociodemographic and other factors, uninsured blacks and Hispanics interviewed in English are more likely to report racial and ethnic bias in health care compared with their privately insured counterparts. Poor whites are more likely to report racial and ethnic bias in health care compared with other whites. Good physician,patient communication is negatively associated with perceived racial and ethnic bias. Conclusions. Compared with their more socioeconomically advantaged counterparts, poor whites, uninsured blacks, and some uninsured Hispanics are more likely to perceive that racial and ethnic bias operates in the health care they receive. Providing health insurance for the uninsured may help reduce this perceived bias among some minority groups. [source]

    Assessing the Value of the NHIS for Studying Changes in State Coverage Policies: The Case of New York

    Sharon K. Long
    Research Objective. (1) To assess the effects of New York's Health Care Reform Act of 2000 on the insurance coverage of eligible adults and (2) to explore the feasibility of using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) as opposed to the Current Population Survey (CPS) to conduct evaluations of state health reform initiatives. Study Design. We take advantage of the natural experiment that occurred in New York to compare health insurance coverage for adults before and after the state implemented its coverage initiative using a difference-in-differences framework. We estimate the effects of New York's initiative on insurance coverage using the NHIS, comparing the results to estimates based on the CPS, the most widely used data source for studies of state coverage policy changes. Although the sample sizes are smaller in the NHIS, the NHIS addresses a key limitation of the CPS for such evaluations by providing a better measure of health insurance status. Given the complexity of the timing of the expansion efforts in New York (which encompassed the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks), we allow for difference in the effects of the state's policy changes over time. In particular, we allow for differences between the period of Disaster Relief Medicaid (DRM), which was a temporary program implemented immediately after September 11th, and the original components of the state's reform efforts,Family Health Plus (FHP), an expansion of direct Medicaid coverage, and Healthy New York (HNY), an effort to make private coverage more affordable. Data Sources. 2000,2004 CPS; 1999,2004 NHIS. Principal Findings. We find evidence of a significant reduction in uninsurance for parents in New York, particularly in the period following DRM. For childless adults, for whom the coverage expansion was more circumscribed, the program effects are less promising, as we find no evidence of a significant decline in uninsurance. Conclusions. The success of New York at reducing uninsurance for parents through expansions of both public and private coverage offers hope for new strategies to expand coverage. The NHIS is a strong data source for evaluations of many state health reform initiatives, providing a better measure of insurance status and supporting a more comprehensive study of state innovations than is possible with the CPS. [source]

    The Effects of Health Sector Market Factors and Vulnerable Group Membership on Access to Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Care

    Susan E. Stockdale
    Objective. This study adapts Andersen's Behavioral Model to determine if health sector market conditions affect vulnerable subgroups' use of alcohol, drug, and mental health services (ADM) differently than the general population, focusing specifically on community-level predisposing and enabling characteristics. Data Sources. Wave 2 data (2000,2001) from the Health Care for Communities study, supplemented with cases from wave 1 (1997,1998), were merged with area characteristics taken from Census, Area Resource File (ARF), and other data sources. Study Design. The study used four-level hierarchical logistic regression to examine access to ADM care from any provider and specialty ADM access. Interactions between community-level predisposing and enabling vulnerability characteristics with individual race/ethnicity, age, income category, and insurance type were explored. Principal Findings. Nonwhites, the poor, uninsured, and elderly had lower likelihoods of service use, but interactions between race/ethnicity, income, age and insurance status with community-level vulnerability factors were not statistically significant for any service use. For ADM specialty care, those with Medicare, Medicaid, private fully managed, and private partially managed insurance, the likelihood of utilization was higher in areas with higher HMO penetration. However, for those with other insurance or no insurance plan, the likelihood of utilization was lower in areas with higher HMO penetration. Conclusions. Community-level enabling factors explain part of the effect of disadvantaged status but, with the exception of the effect of HMO penetration on the relationship between insurance and specialty care use, do not modify any of the residual individual-level effects of disadvantage. Interventions targeting both structural and individual levels may be necessary to address the problem of health disparities. More research with longitudinal data is necessary to sort out the causal direction of social context and ADM access outcomes, and whether policy interventions to change health sector market conditions can shift ADM treatment utilization. [source]

    Health Care Organizations' Use of Data on Race/Ethnicity to Address Disparities in Health Care

    David R. Nerenz
    First page of article [source]

    Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Using Federal Data to Support Local Programs to Eliminate Disparities

    Thomas D. Sequist
    To reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care, managers, policy makers, and researchers need valid and reliable data on the race and ethnicity of individuals and populations. The federal government is one of the most important sources of such data. In this paper we review the strengths and weaknesses of federal data that pertain to racial and ethnic disparities in health care. We describe recent developments that are likely to influence how these data can be used in the future and discuss how local programs could make use of these data. [source]

    Religious Involvement and the Use of Mental Health Care

    Katherine M. Harris
    Objectives. To examine the association between religious involvement and mental health care use by adults age 18 or older with mental health problems. Methods. We used data from the 2001,2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We defined two subgroups with moderate (n=49,902) and serious mental or emotional distress (n=14,548). For each subgroup, we estimated a series of bivariate probit models of past year use of outpatient care and prescription medications using indicators of the frequency of religious service attendance and two measures of the strength and influence of religious beliefs as independent variables. Covariates included common Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, disorders symptoms, substance use and related disorders, self-rated health status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results. Among those with moderate distress, we found some evidence of a positive relationship between religious service attendance and outpatient mental health care use and of a negative relationship between the importance of religious beliefs and outpatient use. Among those with serious distress, use of outpatient care and medication was more strongly associated with service attendance and with the importance of religious beliefs. By contrast, we found a negative association between outpatient use and the influence of religious beliefs on decisions. Conclusion. The positive relationship between religious service participation and service use for those with serious distress suggests that policy initiatives aimed at increasing the timely and appropriate use of mental health care may be able to build upon structures and referral processes that currently exist in many religious organizations. [source]

    Parent-Identified Barriers to Pediatric Health Care: A Process-Oriented Model

    Elisa J. Sobo
    Objective. To further understand barriers to care as experienced by health care consumers, and to demonstrate the importance of conjoining qualitative and quantitative health services research. Data Sources. Transcripts from focus groups conducted in San Diego with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with special health care needs. Study Design. Participants were asked about the barriers to care they had experienced or perceived, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers. Using elementary anthropological discourse analysis techniques, a process-based conceptual model of the parent experience was devised. Principal Findings. The analysis revealed a parent-motivated model of barriers to care that enriched our understanding of quantitative findings regarding the population from which the focus group sample was drawn. Parent-identified barriers were grouped into the following six temporally and spatially sequenced categories: necessary skills and prerequisites for gaining access to the system; realizing access once it is gained; front office experiences; interactions with physicians; system arbitrariness and fragmentation; outcomes that affect future interaction with the system. Key to the successful navigation of the system was parents' functional biomedical acculturation; this construct likens the biomedical health services system to a cultural system within which all parents/patients must learn to function competently. Conclusions. Qualitative analysis of focus group data enabled a deeper understanding of barriers to care,one that went beyond the traditional association of marker variables with poor outcomes ("what") to reveal an understanding of the processes by which parents experience the health care system ("how,""why") and by which disparities may arise. Development of such process-oriented models furthers the provision of patient-centered care and the creation of interventions, programs, and curricula to enhance such care. Qualitative discourse analysis, for example using this project's widely applicable protocol for generating experientially based models, can enhance our knowledge of the parent/patient experience and aid in the development of more powerful conceptualizations of key health care constructs. [source]

    Consumer-Driven Health Care,Beyond Rhetoric with Research and Experience

    Anne K. Gauthier
    First page of article [source]

    Use of Information Technology to Improve the Quality of Health Care in the United States

    Eduardo Ortiz
    First page of article [source]

    Does Satisfaction Reflect the Technical Quality of Mental Health Care?

    Mark J. Edlund
    Objective. To analyze the relationship between satisfaction and technical quality of care for common mental disorders. Data Source. A nationally representative telephone survey of 9,585 individuals conducted in 1997,1998. Study Design. Using multinomial logistic regression techniques we investigated the association between a five-level measure of satisfaction with the mental health care available for personal or emotional problems and two quality indicators. The first measure, appropriate technical quality, was defined as use of either appropriate counseling or psychotropic medications during the prior year for a probable depressive or anxiety disorder. The second, active treatment, indicated whether the respondent had received treatment for a psychiatric disorder in the past year. Covariates included measures of physical and mental health and sociodemographic indicators. Principal Findings. Appropriate technical quality of care was significantly associated with higher levels of satisfaction. The strength of the association was moderate. Conclusions. Satisfaction is associated with technical quality of care. However, profiling quality of care with satisfaction will likely require large samples and case-mix adjustment, which may be more difficult for plans or provider groups to implement than measuring technical indicators. More importantly, satisfaction is not the same as technical quality, and our results suggest that at this time they cannot be made to approach each other closely enough to eliminate either. [source]

    Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs

    M. Susan Ridgely
    Objective. To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and ,unmanaged" care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design. The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods. Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions. If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. [source]