Health Campaigns (health + campaign)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Health Campaigns

  • public health campaign

  • Selected Abstracts

    Sensation Seeking, the Activation Model, and Mass Media Health Campaigns: Current Findings and Future Directions for Cancer Communication

    Michael T. Stephenson
    The Activation Model of Information Exposure highlights the potential for individual differences in arousal in response to information, as well as the consequences of these patterns for information processing and seeking. Over the past 2 decades, the theoretical approach has generated considerable research in health communication. Most applications, however, have focused on substance use among adolescents and young adults. In this article, we assess the relevance of the activation approach for cancer communication. Although a wide range of communication efforts related to cancer prevention and treatment stand to benefit from acknowledgement of individual differences in optimal levels of arousal, we also acknowledge issues and challenges that remain for work on the Activation Model and sensation seeking. In reaching this conclusion, we explore some limitations of the Activation Model in its current form and point to new directions for future research. [source]

    Investigation and recommendations concerning prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and promotion of hygiene in earthquake-stricken areas

    Guang Zeng
    Abstract In order to identify all public hygiene problems in the Wenchuan quake-affected areas, and also to provide relevant recommendations to local governments, the quake areas were entered for field investigation and consultation. The current situation and hidden dangers and problems of epidemic surveillance, planned immunization, drinking water hygiene, nutrition and food hygiene, environmental hygiene are discussed in the article. Some suggestions are also provided for government public hygiene policy: (i) launch a patriotic health campaign among the population; (ii) study on green agricultural policy of changing dung into manure; (iii) start from quake-affected area to develop rural environmental hygiene work; (iv) prolong treatment of infectious diseases free of charge, and draw up a policy of free vaccination for earthquake victims; and (v) realize reform of the CDG funding system in the quake-affected area. At last, meaning and judgment criteria of ,no big epidemic after a great disaster' are interpreted. The observation period is divided into three phases: forthcoming summer and autumn phase, forthcoming winter and next spring phase, and comprehensive recovery phase. [source]

    A population-based birth defects surveillance system in the People's Republic of China

    Song Li
    Summary We describe a unique birth defects surveillance system in the People's Republic of China. The system was instituted in March 1992 as a component of an evaluation of the effectiveness of a public health campaign using periconceptional folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects, and currently surveys birth cohorts of , 150 000 infants per year. Local health care providers collect information in the form of detailed written descriptions and photographs of affected infants. The system allows for detection of birth defects at the local level with later definitive classification and coding; however, information is limited to structural anomalies that are visible on physical examination. This birth defects surveillance system provides an extensive database of infants with major and minor external structural anomalies, including the unique feature of a photographic record for most cases. These data can be used for aetiological studies, descriptive epidemiology and identification of unusual trends. [source]

    Stroke in Developing Countries: Epidemiology, Impact and Policy Implications

    Peter Lloyd-Sherlock
    The burden of stroke and other non-communicable diseases has risen sharply in developing countries in recent years. This article provides a detailed review of this trend and its underlying causes, and discusses the social and economic effects of stroke and the scope for interventions to reduce incidence and mitigate impacts. It demonstrates that policy-makers have been slow to recognise the growing scale of the challenge, and argues for large-scale public health campaigns focused on primary and secondary prevention. [source]

    An exploratory study of the influences that compromise the sun protection of young adults

    Ngaia Calder
    Abstract This paper reports on an exploratory research project designed to gain a deeper understanding of the influences on ultraviolet radiation (UVR) behaviours among high-risk young adults to determine what compromises the adoption of protection measures for this group. A dual approach using focus groups and the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique was used to provide personal narratives related to UVR behaviour for tertiary education students. Results from both ,conversations' were content-analysed using an iterative ,bootstrapping' technique to identify key themes and issues. This exploratory research identified a number of key themes including effect on mood, influence of culture, the value of tans, unrealistic optimism, risk-orientation, and the role of experience. This group felt that they not been targeted effectively by public health campaigns and did not fully understand the dangers of high-risk UVR behaviours. Although a number of previous studies have investigated the relationship between knowledge and behaviour, and largely concluded that increases in knowledge do not lead to increases in adoption of protection practices, the preliminary findings of this study reveal that the knowledge and perceived self efficacy of protective practices is extremely high, what is lacking is the perceived threat and thus the motivations to adopt such behaviours. The conclusions drawn from this research indicate that there are a variety of important influencing factors that compromise UVR behaviours, in particular, the lack of perceived seriousness and severity towards long term consequences such as skin cancer. The recommendation to address the imbalance of ,perceived threat' and ,outcome expectations' is to focus on increasing knowledge of skin cancer, particularly susceptibility to skin cancer and the severity of the condition. [source]

    The Effects of Beliefs About the Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking on Smoking Onset

    Jon A. Krosnick
    Nearly all Americans now recognize that smoking causes lung cancer and other serious diseases; however, cigarette smoking has not yet been eradicated in this country. This might be taken as evidence that beliefs about the health risks of smoking do not influence smoking onset or quitting. In this paper, we report new evidence that perceiving smoking to entail greater health risks reduces the likelihood that a young person will begin to smoke. This evidence suggests that public health campaigns should continue to focus on this theme to bolster resistance to smoking onset among young people. [source]

    Characterizing and Reaching High-Risk Drinkers Using Audience Segmentation

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2009
    Howard B. Moss
    Background:, Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment, including where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions, and research efforts. Methods:, We described the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-reported to consume 5 or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30 days. The study used the proprietary PRIZMÔ (Claritas, Inc., San Diego, CA) audience segmentation database merged with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top 10 of the 66 PRIZMÔ audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provided additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers resided. Results:, The top 10 audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge-drinking behavior is referred to as the "Cyber Millenials." This cluster is characterized as "the nation's tech-savvy singles and couples living in fashionable neighborhoods on the urban fringe." Almost 65% of Cyber Millenials households are found in the Pacific and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. Additional consumer behaviors of the Cyber Millenials and other segments are also described. Conclusions:, Audience segmentation can assist in identifying and describing target audience segments, as well as identifying places where segments congregate on- or offline. This information can be helpful for recruiting subjects for alcohol prevention research as well as planning health promotion campaigns. Through commercial data about high-risk drinkers as "consumers," planners can develop interventions that have heightened salience in terms of opportunities, perceptions, and motivations, and have better media channel identification. [source]

    Health behaviours of young, rural residents: A case study

    Lisa Bourke
    Abstract Objective:,To analyse self-reported health behaviours of young people from a rural community and the factors influencing their behaviours. Methods:,Interviews were conducted with 19 young people, 11 parents and 10 key informants from a small rural Victorian community, asking about teenage health behaviours and the factors influencing these behaviours. Results:,Young people ate both healthy and unhealthy foods, most participated in physical activity, few smoked and most drank alcohol. The study found that community level factors, including community norms, peers, access issues and geographic isolation, were particularly powerful in shaping health behaviours, especially alcohol consumption. Smoking was influenced by social participation in the community and national media health campaigns. Diet and exercise behaviour were influenced by access and availability, convenience, family, peers and local and non-local cultural influences. Conclusion and implications:,The rural context, including less access to and choice of facilities and services, lower incomes, lack of transport and local social patterns (including community norms and acceptance), impact significantly on young people's health behaviours. Although national health promotion campaigns are useful aspects of behaviour modification, much greater focus on the role and importance of the local contexts in shaping health decisions of young rural people is required. [source]

    Infectious causes of cancer: an evolving educational saga

    G. Pappas
    Scientific interest in the aetiological relationship between infectious diseases and cancer is constantly increasing for numerous reasons. First, increased numbers of neoplasias have been definitely aetiologically correlated with specific pathogens. Second, the pathways that lead to carcinogenesis have shed light on numerous important cellular processes. Third, infection as a cause of cancer is preventable, and thus cancer is preventable, either at a primary stage by inhibition of infection or, secondarily, by inhibition of the carcinogenic process. The latter reason lies behind two of the major public health campaigns of recent years, namely vaccination for hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus. [source]