Hepatosomatic Index (hepatosomatic + index)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of Carbohydrate-Rich Alternative Feedstuffs on Growth, Survival, Body Composition, Hematology, and Nonspecific Immune Response of Black Pacu, Colossoma macropomum, and Red Pacu, Piaractus brachypomus

Rebecca Lochmann
To facilitate economical culture of black pacu, Colossoma macropomum, and red pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, in the Amazon region of South America, we assessed locally available alternative energy sources for practical diets. We tested the effects of control diets (containing wheat products) versus diets with different Amazonian feedstuffs (yucca, Manihot sculenta, plantain, Musa paradisiaca, or pijuayo, Bactris gasipaes) on the performance of the pacus in three feeding trials. Black pacu (22.5 ± 0.03 g; Trial 1) or red pacu (2.56 ± 0.01 g; Trial 2) were fed diets containing 30% wheat bran (control) or cooked or uncooked yucca, plantain, or pijuayo for 12 wk. In Trial 3, larger black pacu (86.9 ± 6.4 g) were grown to market size in 24 wk on similar diets. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity, and lysozyme were similar among diets. Hepatosomatic index, liver glycogen, and dry matter were affected by diet in Trials 1 and 2, but effects were not consistent among trials. In Trial 3, protein efficiency ratio was lower in fish fed the diet containing wheat middlings. However, relative to wheat bran or wheat middlings, all feedstuffs tested were effective energy sources for juvenile black pacu and red pacu. [source]

Effects of Amylopectin/Amylose Starch Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Glycemic Response of Sunshine Bass Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis

Steven Rawles
Manipulation of the ratio of amylopectin (,-[1,4] and ,-[1,6] linked glucose) to amylose (,-[1,41 linked glucose) starches in the carbohydrate fraction of the diet has been used to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mammalian models. A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary amylopectin/amylose ratio on growth and composition of growth of advanced sunshine bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) fingerlings (60 g, initial weight). Fish were fed cold-pelleted, semipurified, isonitrogenous (35% crude protein), isocaloric (3.6 kcaVg protein), isolipidic (5%) diets containing 25% carbohydrate. The carbohydrate fraction of the diets was composed of either glucose, dextrin, 100% amylopectin/0% amylose, 70% amylopectin/30% amylose, or 30% amylopectin/70% amylose. Diets differing in ratios of amylopectin/amylose were achieved by adjusting the proportion of high-amylopectin (100% amylopectin) to high-amylose (70% amylose) corn starch. Diets were fed to fish in quadruplicate 76-L tanks (seven fish/tank) connected to a brackish water (5-7%v) recirculating culture system with biofiltration. Weight gain ranged from 195 to 236% of initial weight (60 g) and was significantly greater (P < 0.1) for fish fed diets containing 25% carbohydrate as dextrin or as 70% amylose and significantly lower in fish fed diets in which carbohydrate was composed of 30% amylose, 100% amylopectin, or glucose. Feed efficiency ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 and was higher in fish fed the diet containing the highest concentration of amylose and lower in fish fed the diet containing glucose. Hepatosomatic index was highest (2.71) in fish fed the diet containing glucose and lowest (1.401.45) in fish fed diets containing high-amylose cornstarch. Intraperitoneal fat ratio was distinctly lower in fish fed diets containing some amylose as compared to those fed diets without amylose. Liver lipid was significantly lower (4.8%) in fish fed the diet containing glucose and almost twice as high (7.3-8.9%) in fish fed the diets containing any starch. Glycogen content of the liver decreased from approximately 12% in fish fed the diet containing glucose to 5% in fish fed the diets containing amylose. Muscle proximate composition and ratio were unaffected by the dietary treatments. Fasting levels (15 h) of blood glucose in fish reared for 10 wk on the diet containing glucose were significantly elevated (5.5 mmol/L) when compared to fasting levels of those that had been reared on diets containing starch (3.4-1.1 mmol/L). Fish fed the diet containing glucose exhibited maximum blood concentrations (14.6 mmoVL) 4 h postprandial then rapidly declined to nearly fasting levels within 8 h postprandial. In contrast, maximum plasma glucose concentrations in fish fed diets containing starch were roughly half (6.8-8.1 mmol/L) those of fish fed the diet containing glucose. Blood glucose in fish fed diets containing dextrin or predominantly amylopectin starch remained elevated longer than that of fish fed diets containing glucose or predominantly amylose starch. Glycemic response appeared to decrease with increasing dietary amylose content. These data suggest that feeding diets in which a greater portion of the starch is amylose may be a useful strategy for improving carbohydrate use in sunshine bass. [source]

Influence of dietary lipid/protein ratio on survival, growth, body indices and digestive lipase activity in Snakehead (Channa striatus, Bloch 1793) fry reared in re-circulating water system

Abstract Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g,1) diets were formulated in a 3 × 3 factorial design to contain three protein levels (350, 400 and 450 g kg,1) for each of three lipid levels (65, 90 and 115 g kg,1), respectively, and fed twice daily for 8 weeks to fish of mean initial weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g reared in a re-circulatory water system. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were maintained within the range 28,30 °C, 5.6,6.8 and 4.82,6.65 mg L,1 respectively throughout. Results show that fish survival was better in the groups fed 65 g kg,1 lipid while growth performance (% weight gain, WG; specific growth rate, SGR) and nutrient utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR; protein efficiency ratio, PER; protein intake, PI) in the 65/450 and 90/450 g kg,1 treatments were similar and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in fish fed the other lipid/protein ratio combinations. The body indices monitored (Hepatosomatic index, HSI and viscerosomatic index, VSI) were similar among the treatments whereas intestinal lipase activity was not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by increase in dietary lipid and protein levels. Carcass composition showed that dietary protein level affected body protein content positively in the 65 and 90 g kg,1 lipid treatments, but dietary lipid level did not affect body lipid content. A lipid/protein ratio of 65/450 g kg,1 is considered adequate for good growth performance and survival of Channa striatus fry. [source]

Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate whether standard fish meal diets prepared with increasing levels of genetically modified (GM; 150 and 300 g kg,1) maize (event MON810®) as a starch source, showed any nutritional or physiological adverse effects on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. postsmolt. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize and its near-isogenic parental line (nongenetically modified; nGM maize), were balanced with Suprex maize (Reference) to obtain compositional equivalency of diet starch, sugars and all other nutrients. Total starch level in all diets was 160 g kg,1. After 82 days of feeding, fish growth was high in all groups, however fish fed the GM maize showed slight but significant lower feed intake, which was followed by slight but significant lower specific growth rate and final body weights, compared with fish fed nGM maize, none of the groups varied significantly from fish fed the Reference diet. There was no variation in feed conversion ratios (FCR), protein and lipid efficiency ratios (PER and LER), or protein- and lipid-productive values (PPV and LPV) in this study. No significant effect of maize type was detected on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, protein or lipid. Hematological analysis and plasma nutrients varied within normal ranges for Atlantic salmon in all diet groups, except for somewhat elevated aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) values in all groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) with values ranging from 1.37 to 1.60, was significantly higher for the high GM maize group compared with the high nGM maize group but not when compared with the Reference diet group. Lowered spleen (SSI) and head-kidney somatic indices (H-KSI) were registered when fed GM compared with nGM maize, the Reference treatment was however, equal to both. Distal intestine somatic index (DISI) was significantly higher for GM maize-fed fish compared with nGM maize-fed fish, but not significantly different from the Reference diet group. Histological evaluation of the mid- and distal intestine, liver, spleen and head-kidney did not reveal any diet-related morphological changes. Maltase activities in the mid- and distal intestinal tissue homogenates were affected by diet, the fish fed high GM maize having higher activities compared with high nGM maize-fed fish. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities were not affected by diet. Sodium-dependent d -glucose uptake in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from pyloric caeca of fish fed high GM maize was significantly higher than that found in fish fed the analogous diet with high nGM maize. Based on the present findings, the conclusions made are: Atlantic salmon smolts fed GM maize (event MON810®), its near-isogenic parental line and suprex maize (Reference diet), all resulted in high growth rates, ADC and feed utilization. Health, when evaluated by means of mortality (low), normal ranges of blood and plasma parameters, except somewhat elevated ASAT values and minor variations in organ sizes, were considered good in all diet groups. The changes in the glucose transport mechanism and intestinal maltase enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract warrant further studies. [source]

Effects of high carbohydrate and high lipid diets on growth, body composition and glucose metabolism in southern catfish at two temperatures

Yiping Luo
Abstract The effects of high carbohydrate and high lipid diets on the growth, body composition and glucose metabolism in the southern catfish were determined at 17.5 °C and 27.5 °C. At each temperature, the feeding rate, specific growth rate and protein productive value decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate (P<0.05). Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were lower in the fish fed a high dietary carbohydrate diet at 17.5 °C, but were not significantly different between diets at 27.5 °C. Plasma glucose and activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were higher in fish reared at 27.5 °C than those reared at 17.5 °C, and within each temperature, they were higher in fish fed the high-carbohydrate diet. Hepatosomatic index was higher in fish fed the high-carbohydrate diet than those fed the high-lipid diet at 27.5 °C, but no significant difference was found at 17.5 °C. The results indicate that higher temperatures enhance glycogen deposition and lipogenous enzyme activities when fed with a high-carbohydrate diet; thus, at higher temperatures, this fish uses carbohydrate more efficiently for protein sparing. [source]

Xenoestrogenic effects of ethinylestradiol in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Bram J. Versonnen
Abstract To assess the estrogenic effects of ethinylestradiol on zebrafish, zebrafish at different developmental stages (embryos, juveniles, and adults) were exposed to the synthetic hormone ethinylestradiol (EE2) in concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ng/L for up to 33 days. Survival, hatching, length, weight, growth, condition, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, and vitellogenin (VTG) production were examined. Exposure of zebrafish juveniles and embryos to 100 ng EE2/L for up to 33 days had significant effects on survival, growth, and hatching. Two VTG fragments with molecular weights of approximately 140 and 170 kDa were detected with protein electrophoresis and Western blotting in the blood of exposed males and exposed and unexposed females, as well as in whole-body homogenates of exposed and unexposed juveniles. Significantly higher VTG concentrations (compared to controls) were measured in adults exposed to 10 and 100 ng EE2/L for 14 days, but not in fish exposed to 1 ng EE2/L. This study demonstrated that (1) zebrafish juveniles, larvae, and embryos are sensitive to the toxic effects of the endocrine disrupter EE2; (2) the effects on VTG production in adults are detected after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2; (3) unexposed juvenile zebrafish produce measurable concentrations of VTG. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 198,206, 2004. [source]

Long-term trends in liver neoplasms in brown bullhead in the Buffalo River, New York, USA

Darrel J. Lauren
Abstract The Buffalo River area of concern (AOC) was assigned an impaired status for the fish tumors and other deformities beneficial use impairment category by the New York State Department of Environmental Protection in 1989. This was initially based on an inadequately documented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) feeding study using river sediment extracts. The presence of liver tumors was subsequently supported by reports of a 19 to 27% prevalence in wild brown bullhead between 1983 and 1988 and a 4.8% prevalence in 1998. However, neither fish size (or age) nor sample locations were given, and histopathological definitions were inconsistent in these previous studies. Therefore, in 2008, we re-evaluated the prevalence of hepatocellular and chloangiocellular tumors (as well as other gross indicators of fish health) in brown bullhead averaging 25,cm in length collected from three reaches of the Buffalo River and recorded our collection sites by global positioning system. Among the 37 fish of appropriate size collected, only three exhibited liver tumors (8%). The tumors were evenly distributed within the three reaches, and only hepatocellular tumors were found. There were no differences in the prevalence of hepatic foci of alteration, body weight, length, or hepatosomatic index among the three reaches, but the conditions factor was significantly lower in fish from reach 2. Natural attenuation of water and sediment quality are the most likely causes for the decrease in liver tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors between 1998 and 2008 in the Buffalo River is similar to that found in recovery-stage AOCs and some Great Lakes reference areas. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29:1748,1754. © 2010 SETAC [source]

Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) concerning stress and growth,

Andrea Ziková
Abstract Diets containing Microcystis with considerable amounts of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were fed to determine their impact on the physiological performance of the omnivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with regard to stress and growth performance. Four different diets were prepared based on a commercial diet (control, MC-5% [containing 5% dried Microcystis biomass], MC-20% [containing 20% dried Microcystis biomass], and Arthrospira-20% [containing 20% dried Arthrospira sp. biomass without toxin]) and fed to female Nile tilapia. Blood and tissue samples were taken after 1, 7, and 28 d, and MC-LR was quantified in gills, muscle, and liver by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Only in the liver were moderate concentrations of MC-LR detected. The stress hormone cortisol and glucose were analyzed from plasma, suggesting that all modified diets caused only minor to moderate stress, which was confirmed by analyses of hepatic glycogen. In addition, the effects of the different diets on growth performance were investigated by determining gene expression of hypophyseal growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). For all diets, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) demonstrated no significant effect on gene expression of the major endocrine hormones of the growth axis, whereas classical growth data, including growth and feed conversion ratio, displayed slight inhibitory effects of all modified diets independent of their MC-LR content. However, no significant change was found in condition or hepatosomatic index among the various diets, so it seems feasible that dried cyanobacterial biomass might be even used as a component in fish diet for Nile tilapia, which requires further research in more detail. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:561,568. © 2009 SETAC [source]

Dose,response and time course relationships for vitellogenin induction in male western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) exposed to ethinylestradiol

Sandra M. Brasfield
Abstract The long-term goal of this research is to develop and validate an in vivo reptile model for endocrine-mediated toxicity using fence lizards (Sceloporus spp.). One of the best defined estrogenic responses in oviparous vertebrates is induction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vtg). In this study, dose,response and time course relationships for Vtg induction were determined in male western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) given intraperitoneal injections of 17,-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Plasma Vtg was quantified directly with an antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirectly using plasma alkalinelabile phosphate (ALP) in order to compare these two methods. Both ELISA and ALP predicted similar median effective dose (ED50 [dose causing a 50% maximal response]) values for plasma Vtg induction (0.167 mg/kg for ELISA and 0.095 mg/kg for ALP). In addition, both ELISA and ALP detected significant Vtg induction at a dose of 0.0003 mg/kg of EE2, which was the lowest dose used in our study. A decrease in body weight at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) and an increase in hepatosomatic index at the four highest doses were observed. Serial dilutions of plasma from an EE2 -exposed male revealed a high correlation between plasma Vtg and ALP determinations in this species. In conclusion, our data show that plasma ALP may be a suitable alternative for measuring plasma Vtg compared with developing a Vtg ELISA in fence lizards exposed to estrogenic compounds. [source]

Dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii)

H. Wen
Summary The present experiment was conducted to determine the dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) by formulating seven semipurified diets containing 10, 258, 510, 1050, 2020, 4100 and 8300 IU vitamin A (as retinol acetate) kg,1 diet, respectively. Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 juveniles each with initial average weights of 12.09 ± 0.22 g in 405-L aquaria and maintained at 25.0 ± 2.0°C for 8 weeks. Fish fed the basal diet (10 IU vitamin A kg,1 diet) exhibited poor appetite and activity, whereas these signs were not observed in any group fed vitamin A-supplemented diets. Weight gain, feed efficiency and hepatosomatic index increased significantly with increases in the dietary vitamin A level, reaching a peak with the vitamin A 1050 IU kg,1 diet, and then decreasing. Muscle chemical compositions were not affected by the dietary vitamin A levels. Vitamin A concentrations in liver and muscle increased significantly as the vitamin A levels increased within a range of 10,4100 IU kg,1 diet; above this level there were no significant changes. Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain and liver vitamin A concentration against the dietary vitamin A level showed that juvenile Amur sturgeon required a minimum of 923 IU vitamin A kg,1 in the diet for maximal growth, and 1981 IU kg,1 for highest liver vitamin A accumulation. [source]

Influence of dietary amino acid profiles on growth performance and body composition of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides

Z. Luo
Summary A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amino acid (AA) profiles on growth performance and body composition of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides (initial mean weight: 68.1 ± 1.0 g, mean ± SD). Five diets contained 30% fishmeal, 12% soy protein concentrate and 20% crystalline amino acids (CAAs); the control diet contained 54% fishmeal and 17% soy protein concentrate as intact protein sources. CAAs were added to the five diets to simulate the AA pattern found in white fishmeal protein (WFP), brown fishmeal protein (BFP), hen egg protein (HEP), grouper E. coioides juvenile protein (GJP) and red sea bream egg protein (REP), respectively. The highest WG and SGR were obtained in fish fed the control diet, followed by fish fed the diets with AA profiles of WFP and GJP. Fish fed the diets with AA profiles of BFP, REP and HEP showed relatively poor growth performance. Feed utilization showed a similar trend in growth parameters. Protein content of whole body among these treatments showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), but lipid content of whole body showed the highest value in the control group (P < 0.05). Dietary AA profiles significantly influenced plasma protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Dietary AA profiles significantly influenced the condition factor, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio (P < 0.05). [source]

Influence of dietary composition on growth and energy reserves in tench (Tinca tinca)

N. De Pedro
The effects of different protein, lipid and carbohydrate diets on growth and energy storage in tench, Tinca tinca L., were studied. Over a 2-month period fish were fed four different diets: control, protein-enriched, carbohydrate-enriched and lipid-enriched. The best growth rates were obtained with the control and protein-enriched diets; the carbohydrate diet produced the worst results (lowest specific growth rate, weight gain, nutritional index and hepatosomatic index). These results suggest that it is not advisable to reduce dietary fish protein below 35%, and that it is not possible to obtain a protein-sparing effect of either lipids or carbohydrates, at least in our experimental conditions. The high-protein diet resulted in the storage of energy excess as muscle proteins and hepatic glycogen. Tench fed the high-carbohydrate diet stored carbohydrates as muscle glycogen and reduced plasma triglycerides. Finally, both liver and muscle lipid content were in positive correlation to dietary lipid. [source]

Seasonal changes of thyroid hormones in field-collected Atlantic cod in relation to condition indices, water temperature and photoperiod

L. A. Comeau
Serum T4 and T3 in wild Atlantic cod Gadus morhua ranged from 1 to 12 ng ml,1 and from 2 to 27 ng ml,1 respectively over a 3-year period. In general, the concentrations increased from summer (T3) or early autumn (T4) to maxima in mid-winter and declined abruptly during spring. The T4/T3 monthly means were lowest in summer and highest in winter. The seasonal patterns of thyroid hormones were weakly correlated with changes in water temperature. However, both T4 and T3 co-varied simultaneously with photoperiod. In addition, T3 was correlated with the hepatosomatic index and condition factor during summer and autumn. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in the release of T4 from the thyroid were photoperioddriven, and that the course of T3 was regulated by the metabolic state of the fish during the somatic growth period. [source]

Evaluation of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Feed Ingredient for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

Menghe H. Li
Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has been evaluated as an energy source for several farm animals. A study was conducted to examine the effects of various levels of glycerol in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Fish with mean initial weight of 6.8 ± 0.1 g were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquaria and fed practical diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% glycerol for 9 wk. There were no significant differences in feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, and liver lipid level among fish fed diets containing 0, 5, and 10% glycerol. However, fish fed diets containing 15 and 20% glycerol had reduced weight gain, feed efficiency, and liver lipid content. Survival was not affected by dietary glycerol levels. Blood glucose level was significantly higher in fish fed 5% glycerol than fish fed other diets. Fillet protein and fat generally decreased and fillet moisture increased as dietary glycerol level increased. It appears that channel catfish can utilize about 10% glycerol in the diet without adverse effects on feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, hemoglobin, hepatosomatic index, and liver lipid. [source]

Replacement of Fish Meal with Poultry By-product Meal as a Protein Source in Pond-raised Sunshine Bass, Morone chrysops , × M. saxatlis ,, Diets

Harvey J. Pine
Replacement of fish meal (FM) as a protein source with alternative sources of protein in aquaculture diets has been widely explored in aquaculture. The goal of replacement of FM in production diets is to maintain growth, lower production costs, and increase sustainability. Evaluation of the replacement of FM with poultry by-product meal (PBM) in phase II sunshine bass diets, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, was conducted in ponds over 246 d. Four diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (37%) and isocaloric (4 kcal/g) with different levels of FM replacement with PBM (0, 33, 67, and 100%, Diets 1,4, respectively). Twelve ponds were stocked with 400 phase II sunshine bass (mean weight 5.6 g) and randomly assigned one of the four diets. Fish were fed below satiation based on predicted growth and feed conversion, initially once daily (1700 h) and then twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) as water temperatures and feeding activity increased. Diets were evaluated based on production and performance indicators, body composition, and economic analysis. Production results revealed no significant differences in mean final individual fish weight (511 ± 21 g), net production (4257 ± 247 kg/ha), and survival (85 ± 2%). No significant differences occurred between the performance indicators: mean feed conversion ratio (2.47 ± 0.11), specific growth rate (1.84 ± 0.02), and protein conversion efficiency (23 ± 1.3%). Body composition was statistically similar for mean percent fillet weight (49 ± 0.6%) and percent intraperitoneal fat (9.8 ± 1.0%); however, the hepatosomatic index was significantly different between Diets 3 (3.7 ± 0.1%) and 4 (3.2 ± 0.1%). Mean proximate analysis of whole fish (dry weight basis) was not significantly different among treatments yielding the following: percent protein (46 ± 0.4%), lipid (47 ± 1.3%), and ash (8 ± 0.7%). Mean fillet composition (dry weight basis) also revealed no significant differences: percent protein (72 ± 0.8%), percent lipid (30 ± 1.6%), and percent ash (5 ± 0.2%). Proximate analysis was also performed on the diets and revealed a significantly lower protein content in Diet 3 (34.3 ± 0.5%) compared to the other diets (37.1 ± 0.4%). Amino acid analysis of the diets indicated a possible deficiency in methionine in Diets 3 and 4. Based on production, performance, and body composition, the results indicate that complete replacement of FM with PBM in sunshine bass diets is feasible; however, economic analysis suggests that the replacement of FM with PBM may result in reduced revenue over feed costs. [source]

Chemomodulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on the hepatic status of skin tumor bearing mice

Ashwani Koul
Abstract The liver plays an important role in the modulation of the process of carcinogenesis, as it is the primary site for the biotransformation of xenobiotics including carcinogens as well as anticancer drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the biochemical alterations occurring in the liver of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin tumor bearing male Balb/c mice and their modulation by aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE). It was observed that skin tumor induction caused hepatic damage characterized by a decreased hepatosomatic index and significantly increased (p < 0.001) activities of the hepatic tissue injury marker enzymes, namely alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. However, upon treatment with AAILE, the above-mentioned alterations, including the increased activities of hepatic tissue injury marker enzymes, were significantly reversed, which signified the hepato-protective efficacy of Azadirachta indica. Increased oxidative stress was also observed in the hepatic tissue of skin tumor bearing mice as revealed by a significant increase (p < 0.001) in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in reduced glutathione contents and activities of various antioxidant enzymes studied, namely glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The AAILE treatment reduced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation levels and enhancing the reduced glutathione contents and activities of various antioxidant enzymes. The activities of the xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, namely cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5 and glutathione-S-transferase, were found to be decreased in the hepatic tissue of tumor bearing mice. Treatment with AAILE further caused a decrease in the activity of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5, whereas it up-regulated the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. The significance of these observations with respect to the progress of the process of carcinogenesis is explained in the present research article. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on growth performance, body composition, nutrient utilization and hepatic enzymes activities of herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Abstract Six isonitrogenous (390 g kg,1) and isoenergetic (16.2 kJ g,1) diets with varying carbohydrate : lipid (CHO : L) ratios (202.5,1.74), were fed to triplicate groups of 25 fish in indoor recirculation system. Over 8-week-growth trial, best weight gain (WG), specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein production value (P < 0.05) were observed in fish-fed diets with CHO : L ratio of 7.5. Fish fed either the lowest (1.7) or highest (202.5) CHO : L ratio tended to produce lower (P < 0.05) growth and feed conversion efficiencies. The values of viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio increased as dietary CHO : L ratios decreased. There were no significant differences in whole body and liver crude protein among dietary treatments. Whole body and liver lipid increased as CHO : L ratios decreased. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels increased linearly as dietary CHO : L ratios decreased. Activities of glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were stimulated by elevated levels of dietary carbohydrate; however, activities of lipase (LPS) and alkaline phosphatase were stimulated by elevated levels of dietary lipid. Based on a second-order polynomial regression analysis of WG against dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels, 275 g kg,1 of carbohydrate and 59 g kg,1 of lipid, corresponding to a CHO : L ratio of 4.7, in a diet holding 390 g kg,1 of crude protein and 16.3 kJ g,1 of gross energy, proved to be optimal for grass carp. These results indicated that utilization of dietary lipid and carbohydrate was moderate in grass carp, but the fish were a little more capable of utilizing lipid compared with carbohydrate. [source]

Quantitative l -lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus)

Abstract An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative l -lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream Sparus macrocephalus (initial mean weight: 9.13 ± 0.09 g, SD) in eighteen 300-L indoors flow-through circular fibreglass tanks provided with sand-filtered aerated seawater. The experimental diets contained six levels of l -lysine ranging from 20.8 to 40.5 g kg,1 dry diet at about 4 g kg,1 increments. All the experiment diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish in a completely randomized design. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing levels of dietary lysine up to 32.5 g kg,1 (P < 0.05) and both showed a declining tendency thereafter. Feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio was poorer for fish fed the lower lysine level diets (P < 0.05) and showed no significant differences among other treatments (P > 0.05). All groups showed high survival (above 90%) and no significant differences were observed. The whole body crude protein and crude lipid contents were significantly affected (P < 0.05) by dietary lysine level, while moisture and ash showed no significant differences. The composition of muscle and liver also presented similar change tendency. Total essential amino acid and lysine contents in muscle both obtained the highest value when fish fed 32.5 g kg,1 lysine diet (P < 0.05). Serum protein, cholesterol and free lysine concentration were affected by different dietary treatments (P < 0.05), triacylglyceride and glucose contents were more variable and could not be related to dietary lysine levels. Dietary lysine level significantly affected condition factor and intraperitoneal fat ratio of juvenile black sea bream (P < 0.05) except for hepatosomatic index. There were no significant differences in white blood cell count and red blood cell count (P > 0.05), however, haemoglobin level was significantly influenced by different diets (P < 0.05). Analysis of dose (lysine level)-response (SGR) with second order polynomial regression suggested the dietary lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream to be 33.2 g kg,1 dry diet or 86.4 g lysine kg,1 protein. [source]

Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

Abstract A growth experiment was conducted to investigate effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Myxocyprinus asiaticus (initial mean weight: 10.04 ± 0.53 g, mean ± SD). Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (340, 390 and 440 g kg,1), each with three lipid levels (60, 100 and 140 g kg,1), in order to produce a range of P/E ratios (from 22.4 to 32.8 mg protein kJ,1). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish in 400-L indoors flow-through circular fibre glass tanks provided with sand-filtered aerated freshwater. The results showed that the growth was significantly affected by dietary P/E ratio (P < 0.05). Fish fed the diets with 440 g kg,1 protein (100 and 140 g kg,1 lipid, P/E ratio of 31.43 and 29.22 mg protein kJ,1) had the highest specific growth rates (SGR) (2.16 and 2.27% day,1, respectively). However, fish fed the diet with 390 g kg,1 protein and 140 g kg,1 lipid showed comparable growth (2.01% day,1), and had higher protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive value (PPV) and energy retention (ER) than other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences in survival were found among dietary treatments. Carcass lipid content was positively correlated with dietary lipid level, but irrespective of protein level and inversely correlated with carcass moisture content. Carcass protein contents increased with increasing dietary lipid at each protein level. The white muscle and liver composition showed that lipid increased with increasing dietary lipid level (P < 0.05). Dietary protein concentrations had significant effect on condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) (P < 0.05). However, dietary lipid concentrations had no significant effect on CF, HSI (P > 0.05). Based on these observations, 440 g kg,1 protein with lipid from 100 to 140 g kg,1 (P/E ratio of 29.22 to 31.43 mg protein kJ,1) seemed to meet minimum requirement for optimal growth and feed utilization, and lipid could cause protein-sparing effect in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker. [source]

Effects of dietary phospholipid and highly unsaturated fatty acid on the gonadal development, tissue proximate composition, lipid class and fatty acid composition of precocious Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

Abstract Precocious puberty is a major constraint to the economical rearing Eriocheir sinensis farming. Although dietary phospholipid (PL) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) reportedly enhanced ovarian development in normal adult E. sinensis, it had opposite effects of reducing precocity in juveniles. This study investigated the effects of dietary PL and HUFA on survival, gonadal development and biochemical composition of precocious E. sinensis. Two diets with PL and HUFA supplementation (diet A) and deficient (diet B) were formulated and fed to precocious E. sinensis. Although no significant differences were found on survival and gonadosomatic index of crabs fed both diets, crabs fed diet B had significantly higher hepatosomatic index and hepatopancrean lipid content than crabs fed diet A. The percentages, 14:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, in hepatopancreas, muscle and gonads were positively correlated to the diets. Interestingly, the crabs fed diet B accumulated significantly higher 18:2n-6 in gonads and muscle than those fed diet A. Furthermore, substantially higher 20:4n-6 was detected in the gonad and muscle than in the diets. These results suggested that dietary PL and HUFA had limited effects on male gonad biochemical composition. Meanwhile, the precocious E. sinensis may be capable of negating the negative effects of HUFA deficiency by enhanced tissue 18:2n-6 accumulation and converting 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6. [source]

Effect of dietary substitution of fish oil by Echium oil on growth, plasma parameters and body lipid composition in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

Abstract Gilthead seabream juveniles were fed on either a fish oil (FO)-containing diet or a diet containing a 50 : 50 blend of FO and Echium oil (EO) to determine the effect of EO on growth, plasma parameters and tissue lipid compositions. After 4 months of feeding, there was a significant increase of 18 : 2n -6 and a reduction of approximately 25% of 20 : 5n -3 in the flesh of fish fed the EO diet. At this point, half of the fish that fed on EO were returned to the FO diet as a third treatment and the trial continued with the three groups for a further 3 months. At the end of the experiment, food intake, survival, growth and plasma parameters were not affected by the inclusion of dietary EO. However, hepatosomatic index (HSI), total lipid and triacylglycerol contents of muscle decreased in fish fed the EO diet. Feeding the EO diet resulted in significant increments of potentially health-promoting fatty acids such as 18 : 3n -6, 18 : 4n -3 and 20 : 3n -6 but reduced n -3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 20 : 5n -3. When EO-fed fish were returned to the FO diet, tissue lipid contents and HSI tended to increase, but 18 : 2n -6 and 20 : 5n -3 levels were not fully restored to the levels of fish fed the FO diet for the entire trial. Furthermore, the fatty acids present in EO, which may promote beneficial health effects, were reduced. [source]

Evaluation of practical diets containing different protein levels on gonad development of female redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus

Abstract The effect of five experimental diets with different crude protein content (220, 270, 330, 390 and 450 g kg,1) on gonad development of female Cherax quadricarinatus was tested under laboratory conditions. After 70 days, a significant linear relationship indicated that higher concentrations of protein and carbohydrates in the hepatopancreas were produced as the dietary crude protein increased (P < 0.05). There were significant responses of the gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, biochemical composition of the gonad (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and energy) and frequency of secondary vitellogenic oocytes to dietary protein level, as indicated by significant fits of the quadratic equation to the observed experimental data. The optimal response of the criteria parameters corresponded to levels of crude protein in the range 284,355 g kg,1. Overall, 330 g kg,1 crude protein with a protein : energy ratio of 15.6 mg kJ,1 was considered the most adequate concentration of dietary protein for gonad development and biochemical composition in female redclaw crayfish. [source]

Performance factors, body composition and digestion characteristics of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed pelleted or extruded diets

Abstract The effects of steam pelleting or extrusion of a commercial feed on performance of 2 g (small) and 40 g (large) gilthead sea bream was studied. In addition the apparent digestibility of diets, gastric evacuation time (GET) and trypsin and amylase activities were measured in large fish. Fish size significantly increased protein and energy productive value, body protein and lipid, liver glycogen and liver lipid, however decreased daily growth index, feed intake and feed utilization, body moisture and hepatosomatic index. Extrusion processing decreased feed intake, more strongly for small fish, and increased daily growth index, feed utilization, protein and energy productive value, body protein and lipid. Digestibility of starch and energy increased with extrusion and GET of extruded feed was double that of steam-pelleted conditioned feed (i.e. 544 min versus 284 min). Digestive enzyme activities approached maximum values after 240 min for the pelleted diet, while those of the extruded continued to increase, at higher rates for amylase than trypsin. Pelleted diet indicated higher moisture for stomach digesta, while the moisture of the intestinal precipitate indicated a higher water-binding capacity for the extruded diet. The overall results indicate a better assimilation of the extruded diet, which could result from its prolonged gastric evacuation. [source]

Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, lipid peroxidation and tissue fatty acid composition of black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) fed oxidized fish oil

Abstract A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on growth, lipid peroxidation and fatty acid composition of black sea bream fed oxidized oil. The FL and OL diets contained fresh fish oil and oxidized oil, respectively, without additional vitamin E supplementation. Another four ,-tocopherol levels (150, 250, 450 and 800 mg kg,1 diet) were used within the OL diet, giving a total of six experimental diets. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation twice daily. At end of the trial, the weight gain and survival rate of fish were significantly reduced by diets with oxidized oil, whereas hepatosomatic index was remarkably high in fish fed oxidized oil diet. However, vitamin E supplementation to diet significantly improved growth performance and increased vitamin E content in the liver. Although, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and docosahexaenoic acid were significantly increased by dietary oxidized oil, their levels were reduced by dietary vitamin E supplementation. Our results indicate that the fish were performing the best at intermediate concentrations of ,-tocopherol and a dose of >150 mg ,-tocopherol kg,1 diet could reduce lipid peroxidation and improve fish growth performance when oxidized oils exist in diet. [source]

Dietary energy requirement of piracanjuba fingerlings, Brycon orbignyanus, and relative utilization of dietary carbohydrate and lipid

Abstract Ten isonitrogenous casein,gelatin-based diets were formulated to contain five estimated metabolizable energy concentrations (10.92, 12.29, 13.63, 14.82 and 16.16 kJ g,1) at two carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios (CHO : L, 5.3 and 12.8, g : g) in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 11 piracanjuba fingerlings (5.25 ± 0.14 g) and fed to apparent satiation twice a day for 90 days. Higher daily weight gain was obtained by fish fed the 13.63 kJ g,1 diets for both CHO : L ratios. There was a significant reduction of feed consumption when dietary energy concentration increased above 13.63 kJ g,1. Feed conversion ratio and apparent net energy retention improved as dietary energy increased. Apparent net protein retention tended to be lower in the highest and lowest dietary energy concentrations. The results suggest that dietary lipid energy was more efficiently utilized by piracanjuba fingerlings than carbohydrate energy. Body composition and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were not influenced by dietary CHO : L ratio. However, an increase in dietary energy concentration beyond 13.63 kJ g,1 resulted in a significant increment in lipid deposition, while body moisture and HSI decreased. Our findings indicate that at 300 g kg,1 dietary crude protein, a CHO : L ratio of 5.3 is recommended for piracanjuba, and the required energy is either 13.63 kJ g,1 if raised for aquaculture or 14.82 kJ g,1 if destined to stock enhancement. [source]

Effects of varying dietary fatty acid profile on growth performance, fatty acid, body and tissue composition of juvenile pike perch (Sander lucioperca)

Abstract Pike perch (Sander lucioperca) has been identified as specie destined to diverse European inland aquaculture, but knowledge on the nutritional requirements is weak. Therefore, we investigated the effect of varying dietary fatty acid (FA) profile by partial replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils on growth, FA and body composition of juvenile pike perch. An extruded basal diet containing 59 g kg,1 crude lipids (FO) was added with 60 g kg,1 FO, 60 g kg,1 linseed oil (LO) or 60 g kg,1 soybean oil (SO). The resulting dietary FA composition differed mainly in the triglyceride fraction and was characterized by highest amounts of linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) in the LO diet and linoleic acid in the SO diet. Diet enriched with FO contained highest contents of highly unsaturated FA 20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenic acid) and 22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenic acid). Pike perch were held in a recirculation system and each feeding group (in triplicate) was fed with experimental diets at a daily rate of 35 g kg,1 of biomass for 57 days by automatic feeders. Weight gain and specific growth rate of experimental feeding groups ranged between 18.47 and 19.58 g and 1.37,1.45% day,1 and was not affected by the dietary composition indicating that FO can be replaced by vegetable oils without negative impact on growth performance. In contrast to the whole body and muscle composition, liver tissue was affected by the varying diets. Liver tissues of fish fed diets enriched with vegetable oils showed significantly increased lipid contents of 162 (LO) and 147 (SO) g kg,1 and indicate decreased lipid utilization compared with fish fed FO diet (liver lipid content 112 g kg,1). Nevertheless, hepatosomatic index of pike perch was not influenced by dietary lipid composition. The FA profile of pike perch was generally determined by the dietary FAs. [source]

Optimization of growout diets for red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

Because of the high costs associated with feed inputs, as well as increased concern about waste production on fish farms, there is considerable interest in developing growout diets which are both cost effective and low polluting. In two 12-week growth trials, the response of subadult red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, fed either a diet of 440 or 360 g protein kg,1 diet (44% or 36%) with varying E:P ratios were tested. In the first experiment, five diets containing 440 g protein kg,1 diet and one diet containing 360 g protein kg,1 diet (reference) were offered to red drum (mean initial weight of 186 g). The five test diets contained 83, 103, 123, 143, and 163 g lipid kg,1 diet, resulting in E:P ratios ranging from 34.3 to 38.9 kJ g protein,1. In experiment 2, five diets providing 360 g protein kg,1 diet and one diet containing 440 g protein kg,1 diet (reference) were offered to red drum (mean initial weight of 145 g). Dietary lipid levels included 83, 123, and 163 g lipid kg,1 diet, and dietary carbohydrate was diluted with 10% and 20% non-nutritive bulk filler in two of the diets to result in E:P ratios ranging from 34.5 to 46.7 kJ g protein,1. In experiment 1, no significant differences in mean final weight, mean weight gain, feed efficiency, protein conversion efficiency or hepatosomatic index were observed between the five test diets providing 440 g protein kg,1 diet. Intraperitoneal fat generally increased with increasing dietary lipid. The results of experiment 2 indicate that amongst the test diets with 360 g protein kg,1 diet, mean final weight, mean weight gain, feed efficiency, protein conversion efficiency and hepatosomatic index were not significantly different. Intraperitoneal fat significantly increased with increasing dietary lipid. In both experiments, fish offered diets with 440 g protein kg,1 diet produced significantly higher growth and FE values as compared to fish receiving diets containing 360 g protein kg,1 diet. This study indicated that subadult red drum are tolerant of shifts in E:P ratios and utilize a wide range of dietary lipid and carbohydrate without compromising growth. [source]

Effect of rearing density on the growth and welfare indices of juvenile spotted wolffish, Anarhichas minor (Olafsen)

Sarah Tremblay-Bourgeois
Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the optimal stocking density for rearing juvenile spotted wolffish, Anarhichas minor (Olafsen), at two different sizes and assess the welfare status in relation to density. No major growth impairment was observed, although smaller fish (50,100 g) were significantly affected by density during the 120 days of the experiment, with final mean weights of 119.6 ± 11.6, 118.0 ± 5.8 and 88.7 ± 0.6 g for initial rearing densities of 10, 20 and 40 kg m,2 respectively. No effect of rearing density was seen for larger fish (100,160 g) during the 90 days of the experiment, with final mean weights of 160.2 ± 5.9, 159.7 ± 3.7 and 163.7 ± 11.5 g at fixed rearing densities of 20, 30 and 40 kg m,2 respectively. Our results suggest that the optimal rearing density of juvenile spotted wolffish is below 40 kg m,2 for smaller size fish (,50,100 g) and probably ,40 kg m,2 for the larger fish (100,160 g). Furthermore, it appears that the range of rearing density used did not have a significant effect on a selection of stress indicators (Na+ and K+ concentration, haematocrit, hepatosomatic index, total amount of plasma proteins and liver and muscle water content) and immunity response (plasma lysozyme activity) of juvenile spotted wolffish, making it a very tolerant species to crowding. [source]

Quality of farmed Atlantic cod: effects of season and storage

Hilde Herland
Abstract Farming of Atlantic cod makes it possible to supply cod throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of season and postmortem ice storage on the quality parameters of farmed cod. Farmed Atlantic cod were sampled from the same pen in the period February 2006,March 2007. Cod whole body and somatic weight, condition factors and hepatosomatic index were all affected by season, all decreasing during maturation and spawning in the winter. Muscle pH and water were influenced by season, increasing during maturation and spawning and then decreasing after spawning. Season also affected the colour of the fillet. There was a significant increase in whiteness post-spawning and a decrease during the second maturation. Water-holding capacity (WHC), levels of trimethylamine oxide and trimethylamine, as well as microbiological data, did not vary due to season. Muscle pH, water content, WHC and microbial counts increased during storage for all samplings. [source]

Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Dentex dentex fed on different macronutrient combinations

Amalia Pérez-Jiménez
Abstract Determining an adequate macronutrient balance is essential to guarantee the production success. As protein is the limiting component for fish food, the utilization of lipids or carbohydrates as partial substitutes of this nutrient is a challenge to improve its use. In order to get an approximation of the maximum levels of utilization for carbohydrates and/or lipids and determine the most adequate macronutrient to partly replace protein as the main energy source of diets for dentex (91.7 ± 1.4 g mean weight), four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate percentages (43/16/28, 43/24/4, 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were tested for 13 weeks. The results indicated the possibility of using 38% of dietary protein without affecting growth performance, under the experimental conditions. There were no differences among the four diets either in most of the nutritive utilization indicators or in the body composition and haematological parameters. The influence of dietary composition was only observed in the feed intake, being higher with more dietary carbohydrates, and the hepatosomatic index and protein efficiency ratio, showing more elevated values in diets with a higher lipid level. The dentex capacity of using both carbohydrates and lipids efficiently to obtain the necessary energy for its correct growth, as well as to compensate the energetic ,vacuum' caused by the dietary protein reduction, under the assayed conditions, was confirmed. [source]