HEK Cells (hek + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Splice-isoform specific immunolocalization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in mouse and rat brain reveals that the PDZ-complex-building nNOS, ,-finger is largely exposed to antibodies

Kristina Langnaese
Abstract Knock out mice deficient for the splice-isoform ,, of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS,,) display residual nitric oxide synthase activity and immunosignal. To attribute this signal to the two minor neuronal nitric oxide synthase splice variants, ,, and ,,, we generated isoform-specific anti-peptide antibodies against the nNOS,, specific ,,-finger motif involved in PDZ domain scaffolding and the nNOS,, specific N-terminus. The nNOS,, ,,-finger-specific antibody clearly recognized the 160-kDa band of recombinant nNOS,, on Western blots. Using immunocytochemistry, this antibody displayed, in rats and wild-type mice, a labeling pattern similar to but not identical with that obtained using a commercial pan-nNOS antibody. This similarity indicates that the majority of immunocytochemically detectable nNOS is not likely to be complexed with PDZ-domain proteins via the ,,-finger motif. This conclusion was confirmed by the inhibition of PSD-95/nNOS interaction by the nNOS,, ,,-finger antibody in pull-down assays. By contrast, nNOS,, ,,-finger labeling was clearly reduced in hippocampal and cortical neuropil areas enriched in NMDA receptor complex containing spine synapses. In nNOS,, knock out mice, nNOS,, was not detectable, whereas the pan-nNOS antibody showed a distinct labeling of cell bodies throughout the brain, most likely reflecting ,,/,,-isoforms in these cells. The nNOS,, antibody clearly detected bacterial expressed nNOS,, fusion protein and nNOS,, in overexpressing HEK cells by Western blotting. Immunocytochemically, individual cell bodies in striatum, cerebral cortex, and in some brain stem nuclei were labeled in knock out but not in wild-type mice, indicating an upregulation of nNOS,, in nNOS,, deficient animals. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007 [source]

Advanced glycation end products-induced apoptosis attenuated by PPAR, activation and epigallocatechin gallate through NF-,B pathway in human embryonic kidney cells and human mesangial cells

Yao-Jen Liang
Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy has attracted many researchers' attention. Because of the emerging evidence about the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor of AGE (RAGE) on the progression of diabetic nephropathy, a number of different therapies to inhibit AGE or RAGE are under investigation. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,) agonist (L-165041) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) alters AGE-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and apoptosis in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human mesangial cells (HMCs). Methods The HEK cells and HMC were separated into the following groups: 100 µg/mL AGE alone for 18 h; AGE treated with 1 µM L-165041 or 10 µM EGCG, and untreated cells. Inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-,B pathway, RAGE expression, superoxide dismutase and cell apoptosis were determined. Results AGE significantly increased tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), a major pro-inflammatory cytokine. The mRNA and protein expression of RAGE were up-regulated. These effects were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with L-165041 or EGCG. AGE-induced nuclear factor-,B pathway activation and both cells apoptosis were also inhibited by L-165041 or EGCG. Furthermore, both L-165041 and EGCG increased superoxide dismutase levels in AGE-treated HEK cells and HMC. Conclusions This study demonstrated that PPAR, agonist and EGCG decreased the AGE-induced kidney cell inflammation and apoptosis. This study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of EGCG and PPAR, agonist in attenuation of kidney cell inflammation and may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat patients with diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Formation of cholesterol-enriched structures by aberrant intracellular accumulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 8 2008
Arowu R. Tanaka
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key transporter associated with excess cellular lipid efflux. Here, we report that in HEK293 cells ABCA1 functions in intracellular compartments along the endocytic pathway. Inhibition of ABCA1-GFP degradation with proteasome inhibitors induced the internalization of ABCA1 and the formation of intracellular round-shaped structures, designated "A1 bodies". Importantly, cholesterol was selectively accumulated in A1 bodies, and this depended on the cholesterol efflux activity of ABCA1. Treatment with either lactacystin or acetylated LDL, which reduces proteasome activity, resulted in internalization of ABCA1 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. By performing array analysis on macrophages treated with these reagents, we identified Rab4 as a key protein involved in the internalization and aberrant accumulation of ABCA1 in HEK cells. Treatment of the cells with proteasome inhibitors inhibited the degradation of Rab4, and Rab4 over-expression induced the formation of small A1 bodies. Furthermore, A1 bodies formation was substantially inhibited by silencing of the endogenous Rab4 gene. Taken together, our findings suggest that the endocytic ABCA1 possesses cholesterol efflux activity, and thus the cellular control of post-endocytic sorting, retention or recycling of functional ABCA1 in the endocytic vesicles, which is in part regulated by Rab4, is important for cholesterol metabolism in living cells. [source]

Multiple Kv1.5 targeting to membrane surface microdomains,

Ramón Martínez-Mármol
Surface expression of voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv) has a pivotal role in leukocyte physiology. Although little is known about the physiological role of lipid rafts, these microdomains concentrate signaling molecules and their ion channel substrates. Kv1.3 associates with Kv1.5 to form functional channels in macrophages. Different isoform stoichiometries lead to distinct heteromeric channels which may be further modulated by targeting the complex to different membrane surface microdomains. Kv1.3 targets to lipid rafts, whereas Kv1.5 localization is under debate. With this in mind, we wanted to study whether heterotetrameric Kv1.5-containing channels target to lipid rafts. While in transfected HEK-293 cells, homo- and heterotetrameric channels targeted to rafts, Kv1.5 did not target to rafts in macrophages. Therefore, Kv1.3/Kv1.5 hybrid channels are mostly concentrated in non-raft microdomains. However, LPS-induced activation, which increases the Kv1.3/Kv1.5 ratio and caveolin, targeted Kv1.5 back to lipid rafts. Moreover, Kv1.5 did not localize to low-buoyancy fractions in L6E9 skeletal myoblasts, which also coexpress both channels, heart membranes or cardiomyocyes. Coexpression of a Cav3DGV -mutant confined Kv1.5 to Cav3DGV -vesicles of HEK cells. Contrarily, coexpression of Kv,2.1 impaired the Kv1.5 targeting to raft microdomains in HEK cells. Our results indicate that Kv1.5 partnership interactions are underlying mechanisms governing channel targeting to lipid rafts. J. Cell. Physiol. 217: 667,673, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genistein potentiates activity of the cation channel TRPC5 independently of tyrosine kinases

Ching-On Wong
Background and purpose:, TRPC5 is a Ca2+ -permeable channel with multiple modes of activation. We have explored the effects of genistein, a plant-derived isoflavone, on TRPC5 activity, and the mechanism(s) involved. Experimental approach:, Effects of genistein on TRPC5 channels were investigated in TRPC5-over-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) using fluorescent Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological techniques. Key results:, In TRPC5-over-expressing HEK cells, genistein stimulated TRPC5-mediated Ca2+ influx, concentration dependently (EC50= 93 µM). Genistein and lanthanum activated TRPC5 channels synergistically. Effects of genistein on TRPC5 channels were mimicked by daidzein (100 µM), a genistein analogue inactive as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but not by known tyrosine kinase inhibitors herbimycin (2 µM), PP2 (20 µM) and lavendustin A (10 µM). Action of genistein on TRPC5 channels was not affected by an oestrogen receptor inhibitor ICI-182780 (50 µM) or a phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (10 µM), suggesting genistein did not act through oestrogen receptors or phospholipase C. In BAECs, genistein (100 µM) stimulated TRPC5-mediated Ca2+ influx. In patch clamp studies, both genistein (50 µM) and daidzein (50 µM) augmented TRPC5-mediated whole-cell cation current in TRPC5 over-expressing HEK cells. Genistein stimulated TRPC5 channel activity in excised inside-out membrane patch, suggesting that its action was relatively direct and did not require cytosolic factors. Conclusions and implications:, The present study is the first to demonstrate stimulation of a TRP channel by isoflavones. Genistein is a lipophilic compound able to stimulate TRPC5 activity in TRPC5-over-expressing HEK cells and in native vascular endothelial cells. [source]

Murine splenocytes produce inflammatory cytokines in a MyD88-dependent response to Bacillus anthracis spores

Ian J. Glomski
Summary Bacillus anthracis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The highly stable spore is the infectious form of the bacterium that first interacts with the prospective host, and thus the interaction between the host and spore is vital to the development of disease. We focused our study on the response of murine splenocytes to the B. anthracis spore by using paraformaldehyde-inactivated spores (FIS), a treatment that prevents germination and production of products associated with vegetative bacilli. We found that murine splenocytes produce IL-12 and IFN-, in response to FIS. The IL-12 was secreted by CD11b cells, which functioned to induce the production of IFN-, by CD49b (DX5) NK cells. The production of these cytokines by splenocytes was not dependent on TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, Nod1, or Nod2; however, it was dependent on the signalling adapter protein MyD88. Unlike splenocytes, Nod1- and Nod2-transfected HEK cells were activated by FIS. Both IL-12 and IFN-, secretion were inhibited by treatment with B. anthracis lethal toxin. These observations suggest that the innate immune system recognizes spores with a MyD88-dependent receptor (or receptors) and responds by secreting inflammatory cytokines, which may ultimately aid in resisting infection. [source]

Synthesis of Benzamides Related to Anacardic Acid and Their Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT) Inhibitory Activities

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 9 2008

Abstract A group of benzamides related to anacardic acid amide CTPB with alkyl chains of defined length were prepared by a five-step sequence starting from 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and their activities were compared with those reported for the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid (AA). The subset of 4-cyano-3-trifluoromethylphenylbenzamides with shorter chains exhibited activities similar to that of AA, as they behaved as human p300 inhibitors, induced a decrease in histone acetylation levels in immortalized HEK cells, and counteracted the action of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, an analogue with the shortest alkyl chain induced significant apoptosis at 50,,M in U937 leukemia cells. [source]