Height Difference (height + difference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Elevation adjustments of paired natural levees during flooding of the Saskatchewan River

Norman D. Smith
Abstract Natural levees control the exchange of water between an alluvial channel and its floodplain, but little is known about the spatial distribution and evolution of levee heights. The summer 2005 flood of the Saskatchewan River (Cumberland Marshes, east-central Saskatchewan) inundated large areas of floodplain for up to seven weeks, forming prominent new deposits on natural levees along main-stem channels. Measurements of flood-deposit thickness and crest heights of 61 levee pairs show that the thickest deposits occur on the lower pre-flood levee in 80% of the sites, though no clear relationship exists between deposit thickness and magnitude of height difference. Only 16% of the pairs displayed thicker deposits on the higher levee, half of which occurred at sites where relatively clear floodbasin waters re-entered turbid channels during general flooding. Difference in crest elevation (,E) between paired levees is approximately log-normally distributed, both before and after the flood, though with different mean values. Supplemental observations from tank experiments indicate that during near-bankfull flows, temporally and spatially variable deposition and erosion occur on levees due to backwater effects associated with nearby channel bars and irregular rises of the channel bed forced by channel extension. During floods, preferential deposition in lows tends to even out crest heights. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Biomimetic Polymer Nanostructures by Injection Molding

Nikolaj Gadegaard
Abstract The nanometer scale topography of self-assembling structural protein complexes in animals is believed to induce favorable cell responses. An important example of such nanostructured biological complexes is fibrillar collagen that possesses a cross-striation structure with a periodicity of 69 nm and a peak-to-valley distance of 4,6 nm. Bovine collagen type I was assembled into fibrillar structures in vitro and sedimented onto solid supports. Their structural motif was transferred into a nickel replica by physical vapor deposition of a small-grained metal layer followed by galvanic plating. The resulting inverted nickel structure was found to faithfully present most of the micrometer and nanometer scale topography of the biological original. This nickel replica was used as a die for the injection molding of a range of different thermoplastic polymers. Total injection molding cycle times were in the range of 30,45 seconds. One of the polymer materials investigated, polyethylene, displayed poor replication of the biological nanotopographical motif. However, the majority of the polymers showed very high replication fidelity as witnessed by their ability to replicate the cross-striation features of less than 5 nm height difference. The latter group of materials includes poly(propylene), poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(L -lactic acid), polycaprolactone, and a copolymer of cyclic and linear olefins (COC). This work suggests that the current limiting factor for the injection molding of nanometer scale topography in thermoplastic polymers lies with the grain size of the initial metal coating of the mold rather than the polymers themselves. [source]

Light-Induced Demixing of Hole or Electron Transporting Moieties

Marc Behl
Abstract Summary: This paper describes the synthesis of two triphenylamine monomers (hole conducting) and one triazine monomer (electron conducting) which differ in their copolymerization parameters because of their styrene and vinyl ester nature. A blend of triphenylamine monomer and poly(ethylene glycol) and mixtures of both types of monomers (triphenylamine and triazine) were illuminated through a line mask, creating laterally modulated radicals, thus leading to lateral demixing. The experiments with mixtures of triphenylamine and triazine monomers show that the concentration of p- or n-type polymers can be modulated laterally in a controlled way. AFM measurement of line pattern formed by illuminating a mixture of monomer 2 and 3 showing the height difference between illuminated and non-illuminated areas. [source]

New implementation of a SNOM suitable to study topographical features over wide areas

A. Ustione
Abstract A new implementation of a SNOM is described, aiming at the topographical study of large areas and exploiting the advantages of the shear-force detection system. This technique finds very interesting application in the study of archeological or artistic samples, where it often occurs that an area to be examined at high resolution (optically, topographically or chemically) is enclosed in a wider one. The implemented system allows to obtain scans of wide areas by using dc-motors to move the sample under the probe tip, and thus it can face rough samples with height differences of several tens of micrometers. It allows the user to choose whether to use the SNOM to study the optical and topographical properties of a small part of the sample (up to tens of square micrometers), or to use the motor-driven scan technique, to study the topographical characteristic of a large area of the sample (up to some square millimeters) and even over rough surfaces. We show results detecting worn relieves over a coin. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]