Hedgehog Expression (hedgehog + expression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genesis of teratogen-induced holoprosencephaly in mice,

Robert J. Lipinski
Abstract Evidence from mechanical, teratological, and genetic experimentation demonstrates that holoprosencephaly (HPE) typically results from insult prior to the time that neural tube closure is completed and occurs as a consequence of direct or indirect insult to the rostral prechordal cells that induce the forebrain or insult to the median forebrain tissue, itself. Here, we provide an overview of normal embryonic morphogenesis during the critical window for HPE induction, focusing on the morphology and positional relationship of the developing brain and subjacent prechordal plate and prechordal mesoderm cell populations. Subsequent morphogenesis of the HPE spectrum is then examined in selected teratogenesis mouse models. The temporal profile of Sonic Hedgehog expression in rostral embryonic cell populations and evidence for direct or indirect perturbation of the Hedgehog pathway by teratogenic agents in the genesis of HPE is highlighted. Emerging opportunities based on recent insights and new techniques to further characterize the mechanisms and pathogenesis of HPE are discussed. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A hypermorphic mouse Gli3 allele results in a polydactylous limb phenotype

Chengbing Wang
Abstract Gli3 protein processing to generate the Gli3 repressor is mediated by proteasome and inhibited by Hedgehog signaling. The Gli3 repressor concentration is graded along the anterior,posterior axis of the developing vertebrate limb due to posteriorly restricted Sonic hedgehog expression. In this study, we created a small deletion at the Gli3 locus (Gli3,68), which causes a half reduction in the Gli3 repressor levels and a slightly increased activity of full-length mutant protein in the limb. Mice homozygous for Gli3,68 develop one to two extra partial digits in the anterior of the limb, while mice carrying one copy of the Gli3,68 allele die soon after birth and display seven digits. These phenotypes are more severe than those found in mice lacking one wild-type Gli3 allele. The expression of dHand, Hoxd12, and Hoxd13 is anteriorly expanded in the limb, even though no up-regulation of Gli1 and Ptc RNA expression is detected. These findings suggest that a decrease in the Gli3 repressor level in combination with an increase in Gli3 full-length activity results in more severe digit patterning abnormalities than those caused by a loss of one wild-type Gli3 allele. Developmental Dynamics 236:769,776, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Growth defect in Grg5 null mice is associated with reduced Ihh signaling in growth plates

Wen-Fang Wang
Abstract Gene-targeted disruption of Grg5, a mouse homologue of Drosophila groucho (gro), results in postnatal growth retardation in mice. The growth defect, most striking in approximately half of the Grg5 null mice, occurs during the first 4,5 weeks of age, but most mice recover retarded growth later. We used the nonlinear mixed-effects model to fit the growth data of wild-type, heterozygous, and Grg5 null mice. On the basis of preliminary evidence suggesting an interaction between Grg5 and the transcription factor Cbfa1/Runx2, critical for skeletal development, we further investigated the skeleton in the mice. A long bone growth plate defect was identified, which included shorter zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes and decreased trabecular bone formation. This decreased trabecular bone formation is likely caused by a reduced recruitment of osteoblasts into the growth plate region of Grg5 null mice. Like the growth defect, the growth plate and trabecular bone abnormality improved as the mice grew older. The growth plate defect was associated with reduced Indian hedgehog expression and signaling. We suggest that Grg5, a transcriptional coregulator, modulates the activities of transcription factors, such as Cbfa1/Runx2 in vivo to affect Ihh expression and the function of long bone growth plates. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Helicobacter pylori -induced atrophic gastritis progressing to gastric cancer exhibits sonic hedgehog loss and aberrant CDX2 expression

Summary Background The loss of sonic hedgehog is an early change that occurs in the mucosa prior to neoplastic transformation and correlates with the type of intestinal metaplasia. Aberrant expression of CDX has also been shown to correlate with the development of intestinal metaplasia. Aim To examine CDX2 expression in the non-cancerous mucosa of patients with gastric cancer and compared it to CDX2 expression in controls with intestinal metaplasia. Methods Sixty patients who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer and 60 gender- and age-matched controls were studied. Two specimens each were obtained from the greater and lesser curves of the corpus and from the greater curve of the antrum. Expression of CDX2 and sonic hedgehog were evaluated by immunostaining. Results Gastric cancer was associated with a higher frequency of incomplete intestinal metaplasia (OR = 8.3; 95%CI, 3.7,18.9, P < 0.001). CDX2 negatively correlated with sonic hedgehog expression, however, multivariate analysis revealed that CDX2 correlated with the intestinal metaplasia scores. Sonic hedgehog indices were lower and CDX2 staining in the corpus lesser curve was higher in the cancer group than in the controls. Sonic hedgehog indices in the corpus decreased and CDX2 indices in both areas increased in patients in the ascending order of those without intestinal metaplasia, those with complete intestinal metaplasia and those with incomplete intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.001). Conclusions Loss of sonic hedgehog expression and aberrant expression of CDX2 correlates with the type of intestinal metaplasia and may play a role in carcinogenesis. [source]