Hedgehog

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Hedgehog

  • indian hedgehog
  • sonic hedgehog

  • Terms modified by Hedgehog

  • hedgehog expression
  • hedgehog pathway
  • hedgehog signaling
  • hedgehog signaling pathway

  • Selected Abstracts


    Recombinant EDA or Sonic Hedgehog rescue the branching defect in Ectodysplasin A pathway mutant salivary glands in vitro

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2010
    K.L. Wells
    Abstract Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by defective ectodermal organ development. This includes the salivary glands (SGs), which have an important role in lubricating the oral cavity. In humans and mice, HED is caused by mutations in Ectodysplasin A (Eda) pathway genes. Various phenotypes of the mutant mouse EdaTa/Ta, which lacks the ligand Eda, can be rescued by maternal injection or in vitro culture supplementation with recombinant EDA. However, the response of the SGs to this treatment has not been investigated. Here, we show that the submandibular glands (SMGs) of EdaTa/Ta mice exhibit impaired branching morphogenesis, and that supplementation of EdaTa/Ta SMG explants with recombinant EDA rescues the defect. Supplementation of EdardlJ/dlJ SMGs with recombinant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) also rescues the defect, whereas treatment with recombinant Fgf8 does not. This work is the first to test the ability of putative Eda target molecules to rescue Eda pathway mutant SMGs. Developmental Dynamics 239:2674,2684, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Planar cell polarity effector gene Fuzzy regulates cilia formation and Hedgehog signal transduction in mouse

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2009
    Westley Heydeck
    Abstract Precise planar cell polarity (PCP) is critical for the development of multiple organ systems in animals. A group of core-PCP proteins are recognized to play crucial roles in convergent extension and other PCP-related processes in mammals. However, the functions of another group of PCP-regulating proteins, the PCP-effector proteins, are yet to be fully studied. In this study, the generation and characterization of a mouse mutant for the PCP effector gene Fuzzy (Fuz) is reported. Fuz homozygous mutants are embryonically lethal, with multiple defects including neural tube defects, abnormal dorsal/ventral patterning of the spinal cord, and defective anterior/posterior patterning of the limb buds. Fuz mutants also exhibit abnormal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and inefficient proteolytic processing of Gli3. Finally, a significant decrease in cilia was found in Fuz homozygous mutants. In conclusion, Fuz plays an important role in cilia formation, Hh signal transduction, and embryonic development in mammals. Developmental Dynamics 238:3035,3042, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Developmental expression of Smoc1 and Smoc2 suggests potential roles in fetal gonad and reproductive tract differentiation

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2009
    Dorothy E. Pazin
    Abstract SMOC1 and SMOC2 are matricellular proteins thought to influence growth factor signaling, migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis. We examined the expression and regulation of Smoc1 and Smoc2 in fetal gonad/mesonephros complexes to discover possible roles for these genes in gonad and mesonephros development. Smoc1 was upregulated at ,E10.75 in a center-to-poles wave in pre-Sertoli and pre-granulosa cells and its expression was greatly reduced in Wt1, Sf1, and Fog2 mutants. After E13.5, Smoc1 was downregulated in an anterior-to-posterior wave in granulosa cells but persisted in Sertoli cells, suggesting a sexually dimorphic requirement in supporting cell lineage differentiation. Smoc2 was expressed in Leydig cells, mesonephroi, and Wnt4 mutant ovaries, but not wildtype ovaries. Using organ culture, we determined that Smoc2 expression was dependent on Hedgehog signaling in testes, mesonephroi, and kidneys. Overall, these results demonstrate that SMOC1 and SMOC2 may mediate intercellular signaling and cell type,specific differentiation during gonad and reproductive tract development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2877,2890, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Effects of activation of hedgehog signaling on patterning, growth, and differentiation in Xenopus froglet limb regeneration

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2009
    Nayuta Yakushiji
    Abstract Regenerating limbs of urodele amphibians and Xenopus tadpole are reconstructed along proximal,distal, anterior,posterior (AP), and dorsal,ventral axes. In contrast, a regenerated limb of the Xenopus froglet does not have digits, and only a simple cartilaginous structure referred to as a "spike" is formed. This suggests that repatterning along the AP axis is absent in the froglet blastema. Previous studies have shown that Shh and its target genes are not expressed in the froglet blastema. In this study, we activated Hedgehog signaling in the froglet blastema and found that target genes of Shh were inducible in the mesenchyme of limb blastema. Furthermore, we found that activation of the signaling had effects on blastema cell proliferation and chondrogenesis and resulted in the formation of multiple cartilaginous structures. These findings indicate that activation of signaling that is absent in the froglet blastema is effective for improvement of limb regeneration ability in the Xenopus froglet. Developmental Dynamics, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Characterization of primary cilia and Hedgehog signaling during development of the human pancreas and in human pancreatic duct cancer cell lines

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2008
    Sonja K. Nielsen
    Abstract Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls pancreatic development and homeostasis; aberrant Hh signaling is associated with several pancreatic diseases. Here we investigated the link between Hh signaling and primary cilia in the human developing pancreatic ducts and in cultures of human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma cell lines, PANC-1 and CFPAC-1. We show that the onset of Hh signaling from human embryogenesis to fetal development is associated with accumulation of Hh signaling components Smo and Gli2 in duct primary cilia and a reduction of Gli3 in the duct epithelium. Smo, Ptc, and Gli2 localized to primary cilia of PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 cells, which may maintain high levels of nonstimulated Hh pathway activity. These findings indicate that primary cilia are involved in pancreatic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. Developmental Dynamics 237:2039,2052, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Ventral specification and perturbed boundary formation in the mouse midbrain in the absence of Hedgehog signaling

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 5 2008
    Jennifer L. Fogel
    Abstract Although Hedgehog (HH) signaling plays a critical role in patterning the ventral midbrain, its role in early midbrain specification is not known. We examined the midbrains of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and smoothened (Smo) mutant mice where HH signaling is respectively attenuated and eliminated. We show that some ventral (Evx1+) cell fates are specified in the Shh,/, mouse in a Ptc1 - and Gli1 -independent manner. HH-independent ventral midbrain induction was further confirmed by the presence of a Pax7 -negative ventral midbrain territory in both Shh,/, and Smo,/, mice at and before embryonic day (E) 8.5. Midbrain signaling centers are severely disrupted in the Shh,/, mutant. Interestingly, dorsal markers are up-regulated (Wnt1, Gdf7, Pax7), down-regulated (Lfng), or otherwise altered (Zic1) in the Shh,/, midbrain. Together with the increased cell death seen specifically in Shh,/, dorsal midbrains (E8.5,E9), our results suggest specific regulation of dorsal patterning by SHH, rather than a simple deregulation due to its absence. Developmental Dynamics 237:1359-1372, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Expression of a novel zebrafish zinc finger gene, gli2b, is affected in Hedgehog and Notch signaling related mutants during embryonic development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 2 2005
    Zhiyuan Ke
    Abstract Gli zinc-finger proteins are known as downstream mediators of the evolutionary conserved Hedgehog pathway. In zebrafish, gli2 functions differently from Gli2 in mammals. This difference could be due to the gli2 duplication in teleosts evolution and partial redundancy between two duplicated genes. Here, we report a novel zebrafish gli2 -like cDNA. Its structure, genetic location, and distinct expression pattern in the central nervous system suggested that this gene might represent a second gli2 of teleosts, and we named it gli2b. gli2b was expressed in the neural keel, excluding the forebrain,midbrain boundary, while gli2 expression complemented this pattern. After 24 hours postfertilization, several specific domains of gli2b expression were observed in the lateral and medial hindbrain and hypothalamus. In mutants affecting the Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways, gli2b expression was either disrupted or extended in different regions. Developmental Dynamics 232:479,486, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Functional differentiation of a clone resembling embryonic cortical interneuron progenitors

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 14 2008
    Hedong Li
    Abstract We have generated clones (L2.3 and RG3.6) of neural progenitors with radial glial properties from rat E14.5 cortex that differentiate into astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. Here, we describe a different clone (L2.2) that gives rise exclusively to neurons, but not to glia. Neuronal differentiation of L2.2 cells was inhibited by bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and enhanced by Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) similar to cortical interneuron progenitors. Compared with L2.3, differentiating L2.2 cells expressed significantly higher levels of mRNAs for glutamate decarboxylases (GADs), DLX transcription factors, calretinin, calbindin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin. Increased levels of DLX-2, GADs, and calretinin proteins were confirmed upon differentiation. L2.2 cells differentiated into neurons that fired action potentials in vitro, and their electrophysiological differentiation was accelerated and more complete when cocultured with developing astroglial cells but not with conditioned medium from these cells. The combined results suggest that clone L2.2 resembles GABAergic interneuron progenitors in the developing forebrain. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 2008 [source]


    Mechanisms of Hedgehog gradient formation and interpretation

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Carlos Torroja
    Abstract Morphogens are molecules that spread from localized sites of production, specifying distinct cell outcomes at different concentrations. Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling molecules act as morphogens in different developmental systems. If we are to understand how Hh elicits multiple responses in a temporally and spatially specific manner, the molecular mechanism of Hh gradient formation needs to be established. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms of Hh signaling is a central issue in biology, not only because of the role of Hh in morphogenesis, but also because of its involvement in a wide range of human diseases. Here, we review the mechanisms affecting the dynamics of Hh gradient formation, mostly in the context of Drosophila wing development, although parallel findings in vertebrate systems are also discussed. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 64: 334,356, 2005 [source]


    Morphogens and cell survival during development

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Patrick Mehlen
    Abstract The notion of "morphogens" is an important one in developmental biology. By definition, a morphogen is a molecule that emanates from a specific set of cells that is present in a concentration gradient and that specifies the fate of each cell along this gradient. The strongest candidate morphogens are members of the transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,), Hedgehog (Hh), and Wnt families. While these morphogens have been extensively described as differentiation inducers, some reports also suggest their possible involvement in cell death and cell survival. It is frequently speculated that the cell death induction that is found associated with experimental removal of morphogens is the manifestation of abnormal differentiation signals. However, several recent reports have raised controversy about this death by default, suggesting that cell death regulation is an active process for shaping tissues and organs. In this review, we will present morphogens, with a specific emphasis on Sonic Hedgehog, a mammalian member of the Hh family, not as a positive regulators of cell differentiation but as key regulators of cell survival. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 64: 357,366, 2005 [source]


    Hedgehog and Fgf signaling pathways regulate the development of tphR -expressing serotonergic raphe neurons in zebrafish embryos

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    H. Teraoka
    Abstract Serotonin (5HT) plays major roles in the physiological regulation of many behavioral processes, including sleep, feeding, and mood, but the genetic mechanisms by which serotonergic neurons arise during development are poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the development of serotonergic neurons in the zebrafish. Neurons exhibiting 5HT-immunoreactivity (5HT-IR) are detected from 45 h postfertilization (hpf) in the ventral hindbrain raphe, the hypothalamus, pineal organ, and pretectal area. Tryptophan hydroxylases encode rate-limiting enzymes that function in the synthesis of 5HT. As part of this study, we cloned and analyzed a novel zebrafish tph gene named tphR. Unlike two other zebrafish tph genes (tphD1 and tphD2), tphR is expressed in serotonergic raphe neurons, similar to tph genes in mammalian species. tphR is also expressed in the pineal organ where it is likely to be involved in the pathway leading to synthesis of melatonin. To better understand the signaling pathways involved in the induction of the serotonergic phenotype, we analyzed tphR expression and 5HT-IR in embryos in which either Hh or Fgf signals are abrogated. Hindbrain 5HT neurons are severely reduced in mutants lacking activity of either Ace/Fgf8 or the transcription factor Noi/Pax2.1, which regulates expression of ace/fgf8, and probably other genes encoding signaling proteins. Similarly, serotonergic raphe neurons are absent in embryos lacking Hh activity confirming a conserved role for Hh signals in the induction of these cells. Conversely, over-activation of the Hh pathway increases the number of serotonergic neurons. As in mammals, our results are consistent with the transcription factors Nk2.2 and Gata3 acting downstream of Hh activity in the development of serotonergic raphe neurons. Our results show that the pathways involved in induction of hindbrain serotonergic neurons are likely to be conserved in all vertebrates and help establish the zebrafish as a model system to study this important neuronal class. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 60: 275,288, 2004 [source]


    Targeted Expression of SHH Affects Chondrocyte Differentiation, Growth Plate Organization, and Sox9 Expression,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 10 2004
    Sara Tavella
    Abstract The role of Hedgehogs (Hh) in murine skeletal development was studied by overexpressing human Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in chondrocytes of transgenic mice using the collagen II promoter/enhancer. Overexpression caused a lethal craniorachischisis with major alterations in long bones because of defects in chondrocyte differentiation. Introduction: Hedgehogs (Hhs) are a family of secreted polypeptides that play important roles in vertebrate development, controlling many critical steps of cell differentiation and patterning. Skeletal development is affected in many different ways by Hhs. Genetic defects and anomalies of Hhs signaling pathways cause severe abnormalities in the appendicular, axial, and cranial skeleton in man and other vertebrates. Materials and Methods: Genetic manipulation of mouse embryos was used to study in vivo the function of SHH in skeletal development. By DNA microinjection into pronuclei of fertilized oocytes, we have generated transgenic mice that express SHH specifically in chondrocytes using the cartilage-specific collagen II promoter/enhancer. Transgenic skeletal development was studied at different embryonic stages by histology. The expression pattern of specific chondrocyte molecules was studied by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Transgenic mice died at birth with severe craniorachischisis and other skeletal defects in ribs, sternum, and long bones. Detailed analysis of long bones showed that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked at prehypertrophic stages, hindering endochondral ossification and trabecular bone formation, with specific defects in different limb segments. The growth plate was highly disorganized in the tibia and was completely absent in the femur and humerus, leading to skeletal elements entirely made of cartilage surrounded by a thin layer of bone. In this cartilage, chondrocytes maintained a columnar organization that was perpendicular to the bone longitudinal axis and directed toward its outer surface. The expression of SHH receptor, Patched-1 (Ptc1), was greatly increased in all cartilage, as well as the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) at the articular surface; while the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh), another member of Hh family that controls the rate of chondrocyte maturation, was greatly reduced and restricted to the displaced chondrocyte columns. Transgenic mice also revealed the ability of SHH to upregulate the expression of Sox9, a major transcription factor implicated in chondrocyte-specific gene expression, in vivo and in vitro, acting through the proximal 6.8-kb-long Sox9 promoter. Conclusion: Transgenic mice show that continuous expression of SHH in chondrocytes interferes with cell differentiation and growth plate organization and induces high levels and diffuse expression of Sox9 in cartilaginous bones. [source]


    Sonic Hedgehog signaling in the mammalian brain

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    Elisabeth Traiffort
    J. Neurochem. (2010) 113, 576,590. Abstract The discovery of a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in the mature vertebrate CNS has paved the way to the characterization of the functional roles of Shh signals in normal and diseased brain. Shh is proposed to participate in the establishment and maintenance of adult neurogenic niches and to regulate the proliferation of neuronal or glial precursors in several brain areas. Consistent with its role during brain development, misregulation of Shh signaling is associated with tumorigenesis while its recruitement in damaged neural tissue might be part of the regenerating process. This review focuses on the most recent data of the Hedgehog pathway in the adult brain and its relevance as a novel therapeutic approach for brain diseases including brain tumors. [source]


    Hedgehog in the human: A possible explanation for the VATER association

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 2 2002
    D Arsic
    Abstract: Foregut malformations are relatively common anomalies, occurring in 1 in 2000,5000 live births. The adriamycin-induced rat model of the VATER association has provided a means of studying the morphogenesis of a variety of major congenital structural abnormalities similar to those seen in humans with VATER association. The secreted glycoprotein, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), may act as an endodermal signal that controls gut and lung patterning. Mice with targeted deletion of Shh have foregut defects that are consistent with those produced by administration of adriamycin. It is possible that mutations induced by adriamycin may result from the breakdown of the Shh signalling pathway. [source]


    A Sonic Hedgehog (SH) Fusion Protein Corrects Multifocal Defects In Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    JOURNAL OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, Issue 3 2000
    Dr Tomlinson
    Diabetic neuropathy develops from defective interactions between nerve axons and other cells in the endoneurium; such interactions are influenced in development by hedgehog proteins. This study explored the possibility that this might be maintained in the adult and form a basis for therapy in diabetic neuropathies. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated (final 5 weeks of 10 weeks diabetes) with a SH-IgG fusion protein (either 0.3mg/kg or 3.0mg/kg s.c. 3 times per week); control diabetic and non-diabetic rats received vehicle. Conduction velocity (MNCV, SNCV) data and sciatic nerve levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are presented below. Diabetes caused significant (p < 0.05 by ANOVA with SNK tests) reductions in all variables and treatment with SH-IgG either attenuated or prevented (p < 0.05) these reductions. Since it is well-established that the conduction deficits are unrelated to neurotrophic deficits (NGF depletion) and that NPY depletion derives from a neurotrophic defect distinct from NGF, this treatment clearly acts at multiple components of the aetiology of diabetic neuropathy. [source]


    Cyclopia (synophthalmia) in Smith,Lemli,Opitz syndrome: First reported case and consideration of mechanism,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2010
    David D. Weaver
    Abstract Here we present a 24-week fetus with Smith,Lemli,Opitz syndrome (SLOS), alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cyclopia (synophthalmia). Following birth, we suspected SLOS in this fetus due to the additional findings of ambiguous genitalia and bilateral 2,3 toe syndactyly. The diagnosis of SLOS was confirmed by finding an elevated amniotic fluid 7-dehydrocholesterol level (9,890,ng/ml; normal range,=,3,9,ng/ml), and molecularly by detecting two different mutations in the DHCR7 gene, the gene causing SLOS. The first mutation was an IVS8-1G>T change and the second was a deletion of exons 3 and 4; this latter mutation has not been reported previously. The mother carries the deletion, while the father carries the splice-site mutation. Also of note, the father has an abnormally low total plasma cholesterol level (104,109,mg/dl). This is the most severe case of HPE described in any patient with SLOS. We postulate that the HPE in this case resulted from severe impairment of Sonic Hedgehog signaling secondary to abnormal cholesterol metabolism; however, the unique combination of mutations in the fetus functionally appears to be no different from other homozygous null mutations reported in DHCR7. Therefore, there must be other yet to be identified factors that contributed to the severity of HPE in SLOS. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Sonic and desert hedgehog signaling in human fetal prostate development,

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 6 2007
    Guodong Zhu
    Abstract Background Hedgehog signaling is thought to play an important role in rodent prostate organogenesis and morphogenesis. However, the role of this signaling pathway in human fetal prostate development has not been investigated. Methods Twenty-five human fetal prostates at various developmental stages (10,39 weeks) were included. Fifteen specimens were processed for H&E and immunohistochemical staining of the Hedgehog signaling components: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Desert Hedgehog (DHH), Patched-1(PTC1), Patched-2 (PTC2), Smoothened (SMO), GLI1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). SHH, DHH, and GLI1 expression was also analyzed in ten snap-frozen specimens by Western blot. Results SHH, DHH, SMO, PTC1, GLI1, and PCNA expression, assessed by a semi-quantitative immunohistochemical method, was found mainly in the developing prostatic epithelial ducts, beginning at 10 weeks and peaking at 16 and 28 weeks with a dip occurring at 20 weeks, with the exception of PTC2. Conclusion Both SHH and DHH signaling components were detected during human fetal prostate development. Despite the high expression of PTC2 in the epithelium as well as the stroma in the early time of development, the expression of SHH, DHH, SMO, PTC1, and a SHH/DHH target transcription factor, GLI-1, were all largely restricted to epithelium in the developing prostate, suggesting that SHH/DHH signaling is primarily through an autocrine mechanism in human fetal prostate organogenesis. Prostate 67: 674,684, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Specific congenital heart defects in RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: Postulated involvement of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway in syndromes with postaxial polydactyly or heterotaxia

    BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
    Maria Cristina Digilio
    BACKGROUND RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome due to an inborn error of cholesterol metabolism and is characterized by developmental delay, facial anomalies, hypospadias, congenital heart defect (CHD), postaxial polydactyly, and 2,3 toe syndactyly. CHD is found in half of the propositi, and a specific association with atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) and anomalous pulmonary venous return has been demonstrated. METHODS We report on an additional patient with RSH/SLOS presenting with complete AVCD and anomalous pulmonary venous return, and discuss the possible relationship of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway as causative factor of these CHDs and those in heterotaxia patients with postaxial polydactyly syndromes. RESULTS Anatomic similarities between heterotaxia and CHDs of several syndromes with postaxial polydactyly have been noted previously, considering the frequent association of AVCD with common atrium in these conditions. It is known that both CHDs of heterotaxia and postaxial polydactyly can be related to abnormalities of the SHH pathway. Cholesterol has a critical role in the formation of normally active hedgehog proteins. It could be hypothesized that specific types of CHDs in RSH/SLOS can be caused by modifications of the SHH protein related to the defect of cholesterol biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS The specific association of AVCD and anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with RSH/SLOS and the finding of AVCD common atrium in several syndromes with polydactyly leads to the hypothesis that heterotaxia due to SHH anomalies could be involved in a large spectrum of conditions. Perturbations in different components of the SHH pathway could lead to several developmental errors presenting with partially overlapping clinical manifestations. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 67149,153, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Psoriatic skin expresses the transcription factor Gli1: possible contribution of decreased neurofibromin expression

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    H. Endo
    Summary Background, Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of skin characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. Intracellular signalling pathways inducing the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes remain to be elucidated. An inhibitor of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, cyclopamine, was recently reported to clear psoriatic skin lesions, suggesting involvement of the Hh signalling pathway in the hyperproliferation of lesional keratinocytes. We have previously observed activation of the Hh signalling pathway in Schwann cells of plexiform neurofibroma in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which results from functional loss of the NF1 encoding protein, neurofibromin. In psoriasis, deficiency of neurofibromin expression has been observed in lesional keratinocytes. Objectives, To investigate whether the Hh signalling pathway would be activated in psoriasis and whether inhibition of neurofibromin expression would enhance the activation of the Hh signalling pathway. Methods, Activation of the Hh signalling pathway was examined by protein expression of one of the target genes, GLI1, coding for the transcription factor Gli1. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on seven psoriatic skin samples and seven control normal skin samples with a standard immunoperoxidase technique. mRNA expression of GLI1 was analysed by reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction in HaCaT cells transfected with double-strand small interfering RNA for NF1. Results, Our results showed Gli1 expression in psoriatic skin but not in control normal skin. Inhibition of neurofibromin expression in HaCaT cells upregulated mRNA expression of GLI1. Conclusions, Our findings indicate that the Hh signalling pathway is activated in psoriasis and that neurofibromin deficiency may upregulate the pathway. [source]


    Nuclear ,-catenin in basal cell carcinoma correlates with increased proliferation

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    G. Saldanha
    Summary Background Virtually all BCCs have deregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway and a proportion show nuclear ,-catenin accumulation. The latter is thought to be due to Hh pathway-directed Wnt expression but this has not been tested. An alternative cause of nuclear ,-catenin accumulation is gene mutation, which stabilizes the protein. Theoretically, reduced E-cadherin expression could also be important because it can sequester ,-catenin at the cell membrane. In turn, nuclear ,-catenin can increase expression of MYC and cyclin D1, thus potentially altering proliferation. Objectives To assess whether nuclear ,-catenin occurs in BCC, and to look at potential causes and consequences. Methods Nuclear ,-catenin was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and its causes by analysis of E-cadherin expression, ,-catenin exon 3 mutation and WNT5A expression. Its consequences were assessed by analysing proliferation. Results We found nuclear ,-catenin in 20 of 86 paraffin-embedded sections of BCCs using immunohistochemistry. BCCs showed increased WNT5A relative to the surrounding skin. No mutations in exon 3 of the ,-catenin gene were found in 10 cases. There was no association between ,-catenin localization and E-cadherin expression. Tumours with nuclear ,-catenin had significantly higher proliferation (P < 001). Conclusions The absence of ,-catenin gene mutations indicate that the Hh pathway-directed Wnt signalling remains the most likely cause of nuclear ,-catenin accumulation in BCC. Additionally, the correlation with increased proliferation is the first evidence that nuclear ,-catenin may have a biological effect. However, a causal link between Hh pathway deregulation, Wnt ligand overexpression, nuclear ,-catenin accumulation and increased proliferation remains to be confirmed. [source]


    A Small-Molecule Antagonist of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 16 2007
    Jongkook Lee Dr.
    Shadow the Hedgehog. JK184 (illustrated in the scheme) was identified as an antagonist of Hedgehog signaling through a cell-based screen of chemical libraries. Results from biochemical and cellular experiments suggest that JK184 functions by inhibiting class IV alcohol dehydrogenase. This molecule should serve as a useful tool for studying Hedgehog signaling. [source]


    Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway as Cancer Therapeutics

    CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 4 2010
    Stefan Peukert Dr.
    Abstract Inhibitors of the Hedgehog (Hh) molecular signaling pathway have emerged in recent years as a promising new class of potential therapeutics for cancer treatment. Numerous drug discovery efforts have resulted in the identification of a wide variety of small molecules that target different members of this pathway, including Smoothened (Smo), Sonic hedgehog protein (Shh), and Gli1. Several Smo inhibitors have now entered human clinical trials, and successful proof-of-concept studies have been carried out in patients with defined genetic mutations in the Hh pathway. This review provides a general overview of three main topics in this rapidly expanding area: 1),the various types of biological assays and in,vivo models that have been employed for the identification and optimization of Hh pathway inhibitors; 2),Smo inhibitors reported to date, including recent clinical results where available; and 3),efforts toward the identification and characterization of inhibitors of other members of the Hh pathway. [source]


    Targeted Expression of SHH Affects Chondrocyte Differentiation, Growth Plate Organization, and Sox9 Expression,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 10 2004
    Sara Tavella
    Abstract The role of Hedgehogs (Hh) in murine skeletal development was studied by overexpressing human Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in chondrocytes of transgenic mice using the collagen II promoter/enhancer. Overexpression caused a lethal craniorachischisis with major alterations in long bones because of defects in chondrocyte differentiation. Introduction: Hedgehogs (Hhs) are a family of secreted polypeptides that play important roles in vertebrate development, controlling many critical steps of cell differentiation and patterning. Skeletal development is affected in many different ways by Hhs. Genetic defects and anomalies of Hhs signaling pathways cause severe abnormalities in the appendicular, axial, and cranial skeleton in man and other vertebrates. Materials and Methods: Genetic manipulation of mouse embryos was used to study in vivo the function of SHH in skeletal development. By DNA microinjection into pronuclei of fertilized oocytes, we have generated transgenic mice that express SHH specifically in chondrocytes using the cartilage-specific collagen II promoter/enhancer. Transgenic skeletal development was studied at different embryonic stages by histology. The expression pattern of specific chondrocyte molecules was studied by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Transgenic mice died at birth with severe craniorachischisis and other skeletal defects in ribs, sternum, and long bones. Detailed analysis of long bones showed that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked at prehypertrophic stages, hindering endochondral ossification and trabecular bone formation, with specific defects in different limb segments. The growth plate was highly disorganized in the tibia and was completely absent in the femur and humerus, leading to skeletal elements entirely made of cartilage surrounded by a thin layer of bone. In this cartilage, chondrocytes maintained a columnar organization that was perpendicular to the bone longitudinal axis and directed toward its outer surface. The expression of SHH receptor, Patched-1 (Ptc1), was greatly increased in all cartilage, as well as the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) at the articular surface; while the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh), another member of Hh family that controls the rate of chondrocyte maturation, was greatly reduced and restricted to the displaced chondrocyte columns. Transgenic mice also revealed the ability of SHH to upregulate the expression of Sox9, a major transcription factor implicated in chondrocyte-specific gene expression, in vivo and in vitro, acting through the proximal 6.8-kb-long Sox9 promoter. Conclusion: Transgenic mice show that continuous expression of SHH in chondrocytes interferes with cell differentiation and growth plate organization and induces high levels and diffuse expression of Sox9 in cartilaginous bones. [source]


    Essential roles of Gli3 and sonic hedgehog in pattern formation and developmental anomalies caused by their dysfunction

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 3 2006
    Jun Motoyama
    ABSTRACT Pattern formation along the body axis directs the proportion of different types of cells required for functional tissue structures. The secreted protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) and zinc finger transcription factor Gli3 are key players in pattern formation during brain and limb development; the antagonistic action of Shh towards Gli3 may be crucial for pattern formation. Recent findings from Shh/Gli3 double homozygous mutants suggest that a balance of both activities is required for the production of the normal proportion of different cell types during organogenesis. This conclusion contrasts with the alternative hypothesis that a Shh gradient directs the specification of several different cell types. The observations reviewed here offer a new perspective on understanding the pathogenesis of human birth defects caused by mutations of the Shh and Gli3 genes. [source]


    Centripetal Thinking in Curriculum Studies

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    PETER HLEBOWITSH
    ABSTRACT After years of generating divergent approaches to scholarship, cast mostly as reactions against a historical orthodoxy, the curriculum studies community is now looking at a new dialectic,one marked by a physics that pull ideas inward toward some centripetal center. The tension between looking for unifying ideas as they articulate with a multiplicity of incommensurate ones has, in fact, marked the nature of most scholarly thinking. Isaiah Berlin personified such a tension in his use of the Greek aphorism, "The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing." In recent years, the curriculum field has been dominated by foxes, who have resisted any attempt to even consider the role of hedgehog. But several projects have recently been launched in the field that might signal a new age for curriculum studies, as a new dialogue has been opened that considers possibilities of finding some semblance of canon or disciplinarity in the field. The search for canon or disciplinarity is less likely to yield a hard-and-fast verifiable outcome as much as an inconclusive discussion. But, as Plato reminds us, such a discussion is precisely the point because the knowing of canon is doing the knowing of canon. [source]


    Coordinated regulation of dorsal bone morphogenetic protein 4 and ventral Sonic hedgehog signaling specifies the dorso-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle and governs ocular morphogenesis through fibroblast growth factor 8 upregulation

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 4 2010
    Takuma Kobayashi
    Dorsal and ventral specification in the early optic vesicle plays a crucial role in vertebrate ocular morphogenesis, and proper dorsal-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle ensures that distinct structures develop in separate domains within the eye primordium. The polarity is determined progressively during development by coordinated regulation of extraocular dorsal and ventral factors. In the present study, we cultured discrete portions of embryonic chick brains by preparing anterior cephalon, anterior dorsal cephalon and anterior ventral cephalon, and clearly demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) constitute a dorsal-ventral signaling system together with fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). BMP4 and Shh upregulate Tbx5 and Pax2, as reported previously, and at the same time Shh downregulates Tbx5, while BMP4 affects Pax2 expression to downregulate similarly. Shh induces Fgf8 expression in the ventral optic vesicle. This, in turn, determines the distinct boundary of the retinal pigmented epithelium and the neural retina by suppressing Mitf expression. The lens develops only when signals from both the dorsal and ventral regions come across together. Inverted deposition of Shh and BMP4 signals in organ-cultured optic vesicle completely re-organized ocular structures to be inverted. Based on these observations we propose a novel model in which the two signals govern the whole of ocular development when they encounter each other in the ocular morphogenic domain. [source]


    Busulfan-induced central polydactyly, syndactyly and cleft hand or foot: A common mechanism of disruption leads to divergent phenotypes

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 6 2007
    Takuji Naruse
    The prevalence of clinical phenotypes that exhibit combinations of central polydactyly, syndactyly, or cleft hand or foot is higher than would be expected for random independent mutations. We have previously demonstrated that maternal ingestion of a chemotherapeutic agent, busulfan, at embryonic day 11 (E11) induces these defects in various combinations in rat embryo limbs. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which busulfan disrupts digital development, we examined cell death by Nile Blue staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays; we also carried out whole mount in situ hybridization for fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf8), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4), and sonic hedgehog (Shh) to examine developmental pathways linked to these defects. In busulfan-treated embryos, diffuse cell death was evident in both ectoderm and mesoderm, peaking at E13. The increased cell death leads to regression of Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and Bmp4 and Shh in the underlying mesoderm. The subsequent pattern of interdigital apoptosis and cartilage condensation was variably disrupted. These results suggest that busulfan manifests its teratogenic effects by inducing cell death of both ectoderm and mesoderm, with an associated reduction in tissue and a disruption in the generation of patterning molecules during critical periods of digit specification. [source]


    Involvement of canonical Wnt/Wingless signaling in the determination of the positional values within the leg segment of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 2 2007
    Taro Nakamura
    The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a hemimetabolous insect whose nymphs posses the ability to regenerate amputated legs. Previously, we showed that Gryllus orthologues of Drosophila hedgehog (Gb'hh), wingless (Gb'wg) and decapentaplegic (Gb'dpp) are expressed during leg regeneration and play essential roles in the establishment of the proximal-distal axis. Here, we examined their roles during intercalary regeneration: when a distally amputated tibia with disparate positional values is placed next to a proximally amputated host, intercalary growth occurs in order to regenerate the missing part. In this process, we examined expression patterns of Gb'hh and Gb'wg. We found that expressions of Gb'hh and Gb'wg were induced in a regenerate and the host proximal to the amputated region, but not in the grafted donor distal to the regenerate. This directional induction occurs even in the reversed intercalation. Because these results are consistent with a distal-to-proximal respecification of the regenerate, Gb'wg may be involved in the re-establishment of the positional values in the regenerate. Furthermore, we found that no regeneration occurs when Gb'armadillo (the orthologue of beta-catenin) was knocked down by RNA interference. These results indicate that the canonical Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway is involved in the process of leg regeneration and determination of positional information in the leg segment. [source]


    Localization of Indian hedgehog and PTH/PTHrP receptor expression in relation to chondrocyte proliferation during mouse bone development

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 2 2005
    Helen E. MacLean
    We have developed a useful approach to examine the pattern of gene expression in comparison to cell proliferation, using double in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence. Using this system, we examined the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) mRNA in relation to chondrocyte proliferation during embryonic mouse bone development. Both genes are expressed strongly in prehypertrophic and early hypertrophic chondrocytes, and there is a strong correlation between upregulation of both Ihh and PPR expression and chondrocyte cell cycle arrest. At embryonic day (E14.5), PPR mRNA upregulation begins in the columnar chondrocytes just prior to cell cycle exit, but at later time points expression is only observed in the postproliferative region. In contrast, Ihh mRNA expression overlaps slightly with the region of columnar proliferating chondrocytes at all stages. This study provides further evidence that in the developing growth plate, cell cycle exit and upregulation of Ihh and PPR mRNA expression are coupled. [source]


    Recombinant EDA or Sonic Hedgehog rescue the branching defect in Ectodysplasin A pathway mutant salivary glands in vitro

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2010
    K.L. Wells
    Abstract Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by defective ectodermal organ development. This includes the salivary glands (SGs), which have an important role in lubricating the oral cavity. In humans and mice, HED is caused by mutations in Ectodysplasin A (Eda) pathway genes. Various phenotypes of the mutant mouse EdaTa/Ta, which lacks the ligand Eda, can be rescued by maternal injection or in vitro culture supplementation with recombinant EDA. However, the response of the SGs to this treatment has not been investigated. Here, we show that the submandibular glands (SMGs) of EdaTa/Ta mice exhibit impaired branching morphogenesis, and that supplementation of EdaTa/Ta SMG explants with recombinant EDA rescues the defect. Supplementation of EdardlJ/dlJ SMGs with recombinant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) also rescues the defect, whereas treatment with recombinant Fgf8 does not. This work is the first to test the ability of putative Eda target molecules to rescue Eda pathway mutant SMGs. Developmental Dynamics 239:2674,2684, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]