Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium (hardy-weinberg + disequilibrium)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Attributing Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium to Population Stratification and Genetic Association in Case-Control Studies

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 1 2010
Vaneeta K. Grover
Summary Loci exhibiting Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) are often excluded from association studies, because HWD may indicate genotyping error, population stratification or selection bias. For case-control studies, HWD can result from a genetic effect at the locus. We extend the modelling to accommodate both stratification and genetic effects. Theoretical genotype frequencies and HWD coefficients are derived under a general genetic model for a population with two strata. Maximum likelihood is used to estimate model parameters and a test for lack of fit identifies the models most consistent with the data. Simulations were used to assess the method. The technique was applied to a group of ethnically and clinically heterogeneous kidney stone formers and controls, both exhibiting HWD for the R990G SNP of the CASR gene. Results indicate the best fitting model incorporates both stratification and genetic association. The ability of our method to apportion HWD to stratification and genetic effects may well be a significant advance in dealing with heterogeneity in case-control genetic association studies. [source]


Heterogeneous Disease Modeling for Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium in Case-Control Studies: Application to Renal Stones and Calcium-Sensing Receptor Polymorphisms

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 2 2009
D. C. Hamilton
Summary Renal stone formation due to hypercalciuria is a relatively common disorder with clear evidence for genetic predisposition, but cryptic phenotypic heterogeneity has hampered identification of candidate genes. The R990G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene has been associated with hypercalciuria in stone formers and shows the appropriate functional phenotype in cell culture. In our preliminary association analysis of a case-control cohort, however, we observed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) for the cases (n= 223), but not controls (n= 676) at the R990G locus, pointing us toward the general disease model incorporating HWD. Because there is an adjacent CASR SNP, A986S, which is in negative linkage disequilibrium with R990G, we extended the general disease model to enable testing of a two-site hypothesis. In our data set, there is no lack of fit (P= .345) for the single-locus model for the R990G genotype, and likelihood ratio testing favors a recessive effect with an eight-fold increase in risk (P < .001) for GG homozygotes, relative to wild-type, based on a population prevalence of 2%. Addition of the A986S genotype provides no additional information either by itself or when included in our two-site model. [source]


SNP selection and multidimensional scaling to quantify population structure

GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Kelci Miclaus
Abstract In the new era of large-scale collaborative Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), population stratification has become a critical issue that must be addressed. In order to build upon the methods developed to control the confounding effect of a structured population, it is extremely important to visualize and quantify that effect. In this work, we develop methodology for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection and subsequent population stratification visualization based on deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in conjunction with non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS); a distance-based multivariate technique. Through simulation, it is shown that SNP selection based on Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) is robust against confounding linkage disequilibrium patterns that have been problematic in past studies and methods as well as producing a differentiated SNP set. Non-metric MDS is shown to be a multivariate visualization tool preferable to principal components in conjunction with HWD SNP selection through theoretical and empirical study from HapMap samples. The proposed selection tool offers a simple and effective way to select appropriate substructure-informative markers for use in exploring the effect that population stratification may have in association studies. Genet. Epidemiol. 33:488,496, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Attributing Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium to Population Stratification and Genetic Association in Case-Control Studies

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 1 2010
Vaneeta K. Grover
Summary Loci exhibiting Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) are often excluded from association studies, because HWD may indicate genotyping error, population stratification or selection bias. For case-control studies, HWD can result from a genetic effect at the locus. We extend the modelling to accommodate both stratification and genetic effects. Theoretical genotype frequencies and HWD coefficients are derived under a general genetic model for a population with two strata. Maximum likelihood is used to estimate model parameters and a test for lack of fit identifies the models most consistent with the data. Simulations were used to assess the method. The technique was applied to a group of ethnically and clinically heterogeneous kidney stone formers and controls, both exhibiting HWD for the R990G SNP of the CASR gene. Results indicate the best fitting model incorporates both stratification and genetic association. The ability of our method to apportion HWD to stratification and genetic effects may well be a significant advance in dealing with heterogeneity in case-control genetic association studies. [source]


Heterogeneous Disease Modeling for Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium in Case-Control Studies: Application to Renal Stones and Calcium-Sensing Receptor Polymorphisms

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 2 2009
D. C. Hamilton
Summary Renal stone formation due to hypercalciuria is a relatively common disorder with clear evidence for genetic predisposition, but cryptic phenotypic heterogeneity has hampered identification of candidate genes. The R990G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene has been associated with hypercalciuria in stone formers and shows the appropriate functional phenotype in cell culture. In our preliminary association analysis of a case-control cohort, however, we observed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) for the cases (n= 223), but not controls (n= 676) at the R990G locus, pointing us toward the general disease model incorporating HWD. Because there is an adjacent CASR SNP, A986S, which is in negative linkage disequilibrium with R990G, we extended the general disease model to enable testing of a two-site hypothesis. In our data set, there is no lack of fit (P= .345) for the single-locus model for the R990G genotype, and likelihood ratio testing favors a recessive effect with an eight-fold increase in risk (P < .001) for GG homozygotes, relative to wild-type, based on a population prevalence of 2%. Addition of the A986S genotype provides no additional information either by itself or when included in our two-site model. [source]


Testing for linkage and Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 2 2009
E. Kulinskaya
Summary This paper concerns several important points when testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in genetics. First, we challenge the necessity of using exclusively two-sided tests for LD. Next, we show that the exact 2-sided tests based on the most popular measures of LD are not equivalent, and neither are the standard statistical tests even though the 1-sided tests are equivalent. We show how this results in different inference about LD for two data sets consisting of small groups of markers. Finally, we advocate the use of the conditional p-value for both LD and HWE testing. An important advantage of this p-value is that equivalent 1-sided tests are transformed into equivalent 2-sided tests. [source]