Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Haemorrhage

  • aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • antepartum haemorrhage
  • cerebral haemorrhage
  • conjunctival haemorrhage
  • gastrointestinal haemorrhage
  • intestinal haemorrhage
  • intracerebral haemorrhage
  • intracranial haemorrhage
  • intraventricular haemorrhage
  • macular haemorrhage
  • major haemorrhage
  • obstetric haemorrhage
  • post-partum haemorrhage
  • postpartum haemorrhage
  • primary postpartum haemorrhage
  • pulmonary haemorrhage
  • retinal haemorrhage
  • severe haemorrhage
  • spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage
  • subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage
  • vitreous haemorrhage

  • Selected Abstracts


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 7 2007
    Emily A. Macassey
    Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage is a significant complication because of its frequency and consequences. Increases in post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage prevalence have been reported. There is a controversy about whether increasing the use of diathermy techniques or anti-platelet aggregation effects of analgesia could have caused this increase. We carried out an audit of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage and examined the rates of readmission for bleeding during the period 1990,2004. We also recorded the surgical technique used and the use of perioperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. During this period there has been a significant increase in post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage with an average annual increase of 15.3% (P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval 8.5,22.5%). The increase is coincidental with the change-over to predominant diathermy technique and a routine use of postoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids. [source]


    I. Dayoub
    Background This study was conducted to assess the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a district hospital and to compare these results with national guidelines and the published literature. Materials And Methods This prospective and retrospective study included 112 patients, mean age 66 years, who presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding between July 2004 and February 2005. All patients were assigned a Rockall risk assessment score. Results The surgical on-call teams managed all the patients according to an agreed protocol. 49 patients had a Rockall score > or = 4. Endoscopy was performed in all patients, with 60% accomplished within the first 24 hours. The most common cause found was peptic ulcer (30%). Therapeutic endoscopy was undertaken in 10 patients (9%) with a success rate of 70%. Open surgery was performed in 3 patients. One patient died after having surgery and the Rockall score was >5. Of the patients admitted with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 90.2% were discharged without complication. 11 patients died (9.8%) and all of them from the high risk group with Rockall scores >5. Their mean hospital stay was 17.8 days (range, 2,43 days). Conclusion High-standard results in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be achieved in a district hospital. The management, including the use of the operating theatre facilities with operative and anaesthetic support, was safe and efficient. A 24-hour-a-day endoscopy service is important to achieve early diagnosis and to plan management. A protocol and early endoscopy improve clinical outcome and reduce mortality, which occurred mostly among elderly patients with high risk scores. It is advisable to introduce the Rockall scoring system in practice. [source]


    Cristina C Trandafir
    SUMMARY 1.,Previous studies have suggested the involvement of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and inflammation in the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of AVP in the arterial narrowing following cerebral haemorrhage by examining the effect of SR 49059 (a V1 receptor antagonist) on the diameter of rat basilar artery exposed to SAH. The effect of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor ZM 230487 on AVP-induced contraction of rat basilar arteries was also investigated. 2.,After 1 h and 2 days from SAH induction, brains were removed and pictures of the basilar arteries were taken. The external diameter of the basilar artery was measured in the presence and absence of SR 49059 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). For in vitro experiments, the basilar arteries isolated from control and SAH rats (at 1 h and at 2 days from SAH induction) were cut into spiral preparations and the AVP (0.3 nmol/L)-induced contraction in the presence of ZM 230487 was investigated. Each group analysed (i.e. control, SAH 1 h and SAH 2 days) consisted of eight rats. 3.,The diameter of rat basilar arteries decreased by 43 and 25% at 1 h and 2 days from SAH induction, respectively, compared with control. The administration of SR 49059 significantly reduced cerebral vasospasm. After SAH induction, the diameter of the basilar artery in SR 49059-treated groups decreased by only 22% (at 1 h) and by 3% (at 2 days) compared with the control group (P < 0.01). In basilar arterial strips, ZM 230487 attenuated the vasopressin-induced contraction in both control and SAH groups. However, SAH groups showed a significant resistance of the AVP-induced contraction in the presence of ZM 230487 compared with control (P < 0.05). 4.,The results suggest that the cerebral vasospasm in SAH rats is due, at least in part, to endogenous AVP and may involve an increase in the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. SR 49059 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. [source]

    Haemorrhage into a popliteal cyst: an unusual complication of haemophilia A

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2002
    V. Rodriguez
    Summary. ,A 7½-year-old boy with severe haemophilia A had increasing discomfort and pain in his left knee after sledding on ice and landing on his knees. Left knee pain persisted for days despite recombinant factor VIII replacement. Imaging studies showed that by day 10 a popliteal cyst had ruptured, with diffusion of blood into the calf muscles. This case illustrates another possible bleeding complication in patients with a bleeding disorder and a popliteal cyst. [source]

    Management of major blood loss: An update

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved, prioritizing the early control of the cause of bleeding by non-definitive means, while haemostatic control resuscitation seeks early control of coagulopathy. Haemostatic resuscitation provides transfusions with plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells (RBCs) in an immediate and sustained manner as part of the transfusion protocol for massively bleeding patients. Transfusion of RBCs, plasma and platelets in a similar proportion as in whole blood prevents both hypovolaemia and coagulopathy. Although an early and effective reversal of coagulopathy is documented, the most effective means of preventing coagulopathy of massive transfusion remains debated and randomized controlled studies are lacking. Results from recent before-and-after studies in massively bleeding patients indicate that trauma exsanguination protocols involving the early administration of plasma and platelets are associated with improved survival. Furthermore, viscoelastic whole blood assays, such as thrombelastography (TEG)/rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM), appear advantageous for identifying coagulopathy in patients with severe haemorrhage, as opposed to conventional coagulation assays. In our view, patients with uncontrolled bleeding, regardless of its cause, should be treated with goal-directed haemostatic control resuscitation involving the early administration of plasma and platelets and based on the results of the TEG/ROTEM analysis. The aim of the goal-directed therapy should be to maintain a normal haemostatic competence until surgical haemostasis is achieved, as this appears to be associated with reduced mortality. [source]

    Imaging of the haemorrhagic complications of the haemophilias

    S Constantine
    Summary Haemorrhage is the main manifestation of the haemophilias. Although acute haemorrhages can be life threatening, especially if involving the central nervous system, repeated haemorrhages involving the musculoskeletal system lead to two conditions unique to patients with haemophilias. This pictorial essay reviews the typical imaging appearances of haemorrhages and consequences in those with haemophilias, with particular emphasis on haemophilic arthropathy and pseudotumours. [source]

    Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2009
    M Moran
    Abstract Background: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. Aim: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL/kg/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. Results: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57,1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs/kg/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life. [source]

    Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2000
    AM Valkama
    In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting neuromotor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age <34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions without subependymal haemorrhage, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extracerebral spaces were assessed. The MRI findings were compared with cranial ultrasound (US) performed at term. Infants' neuromotor development was followed up until 18 mo corrected age. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI at term predicted cerebral palsy (CP) with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity, the corresponding figures for US being 67% and 85%, respectively. Parenchymal lesions in MRI, excluding subependymal haemorrhages, predicted CP with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 97%, the corresponding figures for US being 58% and 100%, respectively. Delayed myelination, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extracerebral spaces failed to predict CP. Term age is a good time for neuroradiological examinations in prematurely born high-risk infants. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI are reliable predictors for CP. [source]

    Effect of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 receptor blockade on the haemodynamic and hormonal changes after acute blood loss and after retransfusion in conscious dogs

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    R. C. E. Francis
    Abstract Aim:, This study investigates angiotensin II and endothelin-1 mediated mechanisms involved in the haemodynamic, hormonal, and renal response towards acute hypotensive haemorrhage. Methods:, Conscious dogs were pre-treated with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and/or endothelin-A (ETA) receptor blockers or not. Protocol 1: After a 60-min baseline period, 25% of the dog's blood was rapidly withdrawn. The blood was retransfused 60 min later and data recorded for another hour. Protocol 2: Likewise, but preceded by AT1 blockade with i.v. Losartan. Protocol 3: Likewise, but preceded by ETA blockade with i.v. ABT-627. Protocol 4: Likewise, but with combined AT1plus ETAblockade. Results:, In controls, haemorrhage decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) by approximately 25%, cardiac output by approximately 40%, and urine volume by approximately 60%, increased angiotensin II (3.1-fold), endothelin-1 (1.13-fold), vasopressin (116-fold), and adrenaline concentrations (3.2-fold). Glomerular filtration rate and noradrenaline concentrations remained unchanged. During AT1 blockade, the MAP decrease was exaggerated (,40%) and glomerular filtration rate fell. During ETA blockade, noradrenaline increased after haemorrhage instead of adrenaline, and the MAP recovery after retransfusion was blunted. The decrease in cardiac output was similar in all protocols. Conclusions:, Angiotensin II is more important than endothelin-1 for the short-term regulation of MAP and glomerular filtration rate after haemorrhage, whereas endothelin-1 seems necessary for complete MAP recovery after retransfusion. After haemorrhage, endothelin-1 seems to facilitate adrenaline release and to blunt noradrenaline release. Haemorrhage-induced compensatory mechanisms maintain blood flow more effectively than blood pressure, as the decrease in cardiac output , but not MAP , was similar in all protocols. [source]

    Influence of neurohumoral blockade on heart rate and blood pressure responses to haemorrhage in isoflurane anaesthetized rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2000
    UllmanArticle first published online: 24 DEC 200
    Four groups of Sprague,Dawley rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane (ISO) (1.7% end-tidal concentration) in 40% oxygen, and mechanically ventilated. The animals were bled 15 mL kg,1 b.w. from the femoral vein over 10 min, followed by an observation period of 30 min. Ten minutes before haemorrhage each group of animals was pre-treated with intravenous injection/infusion of either: isotonic saline (Group B; CON; n=7), vasopressin V1 -receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP; 10 ,g kg,1] (Group C; AVP-a; n=7), the non-selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist saralasin (10 ,g kg,1 min,1) (Group D; SAR; n=7) or hexamethonium (10 mg kg,1) (Group E; HEX; n=7). A separate group of conscious animals were pre-treated with isotonic NaCl and subjected to the same haemorrhage protocol (Group A; AW; n=7). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and blood gases were observed during the experiments. Only pre-treatment with SAR and HEX reduced MAP significantly. The pre-haemorrhage HR was only affected by HEX, which caused a reduction by 17%. The HR was significantly lower at the end of haemorrhage compared with pre-haemorrhage levels in all groups except that group treated with HEX. In that group the HR changed in the opposite direction. The ability to maintain MAP during haemorrhage, and the post-haemorrhage period, was significantly impaired in the groups treated with AVP-a, SAR or HEX compared with the group receiving NaCl. It is concluded that autonomic nervous activity is of major importance for the maintenance of MAP during isoflurane anaesthesia, whereas circulating angiotensin II and vasopressin levels contribute to a much smaller degree in this regard. General anaesthesia in combination with different degrees of neurohumoral blockade impairs the haemodynamic responses to blood loss, seen in conscious individuals. The impairment involves both the early and late phases during haemorrhage, as well as the post-bleeding recovery period. All three neurohumoral systems (autonomic nervous activity, angiotensin II and vasopressin) are of importance for regulating MAP during and after haemorrhage, although the autonomic nervous outflow appears to contribute to a larger extent. [source]

    Intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi,Goutières syndrome implicates SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis

    Aim, To describe a spectrum of intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi,Goutières syndrome (AGS) associated with mutations in the AGS5 gene SAMHD1. Method, We used clinical and radiological description and molecular analysis. Results, Five individuals (three males, two females) were identified as having biallelic mutations in SAMHD1 and a cerebral arteriopathy in association with peripheral vessel involvement resulting in chilblains and ischaemic ulceration. The cerebral vasculopathy was primarily occlusive in three patients (with terminal carotid occlusion and basal collaterals reminiscent of moyamoya syndrome) and aneurysmal in two. Three of the five patients experienced intracerebral haemorrhage, which was fatal in two individuals. Post-mortem examination of one patient suggested that the arteriopathy was inflammatory in origin. Interpretation, Mutations in SAMHD1 are associated with a cerebral vasculopathy which is likely to have an inflammatory aetiology. A similar disease has not been observed in patients with mutations in AGS1 to AGS4, suggesting a particular role for SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis. Our report raises important questions about the management of patients with mutations in SAMHD1. [source]

    Developmental outcome and types of chronic-stage EEG abnormalities in preterm infants

    Akihisa Okumura MD
    The aims of this study were to determine the types of chronic-stage EEG abnormalities that exist and to clarify their relation to neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. We evaluated 183 preterm infants with gestational ages of less than 33 weeks (mean age 29.2 weeks) and weighing less than 2000g (mean weight 1275g). The first EEG was performed within 72 hours of life; thereafter, EEG was performed once every 1 to 4 weeks until the infant reached a post-conceptional age of 40 to 42 weeks. Two kinds of EEG abnormalities, acute- and chronic-stage abnormalities, were evaluated and we assessed mainly the latter. Chronic-stage EEG abnormalities were divided into two patterns: disorganized and dysmature. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) were diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound findings. Psychomotor development was examined every 3 months after discharge until at least 18 months of the infants'corrected age. Disorganized and dysmature patterns were observed in 52 and 28 infants respectively. Among the 52 infants with disorganized patterns, PVL was observed in 31 and IVH in seven infants. Thirty-nine infants had cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-six achieved normal cognitive development. Of the 28 infants with dysmature patterns, PVL was seen in one and IVH in 11 infants. CP was seen in five infants. Only eight infants achieved normal cognitive development. Gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower in infants with dysmature patterns than in those with disorganized ones. Results indicate that types of chronic-stage EEG abnormalities are related to types of neurological sequelae and are useful for assessing the mode of brain injury in preterm infants. [source]

    Neonatal infarction within basal cerebral vein territory

    Paul Govaert MD PhD
    In this report, an unusual intracranial haemorrhage in a term male infant born to a mother with diabetes is explained on the basis of occlusion of both basal veins of Rosenthal. This diagnosis relies on anatomical location and iconographic aspect of the clots. Evidence that this vessel is occluded cannot be ascertained from ultrasound or MR angiographic techniques in the neonatal period. The basal vein has not been implicated in previous reports of neonatal brain haemorrhage. [source]

    Serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal medicines , a systematic review

    E. Ernst
    Objective: Psychiatric and neurological patients frequently try herbal medicines often under the assumption that they are safe. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a summary of recent data on severe psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal remedies. Method: Computerized literature searches were carried out to identify all reports of psychiatric and neurological adverse effects associated with herbal medicines. These data were subsequently extracted, validated and summarized in narrative and tabular form. Results: Numerous case reports comprise a diverse array of adverse events including cerebral arteritis, cerebral oedema, delirium, coma, confusion, encephalopathy, hallucinations, intracerebral haemorrhage, and other types of cerebrovascular accidents, movement disorders, mood disturbances, muscle weakness, paresthesiae and seizures. Several fatalities are on record. They are caused by improper use, toxicity of herbal ingredients, contamination and adulteration of preparations and herb/drug interactions. Conclusion: Herbal medicines can cause serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects. [source]

    Extreme altitude mountaineering and Type 1 diabetes; the Diabetes Federation of Ireland Kilimanjaro Expedition

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2001
    K. Moore
    Abstract Aims To examine the effects of extreme altitude mountaineering on glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes, and to establish whether diabetes predisposes to acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods Fifteen people with Type 1 diabetes and 22 nondiabetic controls were studied during the Diabetes Federation of Ireland Expedition to Kilimanjaro. Daily insulin requirements, blood glucose estimations and hypoglycaemic attacks were recorded in diaries by the people with diabetes. The performance of blood glucose meters at altitude was assessed using standard glucose solutions. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness were recorded daily by people with diabetes and by the nondiabetic controls using the Lake Louise Scoring Charts. The expedition medical team recorded the incidence of complications of altitude and of diabetes. The final height attained for each individual was recorded by the expedition medical team and verified by the expedition guides. Results The final altitude ascended was lower in the diabetic than the nondiabetic group (5187 ± 514 vs. 5654 ± 307 m, P= 0.001). The mean daily insulin dose was reduced from 67.1 ± 28.3,32.9 ± 11.8 units (P < 0.001), but only 50% of recorded blood glucose readings were within the target range of 6,14 mmol/L. There were few hypoglycaemic attacks after the first two days of climbing. Both blood glucose meters tested showed readings as low as 60% of standard glucose concentrations at high altitude and low temperatures. The Lake Louise questionnaires showed that symptoms of AMS occurred equally in the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. There were two episodes of mild diabetic ketoacidosis; two of the diabetic group and three of the nondiabetic group developed retinal haemorrhages. Conclusions People with Type 1 diabetes can participate in extreme altitude mountaineering. However, there are significant risks associated with this activity, including hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis and retinal haemorrhage, with the additional difficulties in assessing glycaemic control due to meter inaccuracy at high altitude. People with Type 1 diabetes must be carefully counselled before attempting extreme altitude mountaineering. Diabet. Med. 18, 749,755 (2001) [source]

    Lithium intoxication secondary to unrecognized pontine haemorrhage

    V. Novak-Grubic
    Lithium prophylaxis carries a substantial risk of medical complications, especially in the case of concomitant medical conditions. We describe a patient with unrecognized cerebrovascular haemorrhage, admitted to hospital due to lithium intoxication. [source]

    Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys

    N. Du Toit
    Summary Typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 40 aged donkeys at routine post mortem examinations subjected to euthanasia for colic-related clinical signs at The Donkey Sanctuary. Gross pathological changes included oedema, ulceration and haemorrhage involving the caecum and ventral colon. Histopathology indicated endoparasite and bacterial associated inflammation in 20 and 11 cases, respectively. Bacterial culture in 18 cases did not yield a definite aetiological agent. Other management and stress related factors were looked at to identify obvious risk factors. This report describes the clinical, biochemical and haematological parameters and pathological changes observed in 40 donkeys diagnosed with typhlocolitis. [source]

    Recurrent colics in a 9-year-old Arabian stallion due to several congenital anomalies

    M. P. Robert
    Summary A 9-year-old Arabian stallion was presented for evaluation of recurrent colic problems of 2 years' duration. These colic episodes were associated with a right sided abdominal distension. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a colonic diverticulum that was resected en bloc. Two days later, following signs of acute colic, a second laparotomy showed incarceration of the distal jejunum into a mesodiverticular band combined with haemorrhage of a mesenteric arterial branch. In addition, an abnormally short jejunum (10 m) was also observed. An end-to-end jejunojejunostomy was performed. Following surgery the horse developed septic peritonitis, ptyalism and became dysphagic. Ten days after the second surgery, an infected oesophageal diverticulum causing regional inflammation was diagnosed endoscopically and euthanasia was performed. Post mortem examination showed a 40 cm long diverticulum lateral to the oesophagus. Histology suggested a congenital nature of the colonic and oesophageal diverticuli. [source]

    Pathology of lethal peripartum broad ligament haematoma in 31 Thoroughbred mares

    T. UENO
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Broad ligament haemorrhage in peripartum mares is a life-threatening disease and there are few reports on the aetiology and pathogenesis of broad ligament haematoma. Objectives: To obtain information regarding the sites for the early diagnosis and pathogenesis of broad ligament haematoma of mares. Methods: Thirty-one mares that died of broad ligament haematoma peripartum were examined pathologically for bleeding sites. The arterial distribution of 5 young mares with several parities served as negative controls. Results: Age and/or multiparity were the predisposing factors for the disease. Arterial injuries were most commonly observed in the uterine artery (24 of 31 mares). Among these, the proximal uterine artery that lies within 15 cm of the bifurcation of the iliac artery was the most frequent site for rupture (18 mares). The lesions occurred preferentially at the bifurcations, lateral part of curvatures and abrupt flexures of the artery. The morphology of the injuries was classified into 3 types: ruptures with and without longitudinal fissures, and transections. Histologically, the arterial wall adjacent to the rupture showed atrophy of smooth muscle cells with fibrosis of the tunica media and disruption and/or calcification of the internal elastic lamina. Conclusions: Arterial injuries that led to broad ligament haematoma in peripartum mares occurred most frequently in the proximal uterine artery, and atrophy of smooth muscle cells with fibrosis of the arterial wall was as one of the predisposing factors in aged and multiparous mares. Potential relevance: Monitoring small aneurysms, mural tearing, medial fibrosis at the proximal uterine artery by transrectal echography could provide useful information for the early diagnosis and possible prevention of broad ligament haematoma of peripartum mares. [source]

    Regional distribution of collagen and haemosiderin in the lungs of horses with exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage

    F. J. Derksen
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Regional veno-occlusive remodelling of pulmonary veins in EIPH-affected horses, suggests that pulmonary veins may be central to pathogenesis. The current study quantified site-specific changes in vein walls, collagen and haemosiderin accumulation, and pleural vascular profiles in the lungs of horses suffering EIPH. Hypothesis: In the caudodorsal lung regions of EIPH-affected horses, there is veno-occlusive remodelling with haemosiderosis, angiogenesis and fibrosis of the interstitium, interlobular septa and pleura. Methods: Morphometric methods were used to analyse the distribution and accumulation of pulmonary collagen and haemosiderin, and to count pleural vascular profiles in the lungs of 5 EIPH-affected and 2 control horses. Results: Vein wall thickness was greatest in the dorsocaudal lung and significantly correlated with haemosiderin accumulation. Increased venous, interstitial, pleural and septal collagen; lung haemosiderin; and pleural vascular profiles occurred together and changes were most pronounced in the dorsocaudal lung. Further, haemosiderin accumulation colocalised with decreased pulmonary vein lumen size. Vein wall thickening, haemosiderin accumulation and histological score were highly correlated and these changes occurred only in the caudodorsal part of the lung. Conclusion: The colocalisation of these changes suggests that regional (caudodorsal) venous remodelling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of EIPH. Potential relevance: The results support the hypothesis that repeated bouts of venous hypertension during strenuous exercise cause regional vein wall remodelling and collagen accumulation, venous occlusion and pulmonary capillary hypertension. Subjected to these high pressures, there is capillary stress failure, bleeding, haemosiderin accumulation and, subsequently, lung fibrosis. [source]

    Pulmonary response to airway instillation of autologous blood in horses

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) occurs in the majority of horses performing strenuous exercise. Associated pulmonary lesions include alveolar and airway wall fibrosis, which may enhance the severity of EIPH. Further work is required to understand the pulmonary response to blood in the equine airways. Objectives: To confirm that a single instillation of autologous blood into horse airways is associated with alveolar wall fibrosis, and to determine if blood in the airways is also associated with peribronchiolar fibrosis. Methods: Paired regions of each lung were inoculated with blood or saline at 14 and 7 days, and 48, 24 and 6 h before euthanasia. Resulting lesions were described histologically and alveolar and airway wall collagen was quantified. Results: The main lesion observed on histology was hypertrophy and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes at 7 days after blood instillation. This lesion was no longer present at 14 days. There were no significant effects of lung region, treatment (saline or autologous blood instillation), nor significant treatment-time interactions in the amount of collagen in the interstitium or in the peribronchial regions. Conclusion: A single instillation of autologous blood in lung regions is not associated with pulmonary fibrosis. Potential relevance: Pulmonary fibrosis and lung remodelling, characteristic of EIPH, are important because these lesions may enhance the severity of bleeding during exercise. A single instillation of autologous blood in the airspaces of the lung is not associated with pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore the pulmonary fibrosis described in EIPH must have other causes, such as repetitive bleeds, or the presence of blood in the pulmonary interstitium in addition to the airspaces. Prevention of pulmonary fibrosis through therapeutic intervention requires a better understanding of these mechanisms. [source]

    Is improved high speed performance following frusemide administration due to diuresis-induced weight loss or reduced severity of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage?

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Prerace administration of frusemide to horses has been linked with a significant improvement in racing performance, but the basis for this improvement is unclear. Objective: To test whether improved performance with prerace administration of frusemide is due to the drug's diuresis-induced weight loss rather than its apparent alleviation of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Methods: Eight thoroughbred horses underwent 3 trials in a random order, 2 or 3 weeks apart: control (C), frusemide/unburdened (FU), and frusemide/burdened (FB). None of the horses were known to have exhibited post-exercise epistaxis or endoscopic evidence of EIPH. Endoscope-guided bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were performed before and after each horse completed a standardised exercise test (SET) on an inclined treadmill to assess semi-quantitatively the volume of EIPH. For C, horses received an i.v. saline placebo injection (5 ml) and were unburdened while performing the SET. With FU, horses received frusemide (0.5 mg/kg) and were also unburdened. For FB, horses received frusemide and were burdened with weight equal to that lost during the 4 h post frusemide injection period. Erythrocyte number in BAL fluid, mass specific VO2max, time and distance for the entire SET as well as at maximum speed were recorded. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted on all results. Results: Mass specific VO2max was significantly higher for the FU than for FB or C. Mass specific VO2max for FB and C were not different. More RBCs were found in BAL samples after C runs than after both FU and FB trial runs. Horses with the frusemide treatment (either burdened or unburdened) produced less EIPH than in the C trial, but their mass specific VO2max values were higher on the FU trial alone. For FU, horses ran longer at 115% VO2max than under C or FB conditions. Conclusion and potential relevance: Improvement of performance in the furosemide trials was due more to the weight-loss related effects of the drug than its apparent alleviation of EIPH. Further research is warranted with the same or similar project design, but with a larger sample size and with horses known to have more severe EIPH. [source]

    Clinical anatomy of the equine sphenopalatine sinus

    J. L. McCANN
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Disorders of the equine sphenopalatine sinus, including empyema and neoplasia, have been reported to cause damage to cranial nerves II and V. However, the clinical anatomy of these sinuses is not well described in horses. Objective: To examine the anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinuses in a range of equidae and, in particular, to examine the relationship of these sinuses to adjacent major nerves and vessels. Methods: The anatomy of the sphenoidal and palatine paranasal sinuses was examined in 16 equidae, primarily using transverse skull sections. Relevant structures were documented and photographed. Results: There was much variation between individual horses in sphenopalatine sinus anatomy. The sphenoidal sinuses were small in young horses and appeared to become larger and more complex with age. Variation was present in the extent that the sphenopalatine sinus extended into the basisphenoid bone. The septum dividing left and right sphenoidal sinuses was frequently not midline, but was intact in all cases. The sphenoidal and palatine sinuses communicated in most horses. In such cases, what could accurately be termed the (combined) sphenopalatine sinuses usually drained directly into the caudal maxillary sinuses. Additionally, in 5 out of 16 cases, some compartments of the sphenoidal sinus also drained into the ethmoidal sinus. The dorsal and lateral walls of the sphenoidal sinus were very thin and directly adjacent to cranial nerves II, III, IV, V and VI and major blood vessels. Conclusions: The equine sphenoidal and palatine sinuses are very variable in their anatomy, but are always in close proximity to multiple cranial nerves and major blood vessels. Potential relevance: Many cranial nerves and blood vessels could be damaged with disorders involving the sphenopalatine sinus, potentially causing major and variable neurological syndromes, haemorrhage and extension of sepsis. [source]

    Laparoscopic management of postcastration haemorrhage in a horse

    First page of article [source]

    Effects of phlebotomy on haemodynamic characteristics during exercise in Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia

    Summary Five Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia (RCHV) were compared before and after removal of approximately 22% (36 ml/kg bwt) of the total blood volume in order to evaluate the haemodynamic responses, haemorheological alterations and oxygen transport during exercise to fatigue. Data were recorded during submaximal exercise at 4 different speeds on a treadmill and then during continued running at the highest speed step until fatigue. Oxygen uptake (V,O2), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), systemic artery pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were measured. Arteriovenous O2 content difference (C(a-v,)O2), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total systemic resistance (TSR) were calculated. Whole blood and plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were determined with a rotational viscometer. Endoscopy was performed after exercise. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Phlebotomy resulted in a decrease in haematocrit and Hb during the course of exercise. Blood and plasma viscosity were lower and erythrocyte aggregation tendency was higher after phlebotomy. Throughout exercise, including submaximal work and continued running to fatigue, PAP, SAP, PVR, TSR and C(a-v,)O2 were lower after phlebotomy. HR was higher after phlebotomy during submaximal exercise. Oxygen delivery and VO2 were lower after phlebotomy in the period from submaximal exercise to fatigue. Run time to fatigue was shorter after phlebotomy. Four horses showed exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) before phlebotomy and the degree of bleeding was diminished but not abolished after phlebotomy. The reductions in PVR, TSR, PAP and SAP after phlebotomy were probably a result of reduced blood viscosity. In conclusion, although a 22% reduction in blood volume improved the haemodynamic and haemorheological parameters and the degree of EIPH, it was found that RCHV trotters have to rely on high oxygen delivery to the working muscles for maintenance of maximal performance. [source]

    Clenbuterol administration does not attenuate the exercise-induced pulmonary arterial, capillary or venous hypertension in strenuously exercising Thoroughbred horses

    Summary The present study was carried out to ascertain whether ,2 -adrenergic receptor stimulation with clenbuterol would attenuate the pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension in horses performing high-intensity exercise and, in turn, modify the occurrence of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Experiments were carried out on 6 healthy, sound, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses. All horses were studied in the control (no medications) and the clenbuterol (0.8 ,g/kg bwt, i.v.) treatments. The sequence of these treatments was randomised for every horse, and 7 days were allowed between them. Using catheter-tip-transducers whose in-vivo signals were referenced at the point of the left shoulder, right heart/pulmonary vascular pressures were determined at rest, sub-maximal exercise and during galloping at 14.2 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade - a workload that elicited maximal heart rate and induced EIPH in all horses. In the control experiments, incremental exercise resulted in progressive significant increments in right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous (wedge) pressures and all horses experienced EIPH. Clenbuterol administration to standing horses caused tachycardia, but significant changes in mean right atrial or pulmonary vascular pressures were not observed. During exercise performed after clenbuterol administration, heart rate as well as right atrial and pulmonary arterial, capillary and wedge pressures also increased progressively with increasing work intensity. However, these values were not found to be statistically significantly different from corresponding data in the control study and the incidence of EIPH remained unaffected. Since clenbuterol administration also does not affect the transpulmonary pressure during exercise, it is unlikely that the transmural force exerted onto the blood-gas barrier of exercising horses is altered following i.v. clenbuterol administration at the recommended dosage. [source]

    Inhibition of prostacyclin by indomethacin ameliorates the splanchnic hyposensitivity to glypressin in haemorrhage-transfused common bile duct-ligated rats

    F.-Y. Lee
    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is an important contributor to the mediation of hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors and the development of hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertensive states. Inhibition of PGI2 synthesis in haemorrhage-transfused partially portal vein-ligated rats could ameliorate the splanchnic hyposensitivity to glypressin, a long-acting vasopressin analogue. This study investigated whether the hyposensitivity to glypressin also exists in rats with common bile duct ligation (BDL) and whether the inhibition of PGI2 synthesis by indomethacin could potentiate the portal-hypotensive effect of glypressin in bleeding BDL rats. Two series of BDL rats were used. Series 1 investigated the haemodynamic effects of low dose glypressin (0·07 mg kg,1) in BDL rats with or without bleeding by catheterization. In series 2, haemodynamic parameters were measured in stable or bleeding BDL rats that were receiving intravenously high dose glypressin (0·2 mg kg,1) or indomethacin (5 mg kg,1) followed by high dose glypressin. In rats with a hypotensive haemorrhage, 4·5 mL of blood was withdrawn and 50% of the withdrawn blood was reinfused before the administration of glypressin or indomethacin. Splanchnic hyposensitivity to glypressin was demonstrated in haemorrhage-transfused BDL rats receiving high, but not low, doses of glypressin. Indomethacin infusion did not cause significant systemic and portal haemodynamic changes in bleeding BDL rats (P > 0·05). The addition of indomethacin significantly enhanced the portal-hypotensive effects of glypressin (P < 0·05) and potentiated the increases in mean arterial pressure induced by glypressin infusion (P < 0·001) in bleeding BDL rats. Splanchnic hyposensitivity to glypressin observed in haemorrhage-transfused BDL rats could be ameliorated by the addition of indomethacin, suggesting a role of endogenous PGI2 in its pathophysiology. [source]

    Appraisal of current vitamin K dosing algorithms for the reversal of over-anticoagulation with warfarin: the need for a more tailored dosing regimen

    Elizabeth A. Sconce
    Abstract:, Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant in the UK for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. Vitamin K administration is an effective way of reversing excessive anticoagulation. Over-anticoagulated patients present with a wide range of international normalized ratio (INR) values and may respond differently to a fixed dose of vitamin K. Current dosing algorithms for vitamin K administration in the non-urgent treatment of over-anticoagulation do not take this variability in response into account. Consequently, over a third of over-anticoagulated patients still remain outside their target INR 24 h after treatment. Such patients are therefore prone to either haemorrhage (if the patient is still over-anticoagulated) or thromboembolism (if the INR reversal is over-corrected). A number of factors such as patient age, body weight, co-morbidity, frailty, warfarin daily dose and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphism could affect response to vitamin K and thus the rate and extent of INR reversal. There is a need for a more individualized approach to the reversal of over-anticoagulation in asymptomatic or mildly haemorrhagic patients in order to improve the safety of warfarin therapy. [source]

    Acute intestinal obstruction due to intramural haemorrhage in small intestine in a patient with severe haemophilia A and inhibitor

    Khaled M. A. Ramadan
    Abstract:, Patients with severe haemophilia A usually present with joint, gastrointestinal and urinary tract haemorrhage. Bleeding elsewhere is often precipitated by pre-existing pathology or trauma. We report a patient with severe haemophilia A, who presented with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction. He has a factor VIII inhibitor and receives recombinant factor VIIa on demand at home. The CT scan of abdomen showed dilated small intestine with fluid filled loops and a long segment in the jejunum with marked transmural thickening. There was no other pathology in the small intestine. These appearances were consistent with intramural haemorrhage in the small intestine as the cause of acute obstruction. He was managed conservatively with recombinant factor VIIa and this resulted in resolution of his symptoms. This case highlights an unusual presentation of bleeding in a haemophilia patient. Intestinal obstruction due to haemorrhage in the small intestinal wall is extremely rare and only previously reported in a few haemophilia patients. It also highlights the effectiveness of conservative management with recombinant factor VIIa as opposed to immediate exploratory surgery. [source]

    Autoregulation might explain why blood pressure is not associated with haematoma enlargement in acute intracerebral haemorrhage

    S. Sacco
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]