HDL Particles (hdl + particle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Inflammation reduces HDL protection against primary cardiac risk

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 6 2010
James P. Corsetti
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (6): 483,489 Abstract Background, We recently reported high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a predictor of recurrent risk in a subgroup of postinfarction patients defined by hypercholesterolemia and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We investigated whether a similar high-risk subgroup might exist for incident cardiovascular disease. Material and Methods, A graphical exploratory data analysis tool was used to identify high-risk subgroups in a male population-based cohort (n = 3405) from the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study by generating 3-dimensional mappings of risk over the HDL-cholesterol/CRP domain with subsequent use of Kaplan,Meier analysis to verify high-risk. Within-subgroup risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan,Meier analysis. Results, Mappings revealed two high-risk subgroups: a low HDL-cholesterol/high CRP subgroup and a high HDL-cholesterol/high CRP subgroup. The low HDL-cholesterol subgroup demonstrated a pattern of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia contrasted with a predominantly unremarkable biomarker pattern for the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup. However, in the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, CRP levels were higher than the low HDL-cholesterol subgroup; and within the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, CRP predicted risk. Moreover, in the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, risk was associated with lower triglyceride levels in conjunction with presumptively larger HDL particles. Conclusions, High HDL-cholesterol and high CRP levels define a subgroup of men at high-risk for incident cardiovascular disease. High HDL cholesterol-associated risk likely relates to impaired HDL particle remodelling in the setting of inflammation. This approach may facilitate identification of additional inflammation-related mechanisms underlying high HDL cholesterol-associated risk; and potentially influence management of such patients. [source]


Improvement of lipid profile is accompanied by atheroprotective alterations in high-density lipoprotein composition upon tumor necrosis factor blockade: A prospective cohort study in ankylosing spondylitis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2009
I. C. van Eijk
Objective Cardiovascular mortality is increased in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and inflammation plays an important role. Inflammation deteriorates the lipid profile and alters high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) composition, reflected by increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) within the particle. Anti,tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment may improve these parameters. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate the effects of etanercept on lipid profile and HDL composition in AS. Methods In 92 AS patients, lipid levels and their association with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and SAA were evaluated serially during 3 months of etanercept treatment. HDL composition and its relationship to inflammation markers was determined in a subgroup of patients, using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. Results With anti-TNF treatment, levels of all parameters of inflammation decreased significantly, whereas total cholesterol, HDL-c, and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) levels increased significantly. This resulted in a better total cholesterol:HDL-c ratio (from 3.9 to 3.7) (although the difference was not statistically significant), and an improved Apo B:Apo A-I ratio, which decreased by 7.5% over time (P = 0.008). In general, increases in levels of all lipid parameters were associated with reductions in inflammatory activity. In addition, SAA was present at high levels within HDL particles from AS patients with increased CRP levels and disappeared during treatment, in parallel with declining plasma levels of SAA. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that during anti-TNF therapy for AS, along with favorable changes in the lipid profile, HDL composition is actually altered whereby SAA disappears from the HDL particle, increasing its atheroprotective ability. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the role of functional characteristics of HDL-c in cardiovascular diseases related to chronic inflammatory conditions. [source]


Inflammation reduces HDL protection against primary cardiac risk

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 6 2010
James P. Corsetti
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (6): 483,489 Abstract Background, We recently reported high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a predictor of recurrent risk in a subgroup of postinfarction patients defined by hypercholesterolemia and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We investigated whether a similar high-risk subgroup might exist for incident cardiovascular disease. Material and Methods, A graphical exploratory data analysis tool was used to identify high-risk subgroups in a male population-based cohort (n = 3405) from the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study by generating 3-dimensional mappings of risk over the HDL-cholesterol/CRP domain with subsequent use of Kaplan,Meier analysis to verify high-risk. Within-subgroup risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan,Meier analysis. Results, Mappings revealed two high-risk subgroups: a low HDL-cholesterol/high CRP subgroup and a high HDL-cholesterol/high CRP subgroup. The low HDL-cholesterol subgroup demonstrated a pattern of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia contrasted with a predominantly unremarkable biomarker pattern for the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup. However, in the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, CRP levels were higher than the low HDL-cholesterol subgroup; and within the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, CRP predicted risk. Moreover, in the high HDL-cholesterol subgroup, risk was associated with lower triglyceride levels in conjunction with presumptively larger HDL particles. Conclusions, High HDL-cholesterol and high CRP levels define a subgroup of men at high-risk for incident cardiovascular disease. High HDL cholesterol-associated risk likely relates to impaired HDL particle remodelling in the setting of inflammation. This approach may facilitate identification of additional inflammation-related mechanisms underlying high HDL cholesterol-associated risk; and potentially influence management of such patients. [source]


Gender and age differences in the distribution of the HDL subclasses among the Chinese population

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Li Tian
Abstract Background and aims: to analyze the gender and age differences in the distribution of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses among the Chinese population, and to clarify the mechanism of these changes. Methods and results: the apoA-I contents of the plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-DE coupled with immunodetection in 324 men (including 186 normolipidemic subjects) and 186 women (including 114 normolipidemic subjects). The contents of pre,1 -HDL and HDL3 (HDL3c, HDL3b, HDL3a) were significantly lower, whereas the contents of HDL2a and HDL2b were higher for women than for men in the <50,years age group. Moreover, the contents of pre,1 -HDL and HDL3 were higher for female subjects; the HDL2a and HDL2b contents were lower for both female and male subjects in the 50,59, 60,69, and ,70,years age groups versus the subjects of the same gender in the <50,years age group. When compared to the normolipidemic premenopausal women, pre,1 -HDL, HDL3b, and HDL3a increased while HDL2b decreased significantly in normolipidemic men and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: the contents of the large-sized HDL particles HDL2b were higher, but the contents of the small-sized HDL particles (pre,1 -HDL, HDL3b, HDL3a) were lower for women versus men in the <50,years age group. Meanwhile, the gender difference in distribution of the HDL subclass narrowed obviously with advancing age. Moreover, the characteristics of the HDL subclass distribution profile for the normolipidemic postmenopausal women resembled those for the normolipidemic men. [source]


HDL-c is a powerful lipid predictor of cardiovascular diseases

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 11 2007
E. Bruckert
Summary Relationship between HDL-c and cardiovascular diseases:, Beyond the role of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in the development of atherosclerosis, growing evidence suggest that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, epidemiological, mechanistic and intervention studies suggest that low HDL-c is a major cardiovascular risk factor and that increasing HDL-c plasma levels may be beneficial, particularly in patients with low HDL-c levels. The inverse association between HDL-c concentrations and cardiovascular risk is continuous without threshold value. Thus, any categorical definition of low HDL-c is arbitrary. Protective effects of HDL:, HDL particles are highly heterogeneous in structure and intravascular metabolism. Antiatherogenic properties of HDL include its role in the reverse cholesterol transfer, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. What should clinicians do?:, From a practical point of view, HDL-c should be systematically measured to assess the cardiovascular risk in patients. The first step to consider in subjects with low HDL-c is to look for specific causes and give advice to change inappropriate lifestyle components associated with low HDL-c, such as smoking, lack of physical exercise and overweight. Patients with very low HDL-c need a thorough evaluation by specialist physicians. Statins are associated with a modest increase of HDL-c (5%) while fibrates and nicotinic acid increase HDL-c by 10% and 20% respectively. [source]


Phosphatidylethanol Mediates its Effects on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor via HDL Receptor in Endothelial Cells

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
Marja Katriina Liisanantti
Background:, Previous epidemiological studies have shown that light to moderate alcohol consumption has protective effects against coronary heart disease but the mechanisms of the beneficial effect of alcohol are not known. Ethanol may increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, augment the reverse cholesterol transport, or regulate growth factors or adhesion molecules. To study whether qualitative changes in HDL phospholipids mediate part of the beneficial effects of alcohol on atherosclerosis by HDL receptor, we investigated whether phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in HDL particles affects the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by a human scavenger receptor CD36 and LIMPII analog-I (CLA-1)-mediated pathway. Methods:, Human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells were incubated in the presence of native HDL or PEth-HDL. VEGF concentration and CLA-1 protein expression were measured. Human CLA-1 receptor-mediated mechanisms in endothelial cells were studied using CLA-1 blocking antibody and protein kinase inhibitors. Results:, Phosphatidylethanol-containing HDL particles caused a 6-fold increase in the expression of CLA-1 in endothelial cells compared with the effect of native HDL. That emergent effect was mediated mainly through protein kinase C and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. PEth increased the secretion of VEGF and that increase could be abolished by a CLA-1 blocking antibody. Conclusions:, High density lipoprotein particles containing PEth bind to CLA-1 receptor and thereby increase the secretion of VEGF from endothelial cells. Ethanol-induced protective effects against coronary heart disease may be explained, at least partly, by the effects of PEth-modified HDL particles on VEGF via CLA-1-mediated mechanisms in endothelial cells. [source]


HDL2 of Heavy Alcohol Drinkers Enhances Cholesterol Efflux From Raw Macrophages via Phospholipid-Rich HDL2b Particles

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2008
Sanna M. Mäkelä
Background:, Alcohol consumption is associated with increased serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and a decreased risk for the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effects of heavy alcohol intake on reverse cholesterol transport, one of the key anti-atherogenic processes related to HDL, are poorly known. Methods:, The ability of total HDL as well as HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses to promote cholesterol efflux from 3H-cholesterol-labeled RAW 264.7 macrophages was studied among 6 heavy alcohol drinkers and 6 controls. Distribution of HDL subclasses was analyzed by 4 to 30% native gradient gels. Serum phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities were analyzed among several other biochemical measures. Results:, Cholesterol efflux to HDL2 of heavy drinkers was 22% (p = 0.025) higher relative to controls. The increase in HDL2 phospholipids, with a concomitant 2-fold (p = 0.055) increase in large HDL2b particles, was associated with enhanced cholesterol efflux to HDL2. Interestingly, the cholesterol efflux to HDL3 did not differ between the 2 study groups. These findings may be partially explained by a decreased CETP activity (,26%, p = 0.037) and an increased PLTP activity (39%, p = 0.045) in heavy drinkers. Conclusions:, The increased cholesterol efflux potential of HDL2 is most likely an anti-atherogenic feature linked to heavy alcohol consumption. The cholesterol efflux and HDL phospholipids also associated strongly within the whole study group (rs = 0.910, p , 0.01) suggesting a common pathway of enhanced cholesterol efflux via enlarged phospholipid-rich HDL particles. [source]


Pleiotropic effects on subclasses of HDL, adiposity, and glucose metabolism in adult Alaskan Eskimos

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
M. Elizabeth Tejero
The aim of this study was to analyze the heritability and the presence of pleiotropic effects on subfractions of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), parameters for adiposity, and glucose metabolism in adult Alaskan Eskimos. The present family study included 1,214 adult Alaskan Eskimos (537 male/677 female). Body weight, height, circumferences, selected skinfolds, and blood pressure were measured in all participants. Blood samples were collected under fasting conditions for the isolation of plasma. Glucose, insulin, subclasses and size of lipoproteins, triglycerides, total, and HDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) were measured in plasma. HbA1c was measured in total blood. Univariate and bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted between HDL subclasses and size and the anthropometric and biochemical measures using the variance decomposition approach. Variation in all the analyzed traits exhibits a significant genetic component. Heritabilities ranged between 0.18 ± 0.11 for LDL2 (intermediate) and 0.89 ± 0.07 for small HDL. No common genetic effects were found on the HDL subclasses (small, intermediate, and large). Small HDL particles were genetically correlated with LDL particles and HbA1c. Negative genetic correlations were observed between intermediate and large HDL subfractions, HDL size and measures of adiposity, and LDL and parameters for glucose metabolism (HbA1, insulin). These observations confirm the presence of possible pleiotropic effects on HDL, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors and provide novel insight on the relationship between HDL subclasses, adiposity, and glucose regulation. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Improvement of lipid profile is accompanied by atheroprotective alterations in high-density lipoprotein composition upon tumor necrosis factor blockade: A prospective cohort study in ankylosing spondylitis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2009
I. C. van Eijk
Objective Cardiovascular mortality is increased in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and inflammation plays an important role. Inflammation deteriorates the lipid profile and alters high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) composition, reflected by increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) within the particle. Anti,tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment may improve these parameters. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate the effects of etanercept on lipid profile and HDL composition in AS. Methods In 92 AS patients, lipid levels and their association with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and SAA were evaluated serially during 3 months of etanercept treatment. HDL composition and its relationship to inflammation markers was determined in a subgroup of patients, using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. Results With anti-TNF treatment, levels of all parameters of inflammation decreased significantly, whereas total cholesterol, HDL-c, and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) levels increased significantly. This resulted in a better total cholesterol:HDL-c ratio (from 3.9 to 3.7) (although the difference was not statistically significant), and an improved Apo B:Apo A-I ratio, which decreased by 7.5% over time (P = 0.008). In general, increases in levels of all lipid parameters were associated with reductions in inflammatory activity. In addition, SAA was present at high levels within HDL particles from AS patients with increased CRP levels and disappeared during treatment, in parallel with declining plasma levels of SAA. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that during anti-TNF therapy for AS, along with favorable changes in the lipid profile, HDL composition is actually altered whereby SAA disappears from the HDL particle, increasing its atheroprotective ability. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the role of functional characteristics of HDL-c in cardiovascular diseases related to chronic inflammatory conditions. [source]