HCV-related Cirrhosis (HCV-relat + cirrhosis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Racial differences in effectiveness of ,-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus cirrhosis

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
Mindie H. Nguyen
,-Fetoprotein (AFP) is frequently used as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most available data concerning AFP come from studies of patients with chronic hepatitis B or other chronic liver diseases of mixed etiologies. Limited data concerning the diagnostic value of AFP for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC have to date come only from Asian and European studies, and results are conflicting. There may be significant differences in AFP levels depending on racial backgrounds and etiologies of primary liver disease. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, case-control study of 163 HCC patients with HCV infection and 149 control patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. The positive likelihood ratios for AFP at 0 to 20, 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and 101 to 200 ng/mL were 0.46, 1.31, 1.15, and 6.90, respectively. No controls had AFP greater than 200 ng/mL. The sensitivity of AFP for the diagnosis of HCC in African Americans with HCV infection was lower than that of patients of all other ethnic groups combined (57.1% vs. 81.6% for AFP > 10 ng/mL, P = .02, and 42.9% vs. 66.0% for AFP > 20 ng/mL, P = .05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.81 for non-African Americans but only 0.56 for African Americans. In conclusion, AFP greater than 200 ng/mL can be used to confirm HCC in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and a hepatic mass. However, AFP is insensitive for the diagnosis of HCC in African Americans. [source]

The epidemiology of hepatitis C in Australia: Notifications, treatment uptake and liver transplantations, 1997,2006

Heather F Gidding
Abstract Background and Aim:, Regular monitoring of hepatitis C (HCV)-related surveillance data is essential to inform and evaluate strategies to reduce the expanding HCV burden. The aim of this study was to examine trends in the epidemiology and treatment of HCV in Australia. Methods:, We reviewed data about HCV notifications, treatment of HCV infection through the Highly Specialised Drugs (s100) Program, and liver transplants (Australia and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry) for the period 1997,2006. Results:, HCV case notification rates declined by almost 50% between 1999 and 2006, with the greatest reductions between 2001 and 2002 and amongst young adults. For newly acquired HCV cases, 89% were Australian-born and 90% reported injecting drug use as a risk factor for infection. Overall, 30% of liver transplant recipients had HCV-related cirrhosis, but the number and proportion of HCV diagnoses increased between 1997 and 2006. HCV treatment also increased over the review period. However, only 1.4% of the 202 400 people estimated to be living with chronic HCV at the end of 2006 received treatment that year. Conclusion:, The decline in HCV notifications is consistent with a decline in HCV incidence in Australia. However, the burden of advanced HCV disease continues to expand. To reduce this burden, treatment uptake needs to increase. Consistent and sensitive surveillance mechanisms are required to detect newly acquired cases together with an expansion of surveillance for chronic HCV infections. [source]

Comparison of outcomes between patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and those with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis

Nobuyuki Toshikuni
Abstract Background and Aim:, The natural history of alcoholic cirrhosis, especially in Asian countries, has not been completely understood thus far. Methods:, We retrospectively compared the outcomes of compensated cirrhosis between Japanese alcoholic and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Results:, A total of 227 patients (75 alcoholic and 152 HCV-infected patients) with compensated cirrhosis were enrolled. The median follow-up period was 4.9 years. The cumulative rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development were significantly lower in the alcoholic patients than in the HCV-infected patients (6.8% vs 50.3% at 10 years, P = 0.0003), while the cumulative rates of hepatic decompensation (37.4% vs 51.7% at 10 years) and survival (53.8% vs 47.4% at 10 years) did not significantly differ between the two groups (Kaplan-Meir analysis). The main causes of death were hepatic failure and non-hepatic diseases in the alcoholic patients and HCC and hepatic failure in the HCV-infected patients. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the risk of HCC was lower in alcoholic cirrhosis than in HCV-related cirrhosis (hazard ratio (HR), 0.46), while the risk of hepatic decompensation and mortality was the same. Predictors of decreased survival were non-abstinence (HR, 2.53) in the alcoholic patients and low serum albumin level (1.58) in the HCV-infected patients. Conclusions:, Survival of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis was similar to that of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. The risk of HCC development was lower in alcoholic cirrhosis than in HCV-related cirrhosis. Abstinence from alcohol was important for improving the survival of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. [source]

Oxidative-inflammatory damage in cirrhosis: Effect of vitamin E and a fermented papaya preparation

Francesco Marotta
Abstract Background and Aim:, Oxidative DNA damage occurs as an early event in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is an indication of the potential for carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to test a novel antioxidant/immunomodulator in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Methods:, The study group consisted of 50 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis with transaminase values less than twofold increased (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] < 80 IU/L). Patients underwent a standardized food-vitamin composition assessment and were assessed for dietary intake, nutritional status and iron level. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups and then given either ,-tocopherol 900 IU/day or 9 g/day of a fermented papaya preparation (FPP, Immun-Age, Osato Research Institute, Gifu, Japan) at bedtime for 6 months. Ten healthy subjects served as controls. Patients were checked monthly for: routine tests, redox status (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde), plasma ,-tocopherol, 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanidine (8-OHdG) level in circulating leukocyte DNA and serum levels of cytokines. Results:, Patients with cirrhosis showed a significant imbalance of redox status (low antioxidants/high oxidative stress markers) (P < 0.005 vs controls). Neither treatment regimen affected transaminases as a whole. However, vitamin E supplementation almost normalized ALT only in the limited vitamin-E-deficient subgroup. A significant improvement of redox status was obtained by both regimens. However, only FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG and the improvement of cytokine balance with FPP was significantly better than with vitamin E treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusions:, Although the present data seem to suggest a potential supportive role of antioxidants/immunomodulators as FPP in HCV patients, more studies are needed to substantiate their effect on the natural history of the disease. [source]

Meta-analysis: interferon improves outcomes following ablation or resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

A. K. Singal
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 851,858 Summary Background, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is third most common cause of tumour-related death in the US with hepatitis C virus (HCV) the most common aetiology. Surgical resection and tumour ablation are curative in patients who cannot be transplanted. With native liver having cirrhosis, HCC recurrence is a potential problem. Aim, To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating efficacy of IFN to prevent HCC recurrence after its curative treatment in HCV-related cirrhosis. Methods, Ten studies (n = 645, 301 treated with IFN) on the use of IFN after resection or ablation of HCV-associated HCC were analysed. Results, Pooled data showed benefit of IFN for HCC prevention with OR (95% CI) of 0.26 (0.15,0.45); P < 0.00001. The proportion of patients surviving at 5 years (n = 505 in 6 studies) was in favour of IFN with OR of 0.31 [(95% CI 0.21,0.46); P < 0.00001]. Data were homogeneous for HCC recurrence (,2 12.05, P = 0.21) and survival (,2 6.93, P = 0.44). The benefit of IFN was stronger with sustained virological response compared with nonresponders for HCC recurrence [0.19 (0.06,0.60); P = 0.005] and survival [0.31 (0.11,0.90); P = 0.03]. Conclusion, Interferon treatment after curative resection or ablation of HCC in HCV-related cirrhotics prevents HCC recurrence and improves survival. [source]

Yes, hepatocellular cancer does occur in primary biliary cirrhosis

Gregory J. Gores MD
Objectives: The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is not well established, as some reports suggest a low risk, whereas others indicate that HCC may be no less frequent than in other types of cirrhosis. Methods: We compared the incidence of HCC in a series of 140 patients with PBC (five men, 135 women, mean age 54 1.6 yr) followed-up for a mean of period of 5.6 0.4 yr with a group of patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were matched for age, sex, and follow-up period. In all patients, HCC was prospectively screened by clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound procedures. Results: Five patients with PBC (3.6%) developed HCC. All were in stage IV of the disease. The incidence of HCC in the 45 patients with late stages of the disease (III or IV) was 11.1%, similar to that found in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, which was 15.0%. The relative risk for HCC in late stages of PBC was of 0.812 (95% CI, 0.229-2.883) with respect to HCV-related cirrhosis. The probability for developing HCC was significantly higher in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis than in PBC patients overall (p = 0.001), but was similar in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and in patients with PBC in stages III and IV (p = ns). Conclusion: The risk for HCC in patients with late stages of PBC is similar to that in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. [source]

Are posttransplantation protocol liver biopsies useful in the long term?

Marina Berenguer MD
Controversy exists about the usefulness of yearly protocol liver biopsies after liver transplantation, mainly among patients with normal transaminase levels. The aim of this study is to determine (1) the prevalence and cause of histological liver injury in transplant recipients with a minimum histological follow-up of 1 year (n = 254), and (2) the correlation between histological findings and transaminase values. The main indication for liver transplantation was viral-related cirrhosis (61%; 86% caused by hepatitis C virus [HCV]). Protocol liver biopsies were performed yearly for the first 5 years in HCV-infected transplant recipients and at 1 and 5 years in the remaining patients. Histological liver injury included several categories of liver damage (hepatitis, rejection, steatohepatitis, cholangitis, and Budd-Chiari,like lesions). Among biopsy specimens categorized as hepatitis, severe hepatitis was defined as the presence of stage 3 or greater fibrosis. The prevalence of liver injury increased significantly with time (42% v 56% at 1 and 5 years, respectively; P = .09) and was significantly greater in patients who underwent transplantation for HCV-related cirrhosis than in those who underwent transplantation for other reasons (P = .0001). The most frequent category of liver injury was hepatitis (97% and 96% at 1 and 5 years, respectively). Although a proportion of patients with liver injury (12% to 29%) had normal transaminase values, this percentage was almost null in patients with severe hepatitis. Normal histological characteristics were found in the vast majority of non,HCV-infected transplant recipients with normal transaminase values. Given the high prevalence of abnormal histological findings, particularly the increase over time of those defined as severe, protocol liver biopsies are clearly justified in HCV-infected transplant recipients. Conversely, given the rarity of abnormal histological findings, protocol liver biopsies should be questioned in non,HCV-infected transplant recipients with normal transaminase values. [source]