Guideline Value (guideline + value)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Oral toxicity of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in mice: Long-term exposure to low doses

A. Sukenik
Abstract The hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin, a sulfated-guanidinium alkaloid with substituted dioxypyrimidine (uracil) moiety, was isolated from several cyanobacteria species. The acute toxicity of cylindrospermopsin was well established based on intraperitoneal and oral exposure; however, only a few long-term subacute exposure studies were performed to permit a reliable guideline value for cylindrospermopsin in drinking water. In the study reported herein, female and male mice were exposed to cylindrospermopsin in their drinking water. Cylindrospermopsin-containing, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (cyanobacterium)-free medium was provided as the only source of drinking water, whereas a control group was given a fresh medium for cyanobacteria as drinking water. Over a period of 42 weeks, experiment groups were exposed to cylindrospermopsin concentration, gradually increased from 100 to 550 ,g L,1 (daily exposure ranged between 10 and 55 ,g kg,1 day,1). Body and organ weights were recorded, and serum and hematology analyses were performed 20 and 42 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. The most pronounced effect of cylindrospermopsin was elevated hematocrit levels in both male and female mice after 16 weeks of exposure to cylindrospermopsin. The observed changes in the hematocrit level were accompanied by deformation of red blood cells, which were changed into acanthocyte. Based on these results, a daily cylindrospermopsin dose of 20 ,g kg,1 day,1 (equivalent to 200 ,g L,1) is proposed as the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level for both male and female mice. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 575,582, 2006. [source]

Were volatile organic compounds the inducing factors for subjective symptoms of employees working in newly constructed hospitals?

Tomoko Takigawa
Abstract This study demonstrated possible relationships between environmental, personal, and occupational factors and changes in the subjective health symptoms of 214 employees after the relocation of a hospital in a region of Japan. Eight indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in at least one of the 19 rooms investigated, and total VOC (TVOC) concentrations in 8 rooms exceeded the advisable value (400 ,g/m3) established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Formaldehyde was detected in all the investigated rooms, but none of the results exceeded the guideline value (100 ,g/m3). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to select variables significantly associated with the subjective symptoms that can be induced by sick building syndrome. The results showed that subjective symptoms of deterioration in the skin, eye, ear, throat, chest, central nervous system, autonomic system, musculoskeletal system, and digestive system among employees were associated mainly with gender difference and high TVOC concentrations (>1200 ,g/m3). Long work hours (>50 h per week) in females and smoking in males were to be blamed for the deterioration of their symptoms. The present findings suggest that to protect employees from indoor environment-related adverse health effects, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of indoor chemicals in new buildings, to decrease work hours, and to forbid smoking. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 280,290, 2004. [source]

Oral toxicity of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in male Swiss albino mice: Determination of no observed adverse effect level for deriving a drinking water guideline value

A. R. Humpage
Abstract The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a frequent contaminant of freshwaters throughout the world, including those that are sources of drinking water. The first cases of human poisoning attributed to this toxin occurred from a treated drinking water supply in Queensland, Australia, in 1979. The toxin causes extensive damage to the liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and other organs. It is known to be a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, but there is mounting evidence for genotoxicity and that it metabolizes to even more toxic forms. As part of a risk assessment process leading to a guideline for a safe drinking water level for this toxin, we performed a series of experiments to determine a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for this toxin. In the first trial male mice were exposed to CYN-containing cyanobacterial extract in their drinking water (0,657 ,g CYN kg,1 day,1) for 10 weeks. In the second trial mice received purified CYN by daily gavage (0,240 ,g CYN kg,1 day,1) for 11 weeks. Body and organ weights were recorded; urine, serum, and hematology analyses were performed; and histopathological examination of tissues was carried out. Body weights were significantly increased at low doses (30 and 60 ,g kg,1 day,1) and decreased at high doses (432 and 657 ,g kg,1 day,1). Liver and kidney weights were significantly increased at doses of 240 ,g kg,1 day,1 and 60 ,g kg,1 day,1, respectively. Serum bilirubin levels were significantly increased and bile acids significantly decreased at doses of 216 ,g kg day,1 and greater. Urine total protein was significantly decreased at doses above 60 ,g kg,1 day,1. The kidney appeared to be the more sensitive organ to this toxin. If it is assumed that increased organ weights and changes in functional capacity are responses to an underlying toxic effect, then the NOAEL based on this data is 30 ,g kg,1 day,1, which, with standard calculations and uncertainty factors, provides a proposed guideline safety value of 1 ,g/L in drinking water. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 94,103, 2003. [source]


ABSTRACT The Aerobic Plate Counts (APCs) of some Philippine ready-to-eat (RTE) foods from take-away premises were established for the first time within the context of using the information for the development of Philippine microbial guidelines for RTE foods. The calculated APCs for most of the RTE foods analyzed in the study were ,,10,5 cfu/unit of food sample. Among the reasons cited to explain higher APC values were: use of raw ingredients for the final product, temperature abuse during vending, inadequate cooking and use of leftovers. It was recommended that the generally acceptable microbial guideline value for APC of RTE foods set at <,105 cfu/unit be adapted locally until more precise microbial criteria for this food type could be developed through an appropriate scientific process. [source]

Sediment quality in near coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico: Influence of Hurricane Katrina,

John M. Macauley
Abstract The results of the present study represent a synoptic analysis of sediment quality in coastal waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound two months after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Posthurricane conditions were compared to prehurricane (2000,2004) conditions, for sediment quality data. There were no exceedances of effects range median (ERM) sediment quality guideline values for chemical contaminants in any of the sediment samples collected from the Lake Pontchartrain or the Mississippi Sound study areas following the hurricane. Lower threshold effects range low (ERL) values were exceeded for As, Cd, and Ni at several stations in both survey areas, similar to levels of contamination observed prior to the hurricane. The comparison of sediment quality indicators before and after the hurricane suggests considerable stability of these systems with respect to short-term ecological impacts. Although other studies have shown storm-related changes could be detected (e.g., effects on benthic communities associated with shifts in salinity), there were no indications of widespread sediment contamination. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1403,1408. 2010 SETAC [source]

Trace metal concentration in water and sediments of satellite lakes within Lake Victoria (Kenya) basin

Job Mwamburi
Abstract Lakes Kanyaboli, Sare and Namboyo are three important freshwater satellite lakes in the northern region of the Lake Victoria (Kenya) basin. Lake Simbi, a small alkaline -saline crater-lake is located near the southern shoreline of the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The three freshwater lakes provide unique aquatic habitats for the important indigenous fish species and other aquatic biodiversity, as well as serving as water resources for the surrounding communities. Surface and sediment samples were collected and examined to characterize these lake systems. Metal partitioning among the various defined geochemical phases also was determined. Based on the measured concentrations, the satellite lake waters are relatively uncontaminated with regard to Al (aluminium), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr). Levels of most elements were below detection limits, as well as being well below the desirable drinking water guideline values proposed by the World Health Organization. The exception was the elevated iron (Fe) contents (>300 ,g L,1). The sediments exhibited a relatively low level of contamination with regard to heavy metals. The mean values of the measured metals in the sediments were compared to levels in adjacent Lake Victoria. The study results from these poorly-studied, and relatively unperturbed ecosystems, compared to the main body of lake Victoria, highlight their importance as conservation areas, despite the small-scale fishery activity, potential threats from human activities and their sensitivity to fluctuating environmental conditions. [source]