Guideline Recommendations (guideline + recommendation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Development and utility of a multi-dimensional grid to assess individual mineral metabolism control in hemodialysis patients: A potential aid for therapeutic decision making?

Abstract A grid was developed to evaluate control of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels in hemodialysis patients, based on guideline recommendations (National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative and Canadian Society of Nephrology), and its face validity was examined in a representative sample of Canadian patients. A retrospective chart review was undertaken in hemodialysis patients from 7 Canadian units. Patients >18 years, on hemodialysis for ,12 months, and ,3 parathyroid hormone levels measured ,1 month apart were included. The grid classified mineral metabolism control as optimal, suboptimal, or poor (mean of 3 measurements). Medication use, hospitalization, and Emergency Department visits were evaluated in relation to grid occupancy. A second comparative analysis of grid occupancy was undertaken on prevalent hemodialysis cases in British Columbia in 2008. Data from 268 patients (mean age 62.3 years) were analyzed. Using National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, 17.5%, 28.8%, and 53.7% of patients had optimal, suboptimal, and poor control, respectively, of all 3 parameters (calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone). Using Canadian Society of Nephrology criteria, optimal, suboptimal, and poor control rates were 6.3%, 4.2%, and 89.5%, respectively. Poor control was a possible or a probable cause of hospitalization or Emergency Department attendance in 8 patients. Data from British Columbia in 2008 (n=1858) show optimal, suboptimal, and poor control rates of 15.8%, 24.5%, and 59.7%, respectively. Poor mineral metabolism control among Canadian hemodialysis patients is not showing improvement. The therapeutic grid is a valid tool and may help guide therapeutic decisions, quality control initiatives, and patient counseling. [source]

Management of hypertension and stroke prevention: results of the Italian cardiologist survey

G. Tocci
Summary Objective: To provide an overview of current habits, priorities, perceptions and knowledge of cardiologists with regard to hypertension and stroke prevention in outpatient practice. Methods: A sample of 203 cardiologists operating in outpatient clinics and randomly selected amongst members of the largest Italian Outpatient Cardiologist Association were interviewed by e-mail, in April,May 2007. Results: The interviewed cardiologists reported that hypertensive outpatients represent a large percentage of their practice population, in which the clinical priority was blood pressure (BP) reduction. Stroke was identified as the most important event to prevent and it was also perceived as the most preventable hypertension-related cardiovascular event. A remarkably high rate of achieved BP control was reported, to a degree that it is inconsistent with current epidemiological reports and with the relatively low percentage use of combination therapies declared by cardiologists. Additional risk factors, organ damage, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation were consistently reported in hypertensive patients. Among antihypertensive drug classes, a preference for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors has been expressed by the majority of physicians; this choice was generally justified by evidence derived from international trials or by the antihypertensive efficacy of this drug class. Conclusions: The results confirm the presence of weaknesses in the current services for patients with hypertension, even when being managed by cardiologists. Discrepancies between perceptions and reality, or clinical practice and guideline recommendations are also highlighted. An analysis of these aspects may help to identify current areas of potential improvement for stroke prevention in the clinical management of hypertension in cardiology practice. [source]

The impact of pharmacy computerised clinical decision support on prescribing, clinical and patient outcomes: a systematic review of the literature

Jane Robertson
Abstract Objectives Computerised clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are being used increasingly to support evidence-based decision-making by health care professionals. This systematic review evaluated the impact of CDSSs targeting pharmacists on physician prescribing, clinical and patient outcomes. We compared the impact of CDSSs addressing safety concerns (drug interactions, contraindications, dose monitoring and adjustment) and those focusing on medicines use in line with guideline recommendations (hereafter referred to as Quality Use of Medicines, or QUM). We also examined the influence of clinical setting (institutional versus ambulatory care), system- or user-initiation of CDSS, prescribing versus clinical outcomes reported and use of multi-faceted versus single interventions on system effectiveness. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO (1990,2009) for methodologically adequate studies (experiments and strong quasi-experiments) comparing a CDSS with usual pharmacy care. Individual study results are reported as positive trends or statistically significant results in the direction of the intentions of the CDSS being tested. Studies are aggregated and compared as the proportions of studies showing the effectiveness of the CDSS on the majority (, 50%) of outcomes reported in the individual study. Key findings Of 21 eligible studies, 11 addressed safety and 10 QUM issues. CDSSs addressing safety issues were more effective than CDSSs focusing on QUM (10/11 versus 4/10 studies reporting statistically significant improvements in favour of CDSSs on , 50% of all outcomes reported; P= 0.01). A number of QUM studies noted the limited contact between pharmacists and physicians relating to QUM treatment recommendations. More studies demonstrated CDSS benefits on prescribing outcomes than clinical outcomes (10/10 versus 0/3 studies; P= 0.002). There were too few studies to assess the impact of system- versus user-initiated CDSS, the influence of setting or multi-faceted interventions on CDSS effectiveness. Conclusions Our study demonstrated greater effectiveness of safety-focused compared with QUM-focused CDSSs. Medicine safety issues are traditional areas of pharmacy activity. Without good communication between pharmacists and physicians, the full benefits of QUM-focused CDSSs may not be realised. Developments in pharmacy-based CDSSs need to consider these inter-professional relationships as well as computer-system enhancements. [source]

The Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention: respiratory guideline implementation for nurse trainers

A. Bheekie d.pharm
Aim:, This paper describes the design, facilitation and preliminary assessment of a 1-week cascade training programme for nurse trainers in preparation for implementation of the Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention, tested within the context of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in the Free State province. PALSA combines evidence-based syndromic guidelines on the management of respiratory disease in adults with group educational outreach to nurse practitioners. Background:, Evidence-based strategies to facilitate the implementation of primary care guidelines in low- to middle-income countries are limited. In South Africa, where the burden of respiratory diseases is high and growing, documentation and evaluation of training programmes in chronic conditions for health professionals is limited. Method:, The PALSA training design aimed for coherence between the content of the guidelines and the facilitation process that underpins adult learning. Content facilitation involved the use of key management principles (key messages) highlighted in nurse-centred guidelines manual and supplemented by illustrated material and reminders. Process facilitation entailed reflective and experiential learning, role-playing and non-judgemental feedback. Discussion and results:, Preliminary feedback showed an increase in trainers' self-awareness and self-confidence. Process and content facilitators agreed that the integrated training approach was balanced. All participants found that the training was motivational, minimally prescriptive, highly nurse-centred and offered personal growth. Conclusion:, In addition to tailored guideline recommendations, training programmes should consider individual learning styles and adult learning processes. [source]

An Educational Intervention to Improve Antimicrobial Use in a Hospital-Based Long-Term Care Facility

(See Editorial Comments by Dr. Lona Mody on pp 130, 1302)
OBJECTIVES: To improve antimicrobial use in patients receiving long-term care (LTC). DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental before,after assessment of the effects of physician education and guideline implementation. SETTING: Public LTC and acute care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty salaried internists who provided most of the medical care to LTC patients. INTERVENTION: National guidelines, hospital resistance data, and physician feedback were incorporated into a series of four teaching sessions presented over 18 months and into booklets detailing institutional guidelines on the optimal management of common LTC infection syndromes. MEASUREMENTS: One hundred randomly selected LTC patients treated with antimicrobials were reviewed before these interventions were implemented and 100 after, and measures of the quality of care were compared. The effect of the interventions on antimicrobial days and starts were also assessed using interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: Charted clinical abnormalities met guideline diagnostic criteria (62% vs 38%, P=.006), and initial therapy agreed with guideline recommendations (39% vs 11%, P<.001), more often in the post- than in the preintervention cohort. Mean census-adjusted monthly LTC antimicrobial days fell 29.7%, and antimicrobial starts fell 25.9% during the intervention period; both decreases were sustained during the 2-year postintervention period. CONCLUSION: The teaching and guideline intervention improved the quality and reduced the quantity of antimicrobial use in LTC patients. [source]

Adherence to Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines: Implications for Nursing Home Quality

Debra Saliba MD
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess overall nursing home (NH) implementation of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention guidelines and variation in implementation rates among a geographically diverse sample of NHs. DESIGN: Review of NH medical records. SETTING: A geographically diverse sample of 35 Veterans Health Administration NHs. PARTICIPANTS: A nested random sample of 834 residents free of PU on admission. MEASUREMENTS: Adherence to explicit quality review criteria based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Practice Guidelines for PU prevention was measured. Medical record review was used to determine overall and facility-specific adherence rates for 15 PU guideline recommendations and for a subset of six key recommendations judged as most critical. RESULTS: Six thousand two hundred eighty-three instances were identified in which one of the 15 guideline recommendations was applicable to a study patient based on a specific indication or resident characteristic in the medical record. NH clinicians adhered to the appropriate recommendation in 41% of these instances. For the six key recommendations, clinicians adhered in 50% of instances. NHs varied significantly in adherence to indicated guideline recommendations, ranging from 29% to 51% overall adherence across all 15 recommendations (P < .001) and from 24% to 75% across the six key recommendations (P < .001). Adherence rates for specific indications also varied, ranging from 94% (skin inspection) to 1% (education of residents or families). Standardized assessment of PU risk was identified as one of the most important and measurable recommendations. Clinicians performed this assessment in only 61% of patients for whom it was indicated. CONCLUSIONS: NHs' overall adherence to PU prevention guidelines is relatively low and is characterized by large variations between homes in adherence to many recommendations. The low level of adherence and high level of variation to many best-care practices for PU prevention indicate a continued need for quality improvement, particularly for some guidelines. [source]

An economic evaluation of NIOX MINO airway inflammation monitor in the United Kingdom

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
D. Price
Background:, Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is easily measured by noninvasive means. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of FENO measurement using a hand-held monitor (NIOX MINO), at a reimbursement price of 23, for asthma diagnosis and management in the UK. Methods:, We constructed two decision trees to compare FENO measurement with standard diagnostic testing and guideline recommendations for management. For asthma diagnosis, we compared FENO measurement with lung function and reversibility testing, bronchial provocation and sputum eosinophil count. For asthma management, we evaluated the impact on asthma control, including inhaled corticosteroid use, exacerbations and hospitalizations, of monitoring with FENO measurement vs symptoms and lung function as in standard care. Resource use and health outcomes were evaluated over a 1-year time frame. Direct costs were calculated from a UK health-care payer perspective (2005 ). Results:, An asthma diagnosis using FENO measurement cost 43 less per patient as compared with standard diagnostic tests. Asthma management using FENO measurement instead of lung function testing resulted in annual cost-savings of 341 and 0.06 quality-adjusted life-years gained for patients with mild to severe asthma and cost-savings of 554 and 0.004 quality-adjusted life-years gained for those with moderate to severe asthma. Conclusions:, Asthma diagnosis based on FENO measurement with NIOX MINO alone is less costly and more accurate than standard diagnostic methods. Asthma management based on FENO measurement is less costly than asthma management based on standard guidelines and provides similar health benefits. [source]

Antibiotic use in five children's hospitals during 2002,2006: the impact of antibiotic guidelines issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health,

Wenshuang Zhang
Abstract Purpose To investigate the pattern of antibiotic use in five Chinese children's hospitals from 2002 to 2006. To see if the Guidelines to encourage rational use of antibiotics issued by the Ministry of Health in October 2004 have any impact on the use. Methods The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification/Defined Daily Doses (ATC/DDD) methodology was used. Aggregate data on antibiotic use (ATC code-J01) were expressed in numbers of DDD/100 bed-days for inpatients. Results Total 56 different substances of systemic antibiotics were used. The overall consumption of antibiotic drugs was 68.2, 58.4, 65.8, 65.6 and 49.9 DDD/100 bed-days for the years 2002,2006, respectively. The top antibiotics used were third-generation cephalosporins. There was considerable variation in both type and amount of antibiotics used in the five hospitals. In 2002, some hospitals had twice the antibiotic use compared to others. While the overall antibiotic use in 2005 was largely unchanged compared with previous years, by 2006 antibiotic use had decreased by 22.6% and the variation in use between hospitals was also reduced. Conclusions The ATC/DDD methodology proved useful for studying overall antibiotic usage in children's hospitals. The decline in antibiotic usage found in 2006 (and the reduced variation between hospitals) may be attributed to the impact of the Ministry of Health guidelines which took some time to be promulgated to individual staff members. Further research will focus on compliance of antibiotic use in these five hospitals with particular guideline recommendations for specific clinical problems such as bacterial resistance and surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Uptake of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand perinatal mortality audit guideline

Background:, Deficiencies in investigation and audit of perinatal deaths result in loss of information thereby limiting strategies for future prevention. The Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand (PSANZ) developed a clinical practice guideline for perinatal mortality in 2004. Aims:, To determine the current use and views of the PSANZ guideline, focussing on the investigation and audit aspects of the guideline. Methods:, A telephone survey was conducted of lead midwives and doctors working in birth suites of maternity hospitals with over 1000 births per annum in Australia and New Zealand. Results:, Sixty-nine of the 78 eligible hospitals agreed to participate. A total of 133 clinicians were surveyed. Only 42% of clinicians surveyed were aware of the guideline; more midwives than doctors were aware (53 vs 28%). Of those, only 19% had received training in their use and 33% reported never having referred to them in practice. Implementation of even the key guideline recommendations varied. Seventy per cent of respondents reported regularly attending perinatal mortality audit meetings; midwives were less likely than doctors to attend (59 vs 81%). Almost half (45%) of those surveyed reported never receiving feedback from these meetings. The majority of clinicians surveyed agreed that all parents should be approached for consent to an autopsy examination of the baby; however, most (86%) reported the need for clinician training in counselling parents about autopsy. Conclusions:, Effective implementation programmes are urgently required to address suboptimal uptake of best practice guidelines on perinatal mortality audit in Australia and New Zealand. [source]

National Study of Emergency Department Visits for Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 1993,2005

Chu-Lin Tsai MD
Abstract Objectives:, Little is known about recent trends in U.S. emergency department (ED) visits for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) or about ED management of AECOPD. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ED visits for AECOPD and to evaluate concordance with guideline-recommended care. Methods:, Data were obtained from National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). ED visits for AECOPD, during 1993 to 2005, were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Concordance with guideline recommendations was evaluated using process measures. Results:, Over the 13-year study period, there was an average annual 0.6 million ED visits for AECOPD, and the visit rates for AECOPD were consistently high (3.2 per 1,000 U.S. population; Ptrend = 0.13). The trends in the use of chest radiograph, pulse oximetry, or bronchodilator remained stable (all Ptrend > 0.5). By contrast, the use of systemic corticosteroids increased from 29% in 1993,1994 to 60% in 2005, antibiotics increased from 14% to 42%, and methylxanthines decreased from 15% to <1% (all Ptrend < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed patients in the South (vs. the Northeast) were less likely to receive systemic corticosteroids (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4 to 0.9). Conclusions:, The high burden of ED visits for AECOPD persisted. Overall concordance with guideline-recommended care for AECOPD was moderate, and some emergency treatments had improved over time. [source]

A randomised controlled trial of a tailored multifaceted strategy to promote implementation of a clinical guideline on induced abortion care

R. Foy
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a tailored multifaceted strategy, delivered by a national clinical effectiveness programme, to implement a guideline on induced abortion. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting and participants All 26 hospital gynaecology units in Scotland providing induced abortion care. Intervention Following the identification of barriers to guideline implementation, intervention units received a package comprising audit and feedback, unit educational meetings, dissemination of structured case records and promotion of a patient information booklet. Control units received printed guideline summaries alone. Main outcome measures Compliance with five key guideline recommendations (primary outcomes) and compliance with other recommendations, patient satisfaction and costs of the implementation strategy (secondary outcomes). Results No effect was observed for any key recommendation: appointment with a gynaecologist within five days of referral (odds ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.58); ascertainment of cervical cytology history (0.93; 0.36 to 2.40); antibiotic prophylaxis or screening for lower genital tract infection (1.70; 0.71 to 5.99); use of misoprostol as an alternative to gemeprost (1.00; 0.27 to 1.77); and offer of contraceptive supplies at discharge (1.11; 0.48 to 2.53). Median pre-intervention compliance was near optimal for antibiotic prophylaxis and misoprostol use. No intervention benefit was observed for any secondary outcome. The intervention costs an average of 2607 per gynaecology unit. Conclusions The tailored multifaceted strategy was ineffective. This was possibly attributable to high pre-intervention compliance and the limited impact of the strategy on factors outside the perceived control of clinical staff. [source]

Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in 58 U.S. Emergency Departments

Chu-Lin Tsai MD
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:940,950 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objectives of this study were to determine concordance of emergency department (ED) management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with guideline recommendations and to identify ED and patient characteristics predictive of higher guideline concordance. Methods:, The authors conducted a chart review study of ED AMI care as part of the National Emergency Department Safety Study (NEDSS). Using a primary hospital discharge diagnosis of AMI (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM], codes 410.XX), a random sample of ED visits for AMI in 58 urban EDs across 20 U.S. states between 2003 and 2006 were identified. Concordance with American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline recommendations was evaluated using five individual quality measures and a composite concordance score. Concordance scores were calculated as the percentage of eligible patients who received guidelines-recommended care. These percentage scores were rescaled from 0 to 100, with 100 indicating perfect concordance. Results:, The cohort consisted of 3,819 subjects; their median age was 65 years, and 62% were men. The mean ( standard deviation [SD]) ED composite concordance score was 61 8), with a broad range of values (42 to 84). Except for aspirin use (mean concordance, 82), ED concordance scores were low (beta-blocker use, 56; timely electrocardiogram [ECG], 41; timely fibrinolytic therapy, 26; timely ED disposition for primary percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] candidates, 43). In multivariable analyses, older age (beta-coefficient per 10-year increase, ,1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = ,2.4 to ,0.5) and southern EDs (beta-coefficient, ,5.2; 95% CI = ,9.6 to ,0.9) were associated with lower guideline concordance, whereas ST-segment elevation on initial ED ECG was associated with higher guideline concordance (beta-coefficient, 3.6; 95% CI = 1.5 to 5.7). Conclusions:, Overall ED concordance with guideline-recommended processes of care was low to moderate. Emergency physicians should continue to work with other stakeholders in AMI care, such as emergency medical services (EMS) and cardiologists, to develop strategies to improve care processes. [source]

Utilization of catheterization and revascularization procedures in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome over the last decade

Glenn N. Levine MD
Abstract The degree to which catheterization and revascularization procedures are utilized in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) during hospitalization has broad implications with respect to initial pharmacotherapeutic decisions (upfront therapies), treatment and hospital transfer protocols, guideline recommendations, and allocation of training, material, and financial resources. Analysis of data from multiple trials and registries of patients with NSTE-ACS has the potential to assess more broadly utilization of invasive and revascularization procedures and provide a wide angle or bird's-eye view of the management of such patients, complementing the data obtained from any one trial or registry. We therefore undertook a systematic overview of all large trials and registries of patients with NSTE-ACS conducted over the last decade that were deemed appropriate to provide information on catheterization and revascularization procedures. Although not unexpectedly the percentage of patients with NSTE-ACS managed with cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting varies in different clinical trials and registries, general findings and trends were still discernable from these studies. During the initial treatment period, the majority of patients were ultimately treated with medical therapy alone (e.g., without revascularization). The percentage of those NSTE-ACS patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization who were then managed with PCI increased over the last decade and now stands at approximately 50%. Of NSTE-ACS patients who undergo revascularization, the percentage of those patients who are revascularized via PCI similarly increased, and PCI is currently the revascularization procedure utilized in approximately three-fourths of patients undergoing revascularization. The percentages of patients undergoing invasive and revascularization procedures were consistently higher in the U.S. cohorts of study subjects when compared to non-U.S. cohorts of study subjects. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Implementation of an Emergency Department,based Transient Ischemic Attack Clinical Pathway: A Pilot Study in Knowledge Translation

Michael D. Brown MD
Objectives To assess the feasibility of implementing an emergency department (ED),based transient ischemic attack (TIA) clinical pathway that uses computer-based clinical support, and to evaluate measures of quality, safety, and efficiency. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of adult patients presenting to a community ED with symptoms consistent with acute TIA. Adherence to the clinical pathway served as a test of feasibility. Compliance with guideline recommendations for antithrombotic therapy and vascular imaging were used as process measures of quality. The 90-day risk of recurrent TIA, stroke, or death provided estimates of safety. Efficiency was assessed by measuring the rate of uneventful hospitalization, defined as a hospital admission that did not result in any major medical event or vascular intervention such as endarterectomy or stent placement. Results Of the 75 subjects enrolled, physician adherence to the clinical pathway was 85.3%, and 35 patients (46.7%) were discharged home from the ED. Antithrombotic agents were prescribed to 68 (90.7%), and vascular imaging was performed in 70 (93.3%). The 90-day risk of recurrent TIA was seven out of 75 (9.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.6% to 18.0%), one patient experienced stroke (1.3%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 7.2%), and three patients died (4.0%; 95% CI = 1.4% to 11.1%). Uneventful hospitalization occurred in 38 of 40 patients (95.0%). Conclusions Implementation of a clinical pathway for the evaluation and management of TIA using computer-based clinical support is feasible in a community ED setting. This pilot study in knowledge translation provides a design framework for further studies to assess the safety and efficiency of a structured ED-based TIA clinical pathway. [source]

Further survey of Australian ophthalmologist's diabetic retinopathy management: did practice adhere to National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines?

Joshua Yuen MPH
Abstract Background:, To compare the self-reported management of diabetic retinopathy by Australian ophthalmologists with the 1997 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines. Methods:, Self-reported cross-sectional survey of patterns of practice. Questionnaires were sent to all Australian ophthalmologists, comprising questions regarding professional details, diabetic retinopathy screening attitudes/practices and specific hypothetical management scenarios. Data were analysed using Chi-squared and adjusted logistic regression. Result:, 480 of the 751 (64%) eligible Australian ophthalmologists participated. The majority (80%, n = 376) reported they consistently reviewed patient's glycaemic control, but only 55% and 41% regularly reviewed blood pressure and serum cholesterol control, respectively. Ophthalmologists generally adhered to NHMRC-recommended screening intervals, although only 38% agreed with the guidelines relating to screening of pre-pubertal diabetic patients. Fluorescein angiogram was used more than recommended, especially for mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy where 45% of respondents used this investigation. Practice duration >15 years was associated with more regular fluorescein angiogram use (OR = 3.74; 95% CI: 2.53,5.53, P < 0.001). In the clinical scenarios where clinically significant macular oedema was concurrently present with cataract or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, >26% referred to retinal subspecialists for management; 85% of the remaining ophthalmologists performed macular laser first. Respondents with practice duration >15 years were 7.8 times (P = 0.001) more likely to perform cataract surgery first. Conclusion:, Diabetic retinopathy management guidelines were generally well followed by Australian ophthalmologists. However, areas of practice variation existed including frequent use of fluorescein angiogram. Significant proportion of practitioners referred diabetic patients to retinal subspecialists, who were more likely to adhere to guideline recommendations. Ophthalmologists with greater experience (>15 years) were more likely to employ practices differing from NHMRC recommendations. [source]

Cautions on the overgeneralized application of the NICE and CREST recommendations for the treatment of PTSD in the UK: a reflection from practice in Belfast, Northern Ireland

Martin J. Dorahy
The task of this paper is to present a message of caution regarding the overgeneralized reliance on the NICE (2005) and CREST (2003) recommendations for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults in the United Kingdom. The socio-political and ethnocultural context of Northern Ireland is used as a foundation to explore the generalizibility of guideline recommendations. It is argued that clinicians should be mindful of the degree to which they generalize from the recommendations of these guidelines to their clinical work because (1) questions regarding the heterogeneity of PTSD raise as yet unaddressed empirical questions about the generalizability of treatments to all PTSD presentations and (2) ethnocultural and socio-political factors have not yet played a dominant role in randomized outcome studies of treatment efficacy.,Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]