Guideline Implementation (guideline + implementation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines Improved Treatment of Nursing Home,Acquired Pneumonia in a State Veterans Home

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2006
Evelyn Hutt MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a multifaceted strategy to translate evidence-based guidelines for treating nursing home,acquired pneumonia (NHAP) into practice using a small intervention trial. DESIGN: Pre-posttest with untreated control group. SETTING: Two Colorado State Veterans Homes (SVHs) during two influenza seasons. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six residents with two or more signs of lower respiratory tract infection. INTERVENTION: Multifaceted, including a formative phase to modify the intervention, institutional-level change emphasizing immunization, and availability of appropriate antibiotics; interactive educational sessions for nurses; and academic detailing. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects' SVH medical records were reviewed for guideline compliance retrospectively for the influenza season before the intervention and prospectively during the intervention. Bivariate comparisons-of-care processes between the intervention and control facility before and after the intervention were made using the Fischer exact test. RESULTS: At the intervention facility, compliance with five of the guidelines improved: influenza vaccination, timely physician response to illness onset, x-ray for patients not being hospitalized, use of appropriate antibiotics, and timely antibiotic initiation for unstable patients. Chest x-ray and appropriate and timely antibiotics were significantly better at the intervention than at the control facility during the intervention year but not during the control year. CONCLUSION: Multifaceted, evidence-based, NHAP guideline implementation improved care processes in a SVH. Guideline implementation should be studied in a national sample of nursing homes to determine whether it improves quality of life and functional outcomes of this debilitating illness for long-term care residents. [source]


The effects of guideline implementation for proton pump inhibitor prescription on two pulmonary medicine wards

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2 2009
E. P. M. VAN VLIET
Summary Background, It has been demonstrated that 40% of patients admitted to pulmonary medicine wards use proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) without a registered indication. Aim, To assess whether implementation of a guideline for proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescription on pulmonary medicine wards could lead to a decrease in use and improved appropriateness of prescription. Methods, This prospective study comprised two periods, i.e. the situation before and after guideline implementation. In each period, 300 consecutive patients were included. We registered patient characteristics, medications and occurrence of upper gastrointestinal-related disorders. Results, After implementation, fewer patients were started on PPIs [21% vs. 13%; odds ratio (OR): 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33,0.97] and more users discontinued their use; however, the latter was not significant (3% vs. 6%; OR for continuation: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.14,2.23). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that PPI use during hospitalization decreased after implementation (adjusted pooled OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32,0.90). Implementation did not result in a change in reported reasons for PPI prescription. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of upper GI-related disorders in the first 3 months after discharge. Conclusions, Guideline implementation for PPI prescription on two pulmonary medicine wards resulted in a reduction in the number of patients starting PPIs during hospitalization, but appropriateness of prescribing PPIs was not affected. Further studies are needed to determine how appropriateness of PPI prescription on pulmonary medicine wards can be further improved. [source]


Effects of implementation of psychiatric guidelines on provider performance and patient outcome: systematic review

ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2007
S. Weinmann
Objective:, To identify evidence from comparative studies on the effects of psychiatric guideline implementation on provider performance and patient outcome. Effects of different implementation strategies were reviewed. Method:, Articles published between 1966 and March 2006 were searched through electronic databases and hand search. A systematic review of comparative studies of structured implementation of specific psychiatric guidelines was performed. Rates of guideline adherence, provider performance data, illness detection and diagnostic accuracy rates were extracted in addition to patient relevant outcome data. Results:, Eighteen studies (nine randomized-controlled trials, six non-randomized-controlled studies and three quasiexperimental before-and-after studies) were identified. Effects on provider performance or patient outcome were moderate and temporary in most cases. Studies with positive outcomes used complex multifaceted interventions or specific psychological methods to implement guidelines. Conclusion:, There is insufficient high-quality evidence to draw firm conclusions on the effects of implementation of specific psychiatric guidelines. [source]


National Study on Emergency Department Visits for Transient Ischemic Attack, 1992,2001

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2006
Jonathan A. Edlow MD
Abstract Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of U.S. emergency department (ED) visits for transient ischemic attack (TIA) and to measure rates of antiplatelet medication use, neuroimaging, and hospitalization during a ten-year time period. Methods: The authors obtained data from the 1992,2001 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. TIA cases were identified by having ICD-9 code 435. Results: From 1992 to 2001, there were 769 cases, representing 2,969,000 ED visits for TIA. The population rate of 1.1 ED visits per 1,000 U.S. population (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.30) was stable over time. TIA was diagnosed in 0.3% of all ED visits. Physicians administered aspirin and other antiplatelet agents to a small percentage of patients, and 42% of TIA patients (95% CI = 29% to 55%) received no medications at all in the ED. Too few data points existed to measure a statistically valid trend over time. Physicians performed computed tomography scanning in 56% (95% CI = 45% to 66%) of cases and performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in < 5% of cases, and there was a trend toward increased imaging over time. Admission rates did not increase during the ten-year period, with 54% (95% CI = 42% to 67%) admitted. Regional differences were noted, however, with the highest admission rate found in the Northeast (68%). Conclusions: Between 1992 and 2001, the population rate of ED visits for TIA was stable, as were admission rates (54%). Antiplatelet medications appear to be underutilized and to be discordant with published guidelines. Neuroimaging increased significantly. These findings may reflect the limited evidence base for the guidelines, educational deficits, or other barriers to guideline implementation. [source]


Role of the general practitioner in smoking cessation

DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
NICHOLAS A. ZWAR
Abstract This paper reflects on the role of general practitioners in smoking cessation and suggests initiatives to enhance general practice as a setting for effective smoking cessation services. This paper is one of a series of reflections on key issues in smoking cessation. In this article we highlight the extent that general practitioners (GPs) have contact with the population, evidence for effectiveness of GP advice, barriers to greater involvement and suggested future directions. General practice has an extensive population reach, with the majority of smokers seeing a GP at least once per year. Although there is level 1 evidence of the effectiveness of smoking cessation advice from general practitioners, there are substantial barriers to this advice being incorporated routinely into primary care consultations. Initiatives to overcome these barriers are education in smoking cessation for GPs and other key practice staff; teaching of medical students about tobacco and cessation techniques, clinical practice guidelines; support for guideline implementation; access to pharmacotherapies; and development of referral models. We believe the way forward for the role of the GPs is to develop the practice as a primary care service for providing smoking cessation advice. This will require education relevant to the needs of a range of health professionals, provision of and support for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines, access for patients to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and integration with other cessation services such as quitlines [source]


Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategy Patterns in Veterans Affairs Primary Care Clinics

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 1p1 2007
Sylvia J. Hysong
Background. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mandated the system-wide implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the mid-1990s, arming all facilities with basic resources to facilitate implementation; despite this resource allocation, significant variability still exists across VA facilities in implementation success. Objective. This study compares CPG implementation strategy patterns used by high and low performing primary care clinics in the VA. Research Design. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low performance on six CPGs. Subjects. One hundred and two employees (management, quality improvement, clinic personnel) involved with guideline implementation at each VAMC primary care clinic. Measures. Participants reported specific strategies used by their facility to implement guidelines in 1-hour semi-structured interviews. Facilities were classified as high or low performers based on their guideline adherence scores calculated through independently conducted chart reviews. Findings. High performing facilities (HPFs) (a) invested significantly in the implementation of the electronic medical record and locally adapting it to provider needs, (b) invested dedicated resources to guideline-related initiatives, and (c) exhibited a clear direction in their strategy choices. Low performing facilities exhibited (a) earlier stages of development for their electronic medical record, (b) reliance on preexisting resources for guideline implementation, with little local adaptation, and (c) no clear direction in their strategy choices. Conclusion. A multifaceted, yet targeted, strategic approach to guideline implementation emphasizing dedicated resources and local adaptation may result in more successful implementation and higher guideline adherence than relying on standardized resources and taxing preexisting channels. [source]


Clinical guidelines: attitudes, information processes and culture in English primary care

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2001
George Dowswell
Abstract The application to clinical medicine of evidence-based clinical guidelines is an increasingly international policy prescription, yet research on how such guidelines might be implemented has tended to focus on change initiatives without seeking to understand change processes. This paper reports an empirical study of guideline implementation in UK general practice. Most GPs welcome guidelines as a means of improving care, though have reservations about their authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. ,Clan' organizational culture predominates and general practices do not generally have well-functioning internal arrangements for the management of clinical evidence and related information. We found no coherent relationships between these variables and practices' actual uptake of guidelines. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention: respiratory guideline implementation for nurse trainers

INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, Issue 4 2006
A. Bheekie d.pharm
Aim:, This paper describes the design, facilitation and preliminary assessment of a 1-week cascade training programme for nurse trainers in preparation for implementation of the Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) intervention, tested within the context of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in the Free State province. PALSA combines evidence-based syndromic guidelines on the management of respiratory disease in adults with group educational outreach to nurse practitioners. Background:, Evidence-based strategies to facilitate the implementation of primary care guidelines in low- to middle-income countries are limited. In South Africa, where the burden of respiratory diseases is high and growing, documentation and evaluation of training programmes in chronic conditions for health professionals is limited. Method:, The PALSA training design aimed for coherence between the content of the guidelines and the facilitation process that underpins adult learning. Content facilitation involved the use of key management principles (key messages) highlighted in nurse-centred guidelines manual and supplemented by illustrated material and reminders. Process facilitation entailed reflective and experiential learning, role-playing and non-judgemental feedback. Discussion and results:, Preliminary feedback showed an increase in trainers' self-awareness and self-confidence. Process and content facilitators agreed that the integrated training approach was balanced. All participants found that the training was motivational, minimally prescriptive, highly nurse-centred and offered personal growth. Conclusion:, In addition to tailored guideline recommendations, training programmes should consider individual learning styles and adult learning processes. [source]


An Educational Intervention to Improve Antimicrobial Use in a Hospital-Based Long-Term Care Facility

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 8 2007
(See Editorial Comments by Dr. Lona Mody on pp 130, 1302)
OBJECTIVES: To improve antimicrobial use in patients receiving long-term care (LTC). DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental before,after assessment of the effects of physician education and guideline implementation. SETTING: Public LTC and acute care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty salaried internists who provided most of the medical care to LTC patients. INTERVENTION: National guidelines, hospital resistance data, and physician feedback were incorporated into a series of four teaching sessions presented over 18 months and into booklets detailing institutional guidelines on the optimal management of common LTC infection syndromes. MEASUREMENTS: One hundred randomly selected LTC patients treated with antimicrobials were reviewed before these interventions were implemented and 100 after, and measures of the quality of care were compared. The effect of the interventions on antimicrobial days and starts were also assessed using interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: Charted clinical abnormalities met guideline diagnostic criteria (62% vs 38%, P=.006), and initial therapy agreed with guideline recommendations (39% vs 11%, P<.001), more often in the post- than in the preintervention cohort. Mean census-adjusted monthly LTC antimicrobial days fell 29.7%, and antimicrobial starts fell 25.9% during the intervention period; both decreases were sustained during the 2-year postintervention period. CONCLUSION: The teaching and guideline intervention improved the quality and reduced the quantity of antimicrobial use in LTC patients. [source]


A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines Improved Treatment of Nursing Home,Acquired Pneumonia in a State Veterans Home

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2006
Evelyn Hutt MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a multifaceted strategy to translate evidence-based guidelines for treating nursing home,acquired pneumonia (NHAP) into practice using a small intervention trial. DESIGN: Pre-posttest with untreated control group. SETTING: Two Colorado State Veterans Homes (SVHs) during two influenza seasons. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six residents with two or more signs of lower respiratory tract infection. INTERVENTION: Multifaceted, including a formative phase to modify the intervention, institutional-level change emphasizing immunization, and availability of appropriate antibiotics; interactive educational sessions for nurses; and academic detailing. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects' SVH medical records were reviewed for guideline compliance retrospectively for the influenza season before the intervention and prospectively during the intervention. Bivariate comparisons-of-care processes between the intervention and control facility before and after the intervention were made using the Fischer exact test. RESULTS: At the intervention facility, compliance with five of the guidelines improved: influenza vaccination, timely physician response to illness onset, x-ray for patients not being hospitalized, use of appropriate antibiotics, and timely antibiotic initiation for unstable patients. Chest x-ray and appropriate and timely antibiotics were significantly better at the intervention than at the control facility during the intervention year but not during the control year. CONCLUSION: Multifaceted, evidence-based, NHAP guideline implementation improved care processes in a SVH. Guideline implementation should be studied in a national sample of nursing homes to determine whether it improves quality of life and functional outcomes of this debilitating illness for long-term care residents. [source]


Hypertension guideline implementation: experiences of Finnish primary care nurses

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 5 2008
Seija Alanen MNSc
Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, Evidence-based guidelines on hypertension have been developed in many western countries. Yet, there is little evidence of their impact on the clinical practices of primary care nurses. Method, We assessed the style of implementation and adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline (HT Guideline) in 32 Finnish health centres classified in a previous study as ,disseminators' (n = 13) or ,implementers' (n = 19). A postal questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n = 409) working in the outpatient services in these health centres. Additionally, senior nursing officers were telephoned to enquire if the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors. Results, Questionnaires were returned from 327 nurses (80.0%), while all senior nursing officers (n = 32) were contacted. The majority of nurses were of the opinion that the HT Guideline has been adopted into clinical practice. The recommendations in the HT Guideline were adopted in clinical practice with varying success, and slightly more often in implementer health centres than in disseminator health centres. Nurses in implementer health centres more often agreed that multiple channels had been used in the implementation (P < 0.001). According to senior nursing officers the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors in about a half of the health centres, clearly more often in implementer health centres (P < 0.001). Conclusions, The HT Guideline was well adopted into clinical practice in Finland. The implementation of the HT Guideline had an impact on clinical practices, and on creating a new division of labour between nurses and doctors. [source]


The challenge of using the low back pain guidelines: a qualitative research

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 4 2007
Rachel Dahan MD MClSc
Abstract Purpose, Current low back pain (LBP) clinical guidelines have helped to summarize the scientific evidence and research, but have failed to provide tools and guide family physicians (FPs). The purpose of this study is to identify barriers and facilitators for the implementation of LBP guidelines from family FPs' perspective. Methods, A qualitative focus group study of FPs in the north of Israel. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants, all of them board-certified FPs. Four focus groups were created, and discussions were taped, transcribed and analysed for major themes. Results, Focus groups findings have expanded the understanding of the intellectual and mental challenges faced by Israeli FPs caring for LBP patients and highlighted the many obstacles to implementing LBP guidelines. Physicians' decision-making, pertaining to LBP, functions on three levels simultaneously: the physicians' agenda based on familiarity with the guidelines; their need to remain grounded in the context of the specific patient,doctor relationship; and the constraints and demands of the physician's workplace, medical system and environment. Conclusions, Despite an overall positive attitude towards LBP guideline implementation, FPs found it hard to come to terms with the conflicting dimensions of LBP patient care. The patient,doctor interaction determined the outcome of the encounter, whether it complied with the guidelines and whether the encounter leads to a healing process or to a vicious circle of unnecessary utilization of services. [source]


The effects of guideline implementation for proton pump inhibitor prescription on two pulmonary medicine wards

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2 2009
E. P. M. VAN VLIET
Summary Background, It has been demonstrated that 40% of patients admitted to pulmonary medicine wards use proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) without a registered indication. Aim, To assess whether implementation of a guideline for proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescription on pulmonary medicine wards could lead to a decrease in use and improved appropriateness of prescription. Methods, This prospective study comprised two periods, i.e. the situation before and after guideline implementation. In each period, 300 consecutive patients were included. We registered patient characteristics, medications and occurrence of upper gastrointestinal-related disorders. Results, After implementation, fewer patients were started on PPIs [21% vs. 13%; odds ratio (OR): 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33,0.97] and more users discontinued their use; however, the latter was not significant (3% vs. 6%; OR for continuation: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.14,2.23). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that PPI use during hospitalization decreased after implementation (adjusted pooled OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32,0.90). Implementation did not result in a change in reported reasons for PPI prescription. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of upper GI-related disorders in the first 3 months after discharge. Conclusions, Guideline implementation for PPI prescription on two pulmonary medicine wards resulted in a reduction in the number of patients starting PPIs during hospitalization, but appropriateness of prescribing PPIs was not affected. Further studies are needed to determine how appropriateness of PPI prescription on pulmonary medicine wards can be further improved. [source]


Behavioral issues in asthma management

PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue S21 2001
Randall Brown MD
Abstract Despite advances in drug treatment, outcomes in asthma remain unsatisfactory. Often overlooked in developing treatment strategies are important factors that affect outcomes in asthma, namely behavioral issues such as the low rate of patient adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen, inadequate physician-patient communication, and inconsistent implementation of evidenc-based treatment guidelines. The low adherence rates among asthma patients may be improved by education programs that emphasize both the potentially serious risks of this disease and a team approach to treatment that includes patients and their families in developing a treatment plan. Interactive physician education programs have been shown to improve guideline implementation and physician communication skills. Indeed, effective physician-patient communication may be the key to improving guideline implementation and patient adherence to treatment, resulting in meaningful decreases in asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001; Supplement 21:26,30. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines in occupational therapy practice: Recommendations from the research evidence

AUSTRALIAN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
Mary Stergiou-Kita
Background:,Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are prominent tools in evidence-based practice which integrate research evidence, clinical expertise and client input to develop recommendations for specific clinical circumstance. With the push to use research evidence in health care, it is anticipated that occupational therapists will become increasingly involved in implementing CPGs in practice. The research evidence has revealed several factors that can affect guideline uptake, and a variety of strategies that can facilitate implementation. Methods:,This narrative review examines the health-related literature in CPGs to answer the following questions. Based on the research evidence, (i) what are the factors that may influence guideline implementation? (ii) What implementation strategies may enhance guideline implementation? Results:,Factors within the guideline itself (e.g. quality, complexity and clarity), within the practitioner (e.g. experience, perceptions and beliefs), the patient (e.g. expectations and preferences) and the practice context (e.g. resource availability, organisational culture and opinion leaders) can all affect implementation success. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence to support the use of one implementation strategy over another, in all situations. The choice of implementation strategy must take into account the guideline to be implemented, the practice context and the anticipated challenges to implementation. Conclusions:,By understanding the factors that can influence implementation and the strategies for successful implementation, occupational therapists will be better prepared to implement guidelines. Recommendations to assist with guideline uptake and implementation are provided. [source]


Antenatal pulmonary embolism: risk factors, management and outcomes

BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
M Knight
Objectives, To estimate the incidence of antenatal pulmonary embolism and describe the risk factors, management and outcomes. Design, A national matched case,control study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). Setting, All hospitals with consultant-led maternity units in the UK. Participants, A total of 143 women who had an antenatal pulmonary embolism between February 2005 and August 2006. Two hundred and fifty nine matched control women. Methods, Prospective case and control identification through the UKOSS monthly mailing. Main outcome measures, Incidence and case fatality rates with 95% CIs. Adjusted odds ratio estimates. Results, One hundred per cent of UK consultant-led obstetric units contributed data to UKOSS. A total of 143 antenatal pulmonary embolisms were reported, representing an estimated incidence of 1.3 per 10 000 maternities (95% CI 1.1,1.5). Seventy per cent of women had identifiable classical risk factors for thromboembolic disease. The main risk factors for pulmonary embolism were multiparity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.03, 95% CI 1.60,9.84) and body mass index , 30 kg/m2 (aOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.09,6.45). Nine women who had a pulmonary embolism should have received antenatal thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) according to national guidelines; only three (33%) of them did. Six women (4%) had a pulmonary embolism following antenatal prophylaxis with LMWH; three of these women (50%) were receiving lower than recommended doses. Two women had recurrent pulmonary emboli (1.4%, 95% CI 0.2,5.1%). Five women died (case fatality 3.5%, 95% CI 1.1,8.0%). Conclusions, Significant severe morbidity from thromboembolic disease underlies the maternal deaths from pulmonary embolism in the UK. This study has shown some cases where thromboprophylaxis was not provided according to national guidelines, and there may be scope for further work on guideline implementation. [source]


A randomised controlled trial of a tailored multifaceted strategy to promote implementation of a clinical guideline on induced abortion care

BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
R. Foy
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a tailored multifaceted strategy, delivered by a national clinical effectiveness programme, to implement a guideline on induced abortion. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting and participants All 26 hospital gynaecology units in Scotland providing induced abortion care. Intervention Following the identification of barriers to guideline implementation, intervention units received a package comprising audit and feedback, unit educational meetings, dissemination of structured case records and promotion of a patient information booklet. Control units received printed guideline summaries alone. Main outcome measures Compliance with five key guideline recommendations (primary outcomes) and compliance with other recommendations, patient satisfaction and costs of the implementation strategy (secondary outcomes). Results No effect was observed for any key recommendation: appointment with a gynaecologist within five days of referral (odds ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.58); ascertainment of cervical cytology history (0.93; 0.36 to 2.40); antibiotic prophylaxis or screening for lower genital tract infection (1.70; 0.71 to 5.99); use of misoprostol as an alternative to gemeprost (1.00; 0.27 to 1.77); and offer of contraceptive supplies at discharge (1.11; 0.48 to 2.53). Median pre-intervention compliance was near optimal for antibiotic prophylaxis and misoprostol use. No intervention benefit was observed for any secondary outcome. The intervention costs an average of 2607 per gynaecology unit. Conclusions The tailored multifaceted strategy was ineffective. This was possibly attributable to high pre-intervention compliance and the limited impact of the strategy on factors outside the perceived control of clinical staff. [source]


Breast pathology guideline implementation in low- and middle-income countries,

CANCER, Issue S8 2008
Shahla Masood MD
Abstract The quality of breast healthcare delivery and the ultimate clinical outcome for patients with breast cancer are directly related to the quality of breast pathology practices within the healthcare system. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) held its third Global Summit in Budapest, Hungary from October 1 to 4, 2007, bringing together internationally recognized experts to address the implementation of breast healthcare guidelines for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low-income and middle-income countries (LMCs). From this group, a subgroup of experts met to address the specific needs and concerns related to breast pathology program implementation in LMCs. Specific recommendations were made by the group and process indicators identified in the areas of personnel and training, cytology and histopathology interpretation, accuracy of pathology interpretation, pathology reporting, tumor staging, causes of diagnostic errors, use of immunohistochemical markers, and special requirements to facilitate breast conservation therapy. The group agreed that the financial burden of establishing and maintaining breast pathology services is counterbalanced by the cost savings from decreased adverse effects and excessive use of treatment resources that result from incorrect or incomplete pathologic diagnosis. Proper training in breast pathology for pathologists and laboratory technicians is critical and provides the underpinnings of programmatic success for any country at any level of economic wealth. Cancer 2008;113(8 suppl):2297,304. 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


Breast radiation therapy guideline implementation in low- and middle-income countries,

CANCER, Issue S8 2008
Nuran Senel Bese MD
Abstract Radiation therapy plays a critical role in the management of breast cancer and often is unavailable to patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). There is a need to provide appropriate equipment and to improve the techniques of administration, quality assurance, and use of resources for radiation therapy in LMCs. Although the linear accelerator is the preferred equipment, telecobalt machines may be considered as an acceptable alternative in LMCs. Applying safe and effective treatment also requires well trained staff, support systems, geographic accessibility, and the initiation and completion of treatment without undue delay. In early-stage breast cancer, standard treatment includes the irradiation of the entire breast with an additional boost to the tumor site and should be delivered after treatment planning with at least 2-dimensional imaging. Although postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has demonstrated local control and overall survival advantages in all patients with axillary lymph node metastases, preference in limited resource settings could be reserved for patients who have ,4 positive lymph nodes. The long-term risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality require special attention to the volume of heart and lungs exposed. Alternative treatment schedules like hypofractionated radiation and partial breast irradiation currently are investigational. Radiation therapy is an integral component for patients with locally advanced breast cancer after initial systemic treatment and surgery. For patients with distant metastases, radiation is an effective tool for palliation, especially for bone, brain, and soft tissue metastases. The implementation of quality-assurance programs applied to equipment, the planning process, and radiation treatment delivery must be instituted in all radiation therapy centers. Cancer 2008;113(8 suppl):2305,14. 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


Guideline Implementation Research: Exploring the Gap between Evidence and Practice in the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2007
Andra L. Blomkalns MD
Translating research results into routine clinical practice remains difficult. Guidelines, such as the 2002 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Unstable Angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, have been developed to provide a streamlined, evidence-based approach to patient care that is of high quality and is reproducible. The Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress ADverse Outcomes with Early Implementation (CRUSADE) Quality Improvement Initiative was developed as a registry for non,ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes to track the use of guideline-based acute and discharge treatments for hospitalized patients, as well as outcomes associated with the use of these treatments. Care for more than 200,000 patients at more than 400 high-volume acute care hospitals in the United States was tracked in CRUSADE, with feedback provided to participating physicians and hospitals regarding their performance over time and compared with similar institutions. Such access to data has proved important in stimulating improvements in non,ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes care at participating hospitals for delivery of acute and discharge guideline-based therapy, as well as improving outcomes for patients. Providing quality improvement methods such as protocol order sets, continuing education programs, and a CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative toolbox serve to actively stimulate physician providers and institutions to improve care. The CRUSADE Initiative has also proven to be a fertile source of research in translation of treatment guidelines into routine care, resulting in more than 52 published articles and 86 abstracts presented at major emergency medicine and cardiology meetings. The cycle for research of guideline implementation demonstrated by CRUSADE includes four major steps,observation, intervention, investigation, and publication,that serve as the basis for evaluating the impact of any evidence-based guideline on patient care. Due to the success of CRUSADE, the American College of Cardiology combined the CRUSADE Initiative with the National Registry for Myocardial Infarction ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction program to form the National Cardiovascular Data Registry,Acute Coronary Treatment & Intervention Outcomes Network Registry beginning in January 2007. [source]