Guard Column (guard + column)

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Selected Abstracts

A simplified protein precipitation/mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction, followed by high-speed liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, for the determination of a basic drug in human plasma

Y.-J. Xue
A simplified protein precipitation/mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (PPT/SPE) procedure has been investigated. A mixture of acetonitrile and methanol along with formic acid was used to precipitate plasma proteins prior to selectively extracting the basic drug. After vortexing and centrifugation, the supernatants were directly loaded onto an unconditioned Oasis® MCX µElution 96-well extraction plate, where the protonated drug was retained on the negatively charged sorbent while interfering neutral lipids, steroids or other endogenous materials were washed away. Normal wash steps were deemed unnecessary and not used before sample elution. The sample extracts were analyzed under both conventional and high-speed liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) conditions to examine the feasibility of the PPT/SPE procedure for human plasma sample clean-up. For the conventional LC/MS/MS method, chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18, 2.1,×,50,mm column with gradient elution (k,,=,5.5). The mobile phase contained 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. For the high-speed LC/MS/MS method, chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18, 2.1,×,10,mm guard column with gradient elution (k,,=,2.2, Rt,=,0.26,min). The mobile phase contained 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.001% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile. Detection for both conventional and high-speed LC/MS/MS methods was by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a ThermoElectron Finnigan TSQ Quantum Ultra, where enhanced resolution (RP 2000; 0.2,amu) was used for high-speed LC/MS/MS. The standard curve, ranging from 0.5 to 100,ng/mL, was fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. This combined PPT/SPE procedure effectively eliminated time-consuming sorbent conditioning and wash steps, which are essential for a conventional mixed-mode SPE procedure, but retained the advantages of both PPT (removal of plasma proteins) and mixed-mode SPE (analyte selectivity). The validation results demonstrated that this PPT/SPE procedure was well suited for both conventional and high-speed LC/MS/MS analyses. In comparison with a conventional mixed-mode SPE procedure, the simplified PPT/SPE process provided comparable sample extract purity. This simple sample clean-up procedure can be applied to other basic compounds with minor modifications of PPT solvents. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On-line desalting and determination of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide in microdialysis and plasma samples using column switching and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

Jörgen Bengtsson
A sensitive and reproducible method for the determination of morphine and the metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) was developed. The method was validated for perfusion fluid used in microdialysis as well as for sheep and human plasma. A C18 guard column was used to desalt the samples before analytical separation on a ZIC HILIC (hydrophilic interaction chromatography) column and detection with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The mobile phases were 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) for desalting and acetonitrile/5,mM ammonium acetate (70:30) for separation. Microdialysis samples (5,µL) were directly injected onto the system. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) for morphine, M3G and M6G were 0.50, 0.22 and 0.55,ng/mL, respectively, and the method was linear from LLOQ to 200,ng/mL. For plasma, a volume of 100,µL was precipitated with acetonitrile containing internal standards (deuterated morphine and metabolites). The supernatant was evaporated and reconstituted in 0.05% TFA before the desalting process. The LLOQs for sheep plasma were 2.0 and 3.1,ng/mL and the ranges were 2.0,2000 and 3.1,3100,ng/mL for morphine and M3G, respectively. For human plasma, the LLOQs were 0.78, 1.49 and 0.53,ng/mL and the ranges were 0.78,500, 1.49,1000 and 0.53,500,ng/mL for morphine, M3G and M6G, respectively. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Application to routine analysis of a method to determine multiclass pesticide residues in fresh vegetables by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

J. L. Martķnez Vidal
The use of gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) applied to determine multiple pesticide residues in fresh vegetables has been thoroughly studied. A single injection method to detect, confirm and quantify 54 multiclass pesticides has been developed and applied in a routine analysis laboratory. The proposed method consists of a rapid extraction of 15,g of vegetable sample with dichloromethane. An additional clean-up step is not necessary even when injecting 10,µL of extract. Instead the gas chromatograph was fitted with a carbofrit inserted into the glass liner and a guard column. In addition, the detection mode chosen (MS/MS) provides additional selectivity. The method has been validated and applied to 1300 samples in a routine laboratory following specified quality criteria. The recovery efficiencies obtained for all the pesticides ranged between 70.2 and 110.8% at two different fortification levels. The relative standard deviation for quantification (RSD) was lower than 16.7% for all the compounds. Important experimental parameters, such as the conditioning of carbofrit, overload of the analytical column, and cleanliness of the ion trap, were evaluated for their influence on the performance of the method. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Simple and sensitive HPLC method for determination of amrubicin and amrubicinol in human plasma: application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study

Reiko Ando
Abstract A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for determination of amrubicin and its metabolite amrubicinol in human plasma. After protein precipitation with methanol without evaporation procedure, large volume samples were injected and separated by two monolithic columns with a guard column. The mobile phase consisted of tetrahydrofuran,dioxane,water (containing 2.3,mM acetic acid and 4,mM sodium 1-octanesulfonate; 2:6:15, v/v/v). Wavelengths of fluorescence detection were set at 480,nm for excitation and 550,nm for detection. Under these conditions, linearity was confirmed in the 2.5,5000,ng/mL concentration range of both compounds. The intra- and inter-day precision and intra- and inter-day accuracy for both compounds were less than 10%. The method was successfully applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study of amrubicin and amrubicinol in cancer patients. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of carnosic acid in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study

Haixia Yan
Abstract A sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection (UV) was developed for the determination of carnosic acid (CA) in rat plasma. After simple acidification and liquid,liquid extraction of plasma samples using gemfibrozil as an internal standard, the supernatant was evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was reconstituted in 200 µL before being injected into the chromatographic system. The analysis was performed on a C18 column protected by an ODS guard column using acetonitrile,0.1% phosphoric acid (55:45, v/v) as mobile phase, and the wavelength of the UV detector was set at 210 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.265,265.0 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The recovery for plasma samples of 0.530, 13.25, 132.5 and 265.0 µg/mL was 72.2, 87.9, 90.4 and 94.7%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations for the measurements of quality control samples were less than 3.1%. The stability of the plasma samples was also validated. This method was successfully used to study the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of CA in rats. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Determination of antiviral nucleoside analogues AM365 and AM188 in perfusate and bile of the isolated perfused rat liver using HPLC

Jiping Wang
Abstract Development, validation and application of an HPLC assay for new antiviral nucleoside analogues AM365 and AM188 in isolated perfused rat liver perfusate and bile were performed. An analytical column (Phenosphere-NEXT, 250 × 4.6 mm, C18, 4 µm, Phenomenex) was used in tandem with a guard column (4 × 3 mm, C18, Phenomenex) and operated at 25°C. The mobile phase [methanol:10 mmol/L sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.0), 15:85, v/v] was pumped at 1 mL/min. The signal from a diode array detector was collected from 190 to 300 nm. The chromatogram was processed at 220 and 252 nm for AM365 and AM188, respectively. The HPLC method was validated by six intraday and seven interday runs. Standard curves were linear in the range 0.125,8.00 µg/mL for AM365 and AM188, and the lower limit of quantification for AM365 and AM188 was 0.125 µg/mL. Mean interday precision and accuracy of IPL perfusate quality control samples were within 8.8%, and mean intraday precision and accuracy were within 13.1%. The assay has been successfully used in the study of metabolism and disposition of AM365 in the isolated perfused rat liver. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High-throughput determination of atrasentan in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Perry G. Wang
Abstract Atrasentan (A-147627) is an endothelin antagonist receptor being developed at Abbott Laboratories for the treatment of prostate cancer. A quick and sensitive method for the determination of atrasentan in human plasma has been developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A dual-column, single mass spectrometer system is used to provide a reliable and routine means to increase sample throughput. The analytical method involves liquid,liquid extraction and internal standard (A-166790). The plasma samples and internal standard are acidified with 0.3 m hydrochloric acid prior to being extracted into 1:1 (v[sol ]v) hexanes,methyl t -butyl ether. The organic extract was evaporated to dryness using heated nitrogen stream and reconstituted with mobile phase. Atrasentan and internal standard were separated with no interference in a Zorbax SB-C18 analytical column with 2.1 × 50 mm, 5 µm, and a Zorbax C8 guard column using a mobile phase consisting of 50:50 (v:v) acetonitrile,0.05 m ammonium acetate, pH 4.5, at a flow rate of 0.30 mL[sol ]min to provide 4 min chromatograms. For a 250 µL plasma sample volume, the limit of quantitation was approximately 0.3 ng[sol ]mL. The calibration was linear from 0.30 to 98.0 ng[sol ]mL (r2 > 0.995). A significant advantage of the method is the ability to employ parallel HPLC separations with detection by a single MS[sol ]MS system to provide sensitivity and selectivity sufficient to achieve robust analytical results with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.30 ng[sol ]mL and high throughput. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An HPLC-MS method for simultaneous estimation of ,,, -arteether and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, in rat plasma for application to pharmacokinetic study

M. Rajanikanth
Abstract This manuscript reports, the development and validation of a sensitive and selective assay method for simultaneous determination of ,,, -arteether and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in rat plasma by liquid chromatography,mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separations were achieved by gradient elution of the analytes with an initial composition of methanol,potassium acetate buffer (pH 4; 73:27, v/v) to 100% methanol in 3 min and maintained for 5 min on a Spheri-10, RP18 (100 × 4.6 mm i.d.) column following an RP18 (30 × 4.6 mm i.d.) guard column. The total ef,uent from the column was split so that one-tenth was injected into the electrospray LC/MS interface. ESI-MS analysis was performed using a Micromass Quattro II Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source. The MS analysis was carried out at cone voltage of 22 V with a scan range of 200,500 Da. The analytes were quanti,ed from the [M+ K]+ ion chromatograms of ,,, -arteether at m/z 352, DHA at m/z 323, artemisinin at m/z 321 and propyl ether analogue of arteether at m/z 365. Liquid,liquid extractions with a combination of n -hexane and hexane,ethyl acetate (8:2) were used to isolate ,,, -arteether and DHA from rat plasma. The method was validated and gave good accuracy and precision for the studied domain. Linearity in serum was observed over the range 4.375,70 ng/mL for a -arteether and 10,160 ng/mL for , -arteether and DHA. Percentage bias (accuracy) and within- and between-assay precision were well within the acceptable range. This method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics following oral administration of ,,, -arteether (30 mg/kg) in rats. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]