Group IV (group + iv)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Evaluation of tooth-fragment reattachment: a clinical and laboratory study

DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Yucel Yilmaz
Materials and Methods:, The clinical study was conducted on 43 fractured incisors: 22 uncomplicated crown fractures (Group A) and 21 complicated crown fractures (Group B). The 43 incisal fragments: 23 were kept dry for 47 h and 20 were kept wet for 24 h by the patients before they were reattached. The fragments were kept in 0.9% saline solution for 30 min before reattachment. The fragments in Group A were reattached using a dentin bonding agent, a flowable and a hybrid resin composite, whereas the fragments in Group B were reattached to the tooth remnant after a pulpotomy was performed. The laboratory study was conducted on 56 extracted incisors. Teeth were divided equally into four groups: Group I , Uncomplicated crown fracture + wet medium; Group II , Uncomplicated crown fracture + dry medium; Group III , Complicated crown fracture + wet medium, and Group IV , Complicated crown fracture + dry medium. The fragments were then reattached in a manner that was similar to that used in the clinical study. The restored teeth were then re-fractured. All data were analyzed statistically. Results: In the clinical study, the restored teeth were followed up for 2 years. Neither the type of trauma nor the storage medium had any significant effect on the survival, color, and bond strength of the restored teeth when assessed in the clinical and laboratory study. The color disharmony that was encountered initially in restored teeth resolved significantly on its own accord within 12 months after reattachment of the fragment. Conclusion: Fragment reattachment can be used to treat fractured teeth successfully in children and adolescents. [source]


Evaluation of fracture resistance in simulated immature teeth using resilon and ribbond as root reinforcements , An in vitro study

DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Hiremath Hemalatha
Material and Methods:, Sixty five freshly extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared with a Peeso no. 6 to simulate immature teeth (Cvek's stage 3 root development). After instrumentation, each root was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and with ethylene diamino tetra acetic acid to remove the smear layer. To simulate single visit apexification technique a 4,5 mm white Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate plug was placed apically using schilder carrier. The teeth were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. Group I , control group (root canals instrumented but not filled); Group II , backfilled with thermoplastisized gutta-percha using AH plus sealer; Group III , reinforced with Resilon using epiphany sealer; Group IV , reinforced with Ribbond fibers using Panavia F luting cement. A Universal Testing Machine was used to apply a load, at the level of the lingual cementoenamel junction with a chisel-shaped tip The peak load to fracture was recorded and statistical analysis was completed using student's t -test. Results:, Values of peak load to fracture were 1320.8, 1604.88, 1620, and 1851newtons for Group I to Group IV respectively. The results of student's t -test, revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05,) between Group II and Group III. Comparison between Group IV and Group III and between Group IV and Group II revealed highly significant difference (P > 0.001). Conclusions:, Teeth reinforced with Ribbond fibers using Panavia F luting cement showed the highest resistance to fracture. Resilon could not strengthen the roots and showed no statistically significant difference when compared with thermopasticised gutta-percha in reinforcing immature tooth when tested with universal testing machine in an experimental model of immature tooth. [source]


Modified Class II open sandwich restorations: evaluation of interfacial adaptation and influence of different restorative techniques

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2002
Ingrid E. Andersson-Wenckert
The sandwich technique with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) has been proposed to relieve the contraction stresses of direct resin composite (RC) restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial adaptation to enamel and dentin of modified Class II open RMGIC/RC sandwich restorations and the influence of different light curing techniques and matrix bands. Forty box-shaped Class II fillings were placed in vivo in premolars scheduled for extraction after one month. In groups I and II, a metal matrix was used; RC was inserted with horizontal (group I) and diagonal (group II) increments and cured with indirect/direct light. Group III was performed as group II, but a transparent matrix was used. Group IV was as group II, but with a separating liner between RMGIC and RC. Group V was a closed sandwich restoration. Interfacial quality was studied using SEM replica technique. Gap-free interfacial adaptation to enamel was observed for RMGIC in 70%, for RC in 70% and to dentin for RMGIC in 81%, for RC in 56%. No significant differences were seen between the experimental groups. At the cervical margins, RMGIC showed significantly better adaptation to enamel than RC, 74% and 42%, respectively. In conclusion, the investigated restorations showed a high percentage of gap-free interfacial adaptation in vivo. Interfacial adaptation to dentin and to cervical enamel was significantly better for RMGIC than for RC. [source]


Classification and sequelae of arrested eruption of primary molars

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 1 2008
INGER KJÆR
Aim., The aim of this study was to classify early arrested eruption of primary molars and to analyse and explain the sequelae for the surrounding alveolar bone and the succeeding premolar. Design., The position of the arrested primary molars in the mandible, the height of the local alveolar bone, and the morphology and location of the succeeding premolar were evaluated on radiographs from 29 children. Results., Four groups of arrest from mild to severe with regards to infra-position were categorized (Groups I,IV). Mean ages at the time of referral decreased from Groups I (8 years, 10 months) to Group IV (5 years, 9 months). Sequelae., (i) Reduction of alveolar bone height (Groups I,III); (ii) delayed maturity of the succeeding premolar (two-thirds of the cases); (iii) malformation of the succeeding premolar (mainly Groups III and IV); and (iv) ectopically located premolar occlusal to the retained molar (Group IV). Conclusions., The deeper in the alveolar process a primary molar is retained, the earlier the disturbance in the eruption has occurred, and the greater is the risk of the permanent tooth germ being malformed and malpositioned. It is estimated that the earliest occurrences of arrested eruption of primary molars supposedly occur before the age of 3. [source]


Untersuchungen zur prophylaktischen Wirkung der Verfütterung eines Probiotikums und von erregerspezifischen Kolostrum- und Dotterantikörpern bei neugeborenen Kälbern

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 3-4 2000
M. H. Von Erhard
Studies on the prophylactic effect of feeding probiotics, pathogen-specific colostrum antibodies or egg yolk antibodies in newborn calves The prophylactic efficacy of feeding probiotics, specific egg yolk antibodies and specific colostrum antibodies on neonatal diarrhoea was investigated in a field trial with calves, grouped (n = 39/40 per group) according to the following treatments: Group I: feeding no additive; Group II: feeding probiotics (5 g powder/day with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi); Group III: feeding egg powder (10 g/day with specific egg yolk antibodies against rotavirus, coronavirus and Escherichia coli F5); Group IV: feeding colostrum antibodies (10 ml/day containing 1 g bovine immunoglobulins with specific antibodies against rotavirus, coronavirus and E. coli antigens); Group V: feeding egg powder together with probiotics (according to group II and III). The additives were given twice daily with the meal from day 2 to day 14 post-natum. The presence of infectious agents was proved in fecal samples of all calves. Intestinal infections with rotavirus (30.8% of the calves) predominated compared to those with coronavirus (7.1%), E. coli F5 (1.5%) and cryptosporidia (24.2%). In contrast to earlier studies, the manifestation of diarrhoea did not differ significantly between the five groups. Only the growth rate of the calves between day 2 and day 14 of life as a measure of their welfare showed treatmentFspecific differences. The control group (I) showed the lowest body weight gain of about 5.8 kg (SD 5.0), whereas in the treated groups it averaged 6.3 kg (SD 4.1, p = 0,60; group II), 6.8 kg (SD 4.3, p = 0.36; group III), 6.9 kg (SD 4.7, p = 0.61; group IV) and 7.7 kg (SD 4.9, p = 0.08; group V). Considering only the rotavirus-positive calves the body weight gain of the control group (I) was 3.5 kg (SD 4.8) and of the treated groups was 3.8 kg (SD 3.3, p = 0.65; II), 5.0 kg (SD 3.5, p = 0.54; III), 6.6 kg (SD 4.5, p = 0.05; IV) and 6.1 kg (SD 5.0, p = 0.13; V). Obviously, the feeding of antibodies from colostrum or from egg powder does increase the mean body weight gain. The feeding of probiotics alone has nearly no effect. However, in the combination with specific egg antibodies probiotics seem to have a synergistic effect. In serum from the 198 newborn calves the IgG concentration averaged 4.9 mg/ml serum (SD 3.3). From 93 dams of these calves a sample of the first colostrum could be obtained showing a mean IgG concentration of 22.0 mg/ml (SD 11.0). IgG levels in the colostrum and in the serum have been positively correlated (r = 0.37, p < 0.05). Calves with a high intensity of diarrhoea had a significantly (p = 0.01) lower mean IgG serum level (3.7 mg/ml; n = 36; SD 2.5) than calves without diarrhoea (5.6 mg/ml; n = 75; SD 4.0). In Rahmen eines Feldversuches wurde die prophylaktische Wirksamkeit verschiedener Futteradditiva (Probiotikum, spezifische Dotterantikörper, spezifische Kolostrumantikörper) bei der neonatalen Kälberdiarrhoe untersucht. Dazu wurden die Kälber entsprechend der Behandlung in folgende fünf Gruppen (je n = 39/40) eingeteilt: I: Keine Futterzusatzstoffe, II: Verfütterung eines Probiotikums (5 g Pulver/Tag mit Bacillus cereus var. toyoi), III: Verfütterung von Eipulver (10 g/Tag mit spezifischen Dotterantikörpern gegen Rotaviren, Coronaviren und E. coli F5), IV: Verfütterung von Kolostrumantikörpern (10 ml/Tag mit 1 g bovinen Immunglobulin mit spezifischen Antikörpern gegen Rotaviren, Coronaviren und Escherichia coli Antigene), V: Verfütterung von Eipulver zusammen mit einem Probiotikum (analog den Gruppen II und III). Die Prophylaktika wurden zwei Mal täglich vom 2. bis zum 14. Lebenstag mit der Tränke verabreicht. Bei allen Kälbern wurde ein Erregernachweis im Kot geführt. Rotaviren (30,8%) konnten im Vergleich zu Coronaviren (7,1%), E. coli F5 (1,5%) und Kryptosporidien (24,2%) häufiger nachgewiesen werden. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Studien konnten hinsichtlich des Durchfallgeschehens keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen festgestellt werden. Nur die Körperge wichtszunahme der Kälber zwischen 2. und 14. Lebenstag zeigte behandlungsspezifische Unterschiede. Die Kontrollgruppe (I) verbuchte mit 5,8 kg (SD 5,0) die niedrigste Körpergewichtszunahme. Verglichen damit lag die Zunahme der behandelten Gruppen bei 6,3 (SD 4,1; p = 0,60; Gruppe II), 6,8 kg (SD 4,3; p = 0,36; Gruppe III), 6,9 kg (SD 4,7, p = 0,61; Gruppe IV) und bei 7,7 kg (SD 4,9, p = 0,08; Gruppe V). Bei Rotavirus-positiven Kälbern war eine Körpergewichtszunahme von 3,5 kg (SD 4,8; Kontrollgruppe), 3,8 kg (SD 3,3, p = 0,65; Gruppe II), 5,0 kg (SD 3,5, p = 0,54; Gruppe III), 6,6 kg (SD 4,5, p = 0,05; Gruppe IV) und von 6,1 kg (SD 5.0, p = 0,13; Gruppe V) zu verzeichnen. Offensichtlich verhindert die prophylaktische Verfütterung von Kolostrum- oder Dotterantikörpern eine infektionsbedingte Verminderung der Körpergewichtszunahme. Die Applikation des Probiotikums alleine zeigte keinen vergleichbaren Effekt. Allerdings ist eine synergistische Wirkung in Kombination mit Antikörpern nicht auszuschließen. In den Seren der 198 neugeborenen Kälber wurde eine mittlere Immunglobulin G (IgG)-Konzentration von 4,9 mg/ml (SD 3,3) gemessen. Von 93 Muttertieren dieser Kälber konnte das Erstgemelk genommen werden, das eine mittlere IgG-Konzentration von 22,0 mg/ml (SD 11,0) aufwies. Die IgG-Gehalte in den Kolostrumproben und den Kälberseren zeigten eine Korrelation von r = 0,37 (p < 0,05). Kälber mit hochgradigem Durchfall hatten mit 3,7 mg/ml Serum (n = 36, SD 2,5) einen signifikant niedrigeren mittleren IgG-Wert als Kälber ohne Durchfall (5,6 mg/ml, n = 75, SD 4,0). [source]


Relationship between renal anemia and prognostic stages of IgA nephropathy

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LABORATORY ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2005
Seiki Aruga
Abstract In 2002, the Joint Committee of the Special Study Group on Progressive Glomerular Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan newly revised the clinical guidelines for IgA nephropathy (Sakai et al.: Jpn J Nephrol 37:417,421, 1995; Tomino and Sakai: Clin Exp Nephrol, 7, 93,97, 2003). The prognostic stages were classified into four groups: the good prognosis group (Group I), relatively good prognosis group (Group II), relatively poor prognosis group (Group III), and poor prognosis group (Group IV). The relationship between the levels of Hb, Ht, and RBC in peripheral blood and the renal prognostic stages was determined in 62 patients with IgA nephropathy in the present study. The mean levels of Hb, Ht, and RBC were significantly lower in Group IV than in Group I (P<0.05). However, there were no significant changes in the levels of serum creatinine (s-Cr) or creatinine clearance (CCr) among these four groups. It appears that the levels of Hb, Ht, and RBC in peripheral blood may be important clinical parameters for the evaluation of prognostic stages in patients with IgA nephropathy. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 19:80,83, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


IL-1, and PGE2 levels are increased in the saliva of children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis

JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE, Issue 9 2008
Virginia F. Preliasco
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder mainly of children, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. Some studies have demonstrated that LCH lesions produce different cytokines abnormally that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in saliva from children with different clinical subtypes of LCH. We studied 29 children with LCH: seven unifocal (Group I), seven multifocal (Group II), 15 multisystemic (Group III) and 12 healthy volunteers (Group IV). Salivary IL-1, and PGE2 levels were significantly higher in LCH than in normal children. A multi-comparison test showed significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of both IL-1, and PGE2 in saliva from Group III compared with Groups II and I. A significant correlation (r = 0.05) between IL-1, and PGE2 concentrations in saliva from each group was determined. Our findings demonstrated an association between high concentrations of salivary IL-1, and PGE2 and advanced stages of the disease. This allows us to suggest that the abnormal amount of these factors in saliva may serve as a risk marker for disease progression. [source]


Neurophysiological and biomechanical characterization of goat cervical facet joint capsules

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
Ying Lu
Abstract Cervical facet joints have been implicated as a major source of pain after whiplash injury. We sought to identify facet joint capsule receptors in the cervical spine and quantify their responses to capsular deformation. The response of mechanosensitive afferents in C5,C6 facet joint capsules to craniocaudal stretch (0.5 mm/s) was examined in anaesthetized adult goats. Capsular afferents were characterized into Group III and IV based on their conduction velocity. Two-dimensional strains across the capsules during stretch were obtained by a stereoimaging technique and finite element modeling. 17 (53%) Group III and 14 (56%) Group IV afferents were identified with low strain thresholds of 0.107 ± 0.033 and 0.100 ± 0.046. A subpopulation of low-strain-threshold afferents had discharge rate saturation at the strains of 0.388 ± 0.121 (n = 9, Group III) and 0.341 ± 0.159 (n = 9, Group IV). Two (8%) Group IV units responded only to high strains (0.460 ± 0.170). 15 (47%) Group III and 9 (36%) Group IV units could not be excited even by noxious capsular stretch. Simple linear regressions were conducted with capsular load and principal strain as independent variables and neural response of low-strain-threshold afferents as the dependent variable. Correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.73 ± 0.11 with load, and 0.82 ± 0.12 with principal strain. The stiffness of the C5,C6 capsules was 16.8 ± 11.4 N/mm. Our results indicate that sensory receptors in cervical facet joint capsules are not only capable of signaling a graded physiological mechanical stimulus, but may also elieit pain sensation under excessive deformation. © 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


Standardized T2* map of normal human heart in vivo to correct T2* segmental artefacts

NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 6 2007
Vincenzo Positano
Abstract A segmental, multislice, multi-echo T2* MRI approach could be useful in heart iron-overloaded patients to account for heterogeneous iron distribution, demonstrated by histological studies. However, segmental T2* assessment in heart can be affected by the presence of geometrical and susceptibility artefacts, which can act on different segments in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess T2* value distribution in the left ventricle and to develop a correction procedure to compensate for artefactual variations in segmental analysis. MRI was performed in four groups of 22 subjects each: healthy subjects (I), controls (II) (thalassemia intermedia patients without iron overload), thalassemia major patients with mild (III) and heavy (IV) iron overload. Three short-axis views (basal, median, and apical) of the left ventricle were obtained and analyzed using custom-written, previously validated software. The myocardium was automatically segmented into a 16-segment standardized heart model, and the mean T2* value for each segment was calculated. Punctual distribution of T2* over the myocardium was assessed, and T2* inhomogeneity maps for the three slices were obtained. In group I, no significant variation in the mean T2* among slices was found. T2* showed a characteristic circumferential variation in all three slices. The effect of susceptibility differences induced by cardiac veins was evident, together with low-scale variations induced by geometrical artefacts. Using the mean segmental deviations as correction factors, an artefact correction map was developed and used to normalize segmental data. The correction procedure was validated on group II. Group IV showed no significant presence of segmental artefacts, confirming the hypothesis that susceptibility artefacts are additive in nature and become negligible for high levels of iron overload. Group III showed a greater variability with respect to normal subjects. The correction map failed to compensate for these variations if both additive and percentage-based corrections were applied. This may reinforce the hypothesis that true inhomogeneity in iron deposition exists. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Predictive factors of invasion in eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated after eye salvage treatments

PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 3 2009
Julia Balaguer MD
Abstract Background The impact of chemotherapy, focal therapies, radiation and co-existing ocular morbidities on histology of eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated following chemoreduction is not well known. Procedure Twenty-five eyes (23 patients) with retinoblastoma enucleated after failing eye-salvage therapy were evaluated. Reasons for enucleation (tumor progression, subretinal or vitreous seeds) and co-morbid conditions (neovascular glaucoma, cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment) were documented. All specimens were reviewed for evidence of ciliary body, choroidal, optic nerve, and scleral invasion. Results The median age at diagnosis was 14 months (range, 1,37 months). Twenty eyes were classified as Reese-Ellsworth Group IV,V at diagnosis. Twenty-four eyes had recurrent disease at enucleation; one eye was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage. Co-existing ocular morbidities at enucleation included vitreous hemorrhage (n,=,6), retinal detachment (n,=,9), neovascular glaucoma (n,=,9) and cataracts (n,=,3). Histologic findings included choroidal invasion (n,=,7), ciliary body invasion (n,=,4), optic nerve invasion (n,=,6) and scleral invasion (n,=,3). The median time from diagnosis to enucleation was 11 months. Co-existing retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage significantly increased the likelihood of optic nerve invasion (P,=,0.014 and P,=,0.011, respectively). Prolonged time to enucleation was significantly associated with the likelihood of choroidal (P,=,0.010) and ciliary body (P,=,0.021) invasion as well as invasion of multiple sites. Conclusion In eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated after chemoreduction, co-existing ocular morbidities and time to enucleation are predictive of extra-retinal extension. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;52:351,356. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Effects of meconium aspiration in isolated perfused rat lungs

PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
Wlodzimierz M. Wisniewski MD
Abstract Our objective was to study meconium-induced lung injury in isolated perfused rat lungs exposed to anoxia. Our working hypothesis was that meconium-induced lung injury is independent of preexisting hypoxia, and that hypoxia will increase severity of lung injury observed after meconium aspiration. We comparde five different groups of animals (n,=,5) for pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), weight lung changes, and TNF, expression. Group I had lungs instilled with 4 ml of normal saline. Group II had lungs exposed to 5 min of anoxia. Group III had lungs instilled with 4 ml of 30% filtered human meconium. Group IV had lungs exposed to 5 min of anoxia and then instilled with 4 ml of 30% filtered human meconium. Group V had lungs instilled with 4 ml of 30% unfiltered human meconium. Our subjects were adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The isolated rat lung model was prepared according to Levey and Gast (J Appl Physiol 1966;21:313,316). Lungs were ventilated with room air. Anoxia was caused by the use of N2. The pulmonary artery was cannulated, and pulmonary arterial pressure and lung weight were measured. Lung weight and pulmonary arterial pressure were monitored for 120 min, and TNF, levels were measured in effluent at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. Experiments were done at the Michael Reese Hospital (Chicago, IL). At the end of the experiment, PAP reached its highest values in group V (10.0,±,1.7 mmHg). Final PAPs in groups I,IV were: 4.85,±,0.3, 4.99,±,0.4, 5.93,±,0.3, and 7.25,±,0.51 mmHg, respectively). Lung wet weight increased significantly only in groups IV and V vs. group I; at 120 min, they were: 0.96,±,0.3 g, P,<,0.01, and 1.5 g,±,0.2 g, P,<,0.01, respectively. TNF, levels did not change significantly over time in group I. TNF, is a marker as well as proprietor of pulmonary inflammatory response. TNF, reached its highest levels in groups IV and V: 595 and 753 pg/ml at 120 min, respectively. In conclusion, a short episode of anoxia prior to meconium aspiration may increase lung sensitivity to meconium-induced lung injury. This effect may be moderated by the TNF, present in the pulmonary circulation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005; 39:368,373. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Treatment with Adalimumab (Humira®) and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Improves Pregnancy Rates in Women Undergoing IVF,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Edward E. Winger
Problem, The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treatment with TNF-, inhibitors and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) increases in vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates among young (<38 years) women with infertility and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine elevation. Method of study, Seventy-five sub-fertile women with Th1/Th2 cytokine elevation were divided into four groups: Group I: Forty-one patients using both IVIG and Adalimumab (Humira®), Group II: Twenty-three patients using IVIG, Group III: Six patients using Humira®, and Group IV: Five patients using no IVIG or Humira®. Results, The implantation rate (number of gestational sacs per embryo transferred, with an average of two embryos transferred by cycle) was 59% (50/85), 47% (21/45), 31% (4/13) and 0% (0/9) for groups I, II, III and IV respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate (fetal heart activity per IVF cycle started) was 80% (33/41), 57% (13/23), 50% (3/6) and 0% (0/5) and the live birth rate was 73% (30/41), 52% (12/23), 50% (3/6) and 0% (0/5) respectively. There was a significant improvement in implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates for group I versus group IV (P = 0.0007, 0.0009, and 0.003, respectively) and for group II versus group IV (P = 0.009, 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). Conclusion, The use of a TNF-, inhibitor and IVIG significantly improves IVF outcome in young infertile women with Th1/Th2 cytokine elevation. [source]


The effect of dilution and prolonged injection time on fentanyl-induced coughing,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 9 2007
H. Yu
Summary This study was designed to evaluate the effect of diluting fentanyl 50 ,g.ml,1 to 25 or 10 ,g.ml,1 with 0.9% saline and prolonged injection time on fentanyl-induced cough. Two hundred patients requiring general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into four groups: 50 ,g.ml,1 (Group I), 25 ,g.ml,1 (Group II), 10 ,g.ml,1 (Group III) or 10 ,g.ml,1 combined with prolonged injection (Group IV). Fentanyl 3 ,g.kg,1 was administered within 5 s in Groups I, II, and III, or over 30 s in Group IV. Occurrence of cough was significantly reduced in Group IV (2% vs 32%, 16% and 12% in Groups I, II and III, respectively, p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the severity of coughing between the four groups (p > 0.05). We conclude that dilution of fentanyl to 10 ,g.ml,1 with 0.9% saline combined with a prolonged injection time eliminates fentanyl-induced cough. [source]


Time-dependent Variations in Ischemia-modified Albumin Levels in Mesenteric Ischemia

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
Abdulkadir Gunduz MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine the value of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) in the diagnosis of mesenteric embolism. The authors investigated whether or not plasma IMA levels rose in the acute period in a rat model of mesenteric ischemia and the related time-dependent changes. Methods:, In this randomized, controlled, nonblinded trial, 36 mature female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: three control (Groups I, III, and V) and three ischemia (Groups II, IV, and VI). In the control groups, blood was sampled at 30 minutes (Group I), 2 hours (Group III), and 6 hours (Group V) following a simple laparotomy. In the ischemia groups, following laparotomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was clamped using a bulldog clamp, and blood samples were taken at 30 minutes (Group II), 2 hours (Group IV), and 6 hours (Group VI). Results:, Plasma IMA levels in the ischemia groups were significantly higher compared to those of the control groups (p < 0.004). In addition, levels were higher in the 6-hour blood samples of the ischemia group than in the 2-hour and 30-minute samples (p < 0.001). Serum IMA was also higher in the 2-hour blood samples of the ischemia group than in the 30-minute samples (p < 0.001). Conclusions:, These preliminary findings suggest that serum IMA levels may represent a significant parameter in the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and that further studies are necessary. [source]


Coronal sealing ability of three sectional obturation techniques , SimpliFill, Thermafil and warm vertical compaction , compared with cold lateral condensation and post space preparation

AUSTRALIAN ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
Velayutham Gopikrishna mds
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect post space preparation has on the coronal seal of root canals obturated with cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha compared with the corsonal sealing ability of three sectional obturation techniques not requiring post space preparation. Sixty-eight human maxillary central incisors were divided equally into four groups: cold lateral condensation (Group I), SimpliFill (Group II), Thermafil (Group III) and warm vertical compaction (Group IV). After coronal flaring, all four groups were cleaned and shaped with Lightspeed rotary instruments to a size 60 master apical rotary. After obturation Peeso Reamers were used to create a post space for Group I, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 incorporated the post space in the obturation (sectional technique) and did not require making a post space after obturation. The teeth were then stored in 100% humidity for 1 week and then kept in rhodamine B fluorescent dye for 3 weeks. The teeth were then split open, and the linear dye penetration from a coronal to apical direction (coronal seal) was evaluated with a fluorescent light microscope. Statistical analysis showed that Group I (cold lateral condensation followed by post space made with Peeso Reamers) leaked significantly more (P < 0.05) than the remaining three sectional obturation groups. It was concluded that stresses generated during post space preparation might be detrimental to the seal obtained by the obturation. Sectional obturations with their superior sealing ability offer a viable alternative. [source]


Lack of a co-promotion effect of 60,Hz circularly polarized magnetic fields on spontaneous development of lymphoma in AKR mice

BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, Issue 2 2010
Moon-Koo Chung
Abstract The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effect of 60,Hz circularly polarized magnetic fields (MFs) as promoters of genetically initiated lymphoma in AKR mice. One hundred sixty female animals were divided into four different groups. They were exposed to four different intensities of circularly polarized MFs. Animals received exposure to 60,Hz circularly polarized MF at field strengths (rms-value) of 0,µT (sham control, T1, Group I), 5,µT(T2, Group II), 83.3,µT (T3, Group III), or 500,µT(T4, Group IV), for 21,h/day from the age of 4,6 weeks to the age of 44,46 weeks. There were no exposure-related changes in mean survival time, clinical signs, body weights, hematological values, micronucleus assay, gene expression arrays, analysis of apoptosis, and necropsy findings. At histopathological examination, lymphoma was seen in all the groups. The tumor incidence was 31/40(78%), 30/40(75%), 32/40(80%), and 31/40(78%) in sham control, 5, 83.3, and 500,µT groups, respectively. However, there were no differences in the tumor incidence between the sham control (T1) and circularly polarized MF exposure groups (T2,T4). In conclusion, there was no evidence that exposure to 60,Hz circularly polarized MF strengths up to 500,µT promoted lymphoma in AKR mice. Bioelectromagnetics 31:130,139, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Synthesis of Early-Transition-Metal Carbide and Nitride Nanoparticles through the Urea Route and Their Use as Alkylation Catalysts

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 44 2009
Weitang Yao Dr.
Abstract The use of urea as either a carbon or a nitrogen source enabled the synthesis of various early-transition-metal nitride and carbide nanoparticles (TiN, NbN, Mo2N, W2N, NbCxN1,x, Mo2C and WC). The ability of these particles to promote alkylation reactions with alcohols was tested on benzyl alcohol and acetophenone at 150,°C for 20,h in xylene. Group IV and V ceramics proved to be able to catalyse the formation of 1,3-diphenyl propenone, whereas group VI ceramics showed a tendency to promote the Friedel,Crafts-type reaction of benzyl alcohol on xylene (the solvent). TiN featured the highest activity for the alkylation of ketones and was further tested for more difficult alkylations. Group VI ceramics were further investigated as catalysts for the Friedel,Crafts-type alkylation of aromatics with activated alcohols. Interestingly, even hexanol could be effectively used for these reactions. [source]


A Restoratively Driven Ridge Categorization, as Determined by Incorporating Ideal Restorative Positions on Radiographic Templates Utilizing Computed Tomography Scan Analysis

CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH, Issue 4 2009
Nicolas Elian DDS
ABSTRACT Background: The introduction of implants into the field of dentistry has revolutionized the way we evaluate edentulous ridges. In an attempt to evaluate the deficient edentulous ridge, numerous classification systems have been proposed. Each of these classification systems implements a different approach for evaluating and planning treatment for the ridge deficiency. Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to propose a restoratively driven ridge categorization (RDRC) for horizontal ridge deformities based on an ideal implant position as determined through implant simulation, utilizing computed tomography (CT) scan images. Materials and Methods: Radiographic templates were developed to capture the ideal restorative tooth position. Measurements were performed using CT scan software in a cross-sectional view and by virtual placement of a parallel-sided implant with a 3.25-mm diameter. Results: Edentulous ridges were divided into five groupings: Group I, simulated implants with at least 2 mm of facial bone, accounted for 19.4% of ridges; Group II, simulated implant completely surrounded by bone, with less than 2 mm of facial plate thickness, accounted for 10.4% of ridges; Group III, wherein dehiscences are detected but no fenestrations are present, accounted for 33.3% of ridges; Group IV, wherein fenestrations are detected but no dehiscence is present, accounted for 6.3% of ridges; and Group V, wherein both dehiscences and fenestrations are present, accounted for 30.6% of ridges. Conclusion: The use of RDRC indicates that a high number of cases in the maxillary anterior area would require augmentation procedures in order to achieve ideal implant placement and restoration. [source]


Gut content analysis and a new feeding group classification of termites

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
S. E. Donovan
Summary 1. Gut content analysis of termites was undertaken using microscopical techniques. The 46 study species covered the entire range of taxonomic and feeding forms within the Order. 2. Inter-specific gut contents data were analysed using principal components analysis, placing species along a clear humification gradient based on variations in the amount of silica and plant tissue fragments in the gut. 3. Redundancy analysis was used to find morphological correlates of the observed variation in gut contents. A total of 22 morphological characters (out of 45 candidate characters) were correlated significantly with the gut contents. 4. Three of the 22 significantly correlated characters unambiguously defined feeding groups, which were designated groups I to IV in increasing order of humification of the feeding substrate. Group I contains lower termite dead wood and grass-feeders; group II contains Termitidae with a range of feeding habits including dead wood, grass, leaf litter, and micro-epiphytes; group III contains Termitidae feeding in the organic rich upper layers of the soil; group IV contains the true soil-feeders (again all Termitidae), ingesting apparently mineral soil. These groupings were generally supported statistically in a canonical covariance analysis, although group II apparently represents termite species with a rather wide range of feeding habits. 5. Using existing hypotheses of termite phylogenetic relationships, it seems probable that group I feeders are phylogenetically basal, and that the other groupings have arisen independently on a number of occasions. Soil-feeding (i.e. group III and group IV feeding) may have evolved due to the co-option of faecal material as a fungal substrate by Macrotermitinae-like ancestral forms. As a consequence, these forms would have been constrained to build nest structures from soil and would therefore have passed at least some soil through their guts. [source]


Heteroduplex mobility assay for the identification of Listeria sp. and Listeria monocytogenes strains: application to characterisation of strains from sludge and food samples

FEMS IMMUNOLOGY & MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
N Garrec
Abstract One hundred and ten Listeria sp. isolates from sewage sludge were identified according to phenotypic and genotypic methods. The Listeria sp. strains isolated from five types of sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Angers (France) and the surrounding area included L. monocytogenes (55.5%), L. innocua (29.1%), L. seeligeri (13.6%) and L. welshimeri (1.8%). The majority of L. monocytogenes strains belonged to serotypes 4b, 1/2b and 1/2a. Moreover, a heteroduplex mobility assay based on the 16S rRNA sequences was tested for its ability to identify the six species of the genus Listeria. This study, performed on 283 Listeria sp. strains from human, food and sewage sludge samples, showed that all the species were distinguishable from one another. L. innocua and L. seeligeri showed respectively three and two distinct banding patterns. Within L. monocytogenes, four groups (I,IV) were defined. The majority of food and environmental isolates were clustered in group I and it is noteworthy that group IV clustered epidemiologic isolates and strains belonging to serotypes 4b, 1/2a and 1/2b. [source]


Genetic diversity of the hyperparasite Sphaerellopsis filum on Melampsora willow rusts

FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
M. Liesebach
Summary The non-specific rust hyperparasite Sphaerellopsis filum occurs naturally on Melampsora rusts of many species of the genus Salix as well as on a large range of other rust genera worldwide. To study the genetic diversity of the hyperparasitic fungus 77 S. filum isolates collected from rusts on willow clones from plantations, clone collections and natural habitats of different sites were investigated using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions including 5.8S rDNA and sequence analysis. Additionally, strains from Melampsora poplar rusts (4) and strains of Puccinia abrupta from Parthenium hysterophorus (5) and of P. obscura from Bellis perennis (1) were used for comparisons. Results of genetic analysis demonstrated distinct variation within the S. filum isolates. Two main groups with more than 32% difference between their nucleotide sequences were distinguished, indicating two taxa within S. filum. Within the first main group three profiles (I, II, III) were detected. The differences between these profiles were about 12%. The variation within each profile was very low (less than 2%). The second main group comprised two profiles (IV, V), which differed in 12 to 16% of their nucleotide positions. The isolates of group IV possessed a higher variation (up to 5%) within the group than those of the first main group (I, II, III). Group V was only represented by a single isolate. Neither interrelations between the S. filum profiles and the Melampsora genotypes nor a spatial distribution could be detected. It is remarkable that the six strains of S. filum from Puccinia rusts belong to one subgroup. Résumé Sphaerellopsis filum est un hyperparasite non spécifique des rouilles qui se rencontre naturellement sur les Melampsora affectant le genre Salix ainsi que sur une large gamme d'autres genres de rouille dans le monde entier. Pour caractériser la diversité de ce champignon hyperparasite, 77 isolats de S. filum, récoltés à partir de lésions de rouille sur des clones de plantation, des collections de clones et dans des sites naturels, ont étéétudiés par analyse PCR-RFLP des régions ITS de l'ADNr, incluant le 5.8S rDNA, et par analyse de séquences. Des souches provenant de Melampsora des peupliers (4), de Puccinia abrupta sur Parthenium hysterophorus (5) et de P. obscura sur Bellis perennis (1) ont également été utilisées pour comparaison. L'analyse génétique démontre une variation entre isolats de S. filum. Deux groupes principaux, avec plus de 32% de différence dans leur séquence nucléotidique, se distinguent, indiquant l'existence de deux taxons au sein de S. filum. A l'intérieur du premier groupe, trois profils (I, II, III) sont mis en évidence, avec une différence d'environ 12% entre profils mais très peu de variation (moins de 2%) à l'intérieur d'un profil. Le deuxième groupe comprend deux profils (IV, V) qui différent de 12 à 16% pour leur séquence nucléotidique. Les isolats du groupe IV présentent une variation intra-groupe plus importante (jusqu'à 5%) que ceux des groupes I, II et III. Le groupe V n'est représenté que par un isolat. Aucune relation n'a pu être établié entre les profils de S. filum et les génotypes de Melampsora ou la distribution spatiale. Il est à noter que les six isolats de S. filum provenant de rouilles àPuccinia appartiennent à un seul sous-groupe. Zusammenfassung Der Hyperparasit Sphaerellopsis filum kommt natürlich auf Melampsora -Rostpilzen bei Salicaceae und auf zahlreichen anderen Rostgattungen weltweit vor. Um die genetische Vielfalt dieses hyperparasitischen Pilzes zu untersuchen, wurden 77 S. filum -Proben, die von Weidenrosten in Plantagen, Klonsammlungen und von verschiedenen natürlichen Standorten stammen, isoliert. Die 5.8S-ITS-Abschnitte der rDNA wurden mit Hilfe der PCR-RFLP untersucht und Sequenzen analysiert. Zum Vergleich wurden vier Isolate von Pappelrosten sowie fünf Isolate von Puccinia abrupta von Parthenium hysterophorus und ein Isolat von Puccinia obscura von Bellis perennis herangezogen. Die Ergebnisse der genetischen Untersuchungen zeigten eine deutliche Variation zwischen den S. filum -Isolaten. Zwei Gruppen mit über 32% Unterschied in der Nukleotid-Sequenz ließen sich unterscheiden. Dies deutet auf zwei taxonomische Einheiten von Sphaerellopsis hin. Die erste Gruppe ließ sich in drei Untergruppen (I, II, III) einteilen, deren 5.8S-ITS-Profile im Mittel 12% Unterschied aufwiesen. Die Variation innerhalb dieser drei Profile war sehr gering (,2%). Die zweite Gruppe umfasste zwei Profile (IV, V), die sich an 12 bis 16% Positionen ihrer Nukleotid-Abfolge unterschieden. Die Variation innerhalb von Profil IV war höher (bis 5%) als die der Untergruppen I - III, Profil V war nur durch ein Isolat vertreten. Eine Beziehung des S. filum -Genotyps zum Melampsora -Genotyp der Weide oder der Pappel ließ sich bei dem untersuchten Material nicht nachweisen, ebenso konnte keine geographische Differenzierung gefunden werden. Auffällig ist, dass alle sechs Puccinia -Isolate einer Untergruppe angehörten. [source]


Population size, weight distribution and food in a persistent population of the rare medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
J. M. ELLIOTT
Summary 1. It is important for species recovery and conservation management projects to know the minimum viable population size for rare and endangered species, such as the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Therefore, using a catch-removal method, this study estimated every two years (1986, 1988, 1990, 1992) the total number of medicinal leeches in a tarn in the English Lake District, and the number of mature adults in the population. 2. Four samples were taken each year in June and July, when water temperatures exceeded 20 °C. Population size was estimated both by maximum likelihood and regression methods. All leeches were weighed alive and size groups were separated by polymodal frequency analysis. A small sample of the blood meal in each leech gut was taken before the leeches were returned to the tarn, and was used to estimate the proportion of mammalian and non-mammalian blood in the meals. 3. Both methods of estimation produced similar values, increasing confidence in the population estimates. Values for the total population in June and July varied among years from 248 to 288, the maximum value being only 16% higher than the minimum. Values for the number of mature leeches varied from 48 to 58 (19,20% of the total population), and this was an estimate of the effective population size. 4. There were four size groups. The largest mature leeches (live weight >5 g) in group IV formed only 1% of the population, and the smallest (0.02,0.5 g) in group I 14,17%. Most leeches were in two overlapping groups of immature (64,67% of population) and mature (18%) leeches with size ranges of 0.4,3.4 g and 2.5,5 g respectively. The percentage of leeches in each size group was very consistent among years. Blood meals were found in 38,44% of the leeches in group I, 45,50% in group II, 70,75% in group III, and 100% in group IV, but mammalian blood was present only in larger mature leeches (>3.5 g). 5. Medicinal leeches were first detected in the tarn in 1980 and are still present in 2007, so the population has persisted for at least 27 years. Compared with minimum viable population sizes for other species, including many endangered species, values for this medicinal leech population are extremely low, but may be typical of some rare freshwater invertebrates in isolated habitats. [source]


SEM evaluation of root canal debridement with Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation

INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 5 2010
M. I. Salman
Salman MI, Baumann MA, Hellmich M, Roggendorf MJ, Termaat S. SEM evaluation of root canal debridement with Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 363,369, 2010. Abstract Aim, To determine the efficacy of Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation for root canal cleaning. Methodology, Fifty human molar root canals were shaped with sequential NiTi rotary instruments up to size F3 (size 30, 0.09 taper; ProTaper system) and then enlarged apically with a Profile size 40, 0.04 taper. Five different irrigation protocols were tested (n = 10 canals per group) with 2 mL of distilled water (control, group I) or 2.5% NaOCl (control group II and test groups III, IV and V) between instrument size changes. Group III,IV received a final rinse with 17% EDTA for one min. This was extended by 30 s in group IV, whereas group V received this additional 30 s of 17% EDTA sonically dispersed with a Sonicare CanalBrush. For cleanliness evaluations, roots were split longitudinally, examined with scanning electron microscopy and scored according to Hülsmann et al. (1997) for debris and smear layer on the surface of the root canal wall. Walls were assessed at the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Data were analysed with the Kruskal,Wallis and Mann,Whitney tests. Results, Irrigation with 17% EDTA significantly reduced debris and smear layer scores (P < 0.05) compared to controls. The coronal and middle thirds had lower debris and smear layer scores than the apical third (P < 0.05). In all thirds, sonic agitation of the irrigant with a CanalBrush (group V) resulted in significantly cleaner canal walls compared to all other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions, Irrigation by agitation with the Sonicare CanalBrush improved root canal debridement in the coronal, middle and particularly the apical thirds of the root canal. [source]


Ex vivo study of the adhesion of an epoxy-based sealer to human dentine submitted to irradiation with Er : YAG and Nd : YAG lasers

INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 12 2005
M. D. Sousa-Neto
Abstract Aim, To evaluate the adhesion of an epoxy-based sealer to human dentine submitted to irradiation with Er : YAG or Nd : YAG laser at various parameters. Methodology, Ninety maxillary canine teeth were sectioned transversely at the cemento-enamel junction and at the root tip to leave an 8-mm-long cylinder. The tooth specimen was centred in a metallic ring (16 mm diameter and 8 mm height) and embedded in acrylic resin. The root canals were prepared using a low-speed handpiece and a conical diamond bur, which was attached to a paralleling device. This bur was lowered to a depth previously determined by a silicone stop. Specimens were divided into nine groups: group I, dentine was treated with 2 mL of 17% EDTAC for 5 min. Groups II,V were irradiated with Er : YAG laser at the following parameters: group II , 8 Hz and 200 mJ input (120 mJ output); group III , 8 Hz and 400 mJ input (240 mJ output); group IV , 16 Hz and 200 mJ input (120 mJ output); group V , 16 Hz and 400 mJ input (240 mJ output). Groups VI,IX were irradiated with Nd : YAG laser at the following parameters: group VI , 10 Hz and 1 W input (0.4 W output); group VII , 10 Hz and 2 W input (0.8 W output); group VIII , 15 Hz and 1 W input (0.4 W output); group IX , 15 Hz and 2 W input (0.8 W output). The root canals were filled with an epoxy-based root canal sealer and submitted to a push-out test. Results, Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.01) between Er : YAG and Nd : YAG laser treatments at the higher frequencies compared with 17% EDTAC. Greater adhesion values were obtained for groups IV and V (Er : YAG laser) and groups VIII and IX (Nd : YAG laser), which were statistically different from groups II and III (Er : YAG laser) and groups VI and VII (Nd : YAG laser). Treatment with only 17% EDTAC had the lowest adhesion values. Conclusions, An increase in frequency, independent of power settings, of the lasers used in this study increased adhesion of an epoxy-based root canal sealer. [source]


Effectiveness of different techniques for removing gutta-percha during retreatment

INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 1 2005
A. V. Masiero
Abstract Aim, To evaluate the effectiveness of various techniques for removing filling material from root canals in vitro. Methodology, Eighty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were selected for the study. The teeth were root filled using thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha. After 8 months, the filling material was removed and canals were reinstrumented using the following techniques: group I , hand instrumentation with K-type files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA); group II , K3 Endo System (SybronEndo); group III , M4 system (SybronEndo) with K-type files (SybronEndo); and group IV , Endo-gripper system (Moyco Union Broach, York, PA, USA) with K-type files (SybronEndo). The amount of filling debris remaining on root canal walls was assessed radiographically; the images were digitized and analysed using AutoCAD 2000 software. Total canal area, area of the cervical, middle and apical thirds, and area of remaining filling material were outlined by one operator. The ratios between these areas were calculated as percentages of remaining debris. Thereafter, data were analysed by means of one-way anova and the post-hoc Duncan test to identify differences between the four techniques. Results, Multiple comparisons of the percentages of remaining filling material in the entire canal did not reveal any significant differences between the methods of removal. However, when each third was analysed separately, significant differences for remaining debris were present between groups. The apical third had the most remaining material, whilst the cervical and middle thirds were significantly cleaner (P = 0.002). Comparison of the techniques revealed that teeth instrumented with K3 rotary instruments had a lower ratio of remaining filling material in the apical third (P = 0.012). Conclusion, In the apical third, K3 rotary instruments were more efficient in removing gutta-percha filling material than the other techniques, which were equally effective for the other thirds. [source]


Effect of different irrigation solutions and calcium hydroxide on bacterial LPS

INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 11 2003
J. M. G. Tanomaru
Abstract Aim, To evaluate the effect of biomechanical preparation with different irrigating solutions and calcium hydroxide dressing in dog root canals containing bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides; LPS). Methodology, One hundred and forty premolar roots from seven dogs were filled with Escherichia coli LPS for 10 days (three roots were lost during histological processing). The following irrigating solutions were used for biomechanical preparation: 1% (group I, n = 20), 2.5% (group II, n = 19) and 5% sodium hypochlorite (group III, n = 19), 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (group IV, n = 20) and physiological saline solution (group V, n = 19). In group VI (n = 20), the LPS solution was maintained in the root canal during the entire experiment and in group VII (n = 20), after biomechanical preparation with saline solution, the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen; control). After 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and the following parameters of periapical disease were evaluated: (a) inflammatory infiltrate, (b) periodontal ligament thickness, (c) cementum resorption and (d) bone resorption. Scores were given and data were analysed statistically with the Kruskal,Wallis and Dunn tests (P < 0.05). Results, Histopathological evaluation showed that groups I,VI had more inflammatory infiltrate, greater periodontal ligament thickening and greater cementum and bone resorption (P < 0.05) compared to group VII, which received the calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing. Conclusions, Biomechanical preparation with the irrigating solutions did not inactivate the effects of the endotoxin but the calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing did appear to inactivate the effects induced by the endotoxin in vivo. [source]


Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum of red deer during prenatal development

JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 3 2007
A. J. Masot
Abstract The red deer is well suited to scientific study, given its economic importance as an animal to be hunted, and because it has a rich genetic heritage. However, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants in general, and none for the red deer. For this reason, we undertook histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the abomasum in red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. The animals were divided for test purposes into five experimental groups: group I [1.4,3.6 cm crown,rump length (CRL); 30,60 days, 1,25% of gestation]; group II (4.5,7.2 cm CRL; 67,90 days, 25,35% of gestation); group III (8,19 cm CRL; 97,135 days, 35,50% of gestation); group IV (21,33 cm CRL; 142,191 days, 50,70% of gestation) group V (36,40 cm CRL; 205,235 days, 75,100% of gestation). In the organogenesis of the primitive gastric tube of red deer, differentiation of the abomasum took place at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: the epithelial layer (pseudostratified), pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The abomasal wall displayed the primitive folds of the abomasum and by 97 days abomasal peak areas were observed on the fold surface. At 135 days the abomasal surface showed a single mucous cylindrical epithelium, and gastric pits were observed in the spaces between abomasal areas. At the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands could be observed. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns similar to those described for the forestomach of red deer. The abomasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory capacity (as revealed by the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides) and its neuroendocrine nature (as revealed by the presence of positive non-neuronal enolase cells and the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y) were in line with the development of the rumen, reticulum and omasum. Gastrin-immunoreactive cells first appeared in the abomasum at 142 days, and the number of positive cells increased during development. As for the number of gastrin cells, plasma gastrin concentrations increased throughout prenatal life. However, its prenatal development was later than that of the abomasum in sheep, goat and cow. [source]


Genetic structure in Atlantic brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in the Iberian peninsula: evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS, Issue 3 2000
S. Dunner
Summary Brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) was sampled in rivers belonging to three different Spanish basins in order to analyse the distribution of genetic variability. The genetic analysis was performed by using two systems and techniques: nuclear DNA was screened through random amplified polymorphic DNAs (screening 2 × 105 bp of the whole genome), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) through sequencing of the hypervariable control region. Genetic distances between the populations were similar using either analysis although some differences arise. For example, some populations of the Tajo basin were very close through nuclear analysis but more distant using mtDNA. Differences between the two DNA sources could be the result of a different evolutionary rate, and the fact that mtDNA is maternally transmitted and differences in sex migration rates will influence the patterns of genetic variation between the transmitted DNAs. Total variation was partitioned using amova showing a clear subdivision among basins although intrapopulation variation remained as high as 62%. A correspondence analysis defined the differences in a three-dimensional way, clustering the populations according to their common basin. When mtDNA was sequenced, higher variability was noted in the segment between 400 and 600bp of the whole D-loop sequence, suggesting that these 200bp improved the analysis of the variability more than sequencing the t-RNA ends of the control region. A comparison was made between the t-RNAPro ends of the 10 populations screened here and the rest of the published sequences found in the literature, leading to a concentration of these populations in group IV which includes all trouts which originate in the Atlantic. The analyses performed suggest that a high genetic variability is present in all populations and that although there has been a probable interference from stocked strains introduced to increase population density, this was only detectable through the variance between rivers which reflect different policies according to the region where the basin is located. However, the genetic analysis using the two approaches allows the control of the natural populations avoiding a loss of their genetic potential. Zusammenfassung In drei verschiedenen spanischen Wassersystemen wurden Bachforellen (Salmo trutta L.) gesammelt, um die genetische Variabilität zu analysieren. Zur Analyse wurden zwei Systeme und zwei Techniken genutzt: Kern-DNA wurde mittels RAPD analysiert (2.105bp des Gesamtgenoms), mitochondriale DNA durch das Sequenzieren der hypervariablen Kontrollregion. Beide Techniken ergaben ähnliche genetische Distanzen zwischen den Populationen, obwohl Unterschiede bei Populationen aus dem Tajo-Gebiet auftraten, deren Kern-DNA eine sehr geringe Distanz aufwiesen, während die über Sequenzierung von mtDNA ermittelte Distanz auf größere Unterschiede hinwies. Diese Differenz könnte das Ergebnis unterschiedlicher Mutationsraten während der Evolution sein, oder auf dieTatsache zurückzuführen sein, daß mtDNA über die Mutterlinien weitergegeben wird, und Migrationsunterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern die Muster der genetischen Variation der weitergegebenen DNA-Stücke beeinflußt. Die Gesamtvarianz wurde mit Hilfe von AMOVA analysiert, wobei zwischen den Wassersystemen eine eindeutige Unterteilung festgestellt werden konnte, obwohl die Varianz innerhalb der Population bei 62% liegt. Eine Korrespondenzanalyse erklärt die Distanzen dreidimensional, wodurch die Populationen gleicher Herkunft in Cluster zusammenfallen. Bei der Sequenzierung von mtDNA wurde eine größere Variabilität im Sequenzbereich zwischen 400 und 600 bp der gesamten D-Loop Sequenz festgestellt, was darauf schließen läßt, daß diese 200 bp für eine Analyse der Variabilität geeigneter sind als eine Sequenzierung der t-RNA Enden der Kontrollregion. Ein Vergleich der t-RNAPro Enden der zehn hier untersuchten Populationen und der bereits publizierten Sequenzen führen zu einer Konzentration dieser in der Gruppe IV, zu der alle Forellenpopulationen zählen, die aus dem Atlantik stammen. Die Untersuchung deutet auf eine hohe genetische Variabilität in allen Populationen hin und auf Interferenzen durch Aufstockungsmaßnahmen zur Erhöhung der Populationsdichten hin. Dies ist nur durch die Varianz zwischen den Flußsystemen aufzuklären, die von Region zu Region unterschiedliche Maßnahmen wiederspiegelt. Die genetische Analyse mittels dieser zwei Ansätze erlaubt eine Kontrolle der natürlichen Populationen zwecks Vermeidung eines Verlustes ihres genetischen Potentials. [source]


Untersuchungen zur prophylaktischen Wirkung der Verfütterung eines Probiotikums und von erregerspezifischen Kolostrum- und Dotterantikörpern bei neugeborenen Kälbern

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 3-4 2000
M. H. Von Erhard
Studies on the prophylactic effect of feeding probiotics, pathogen-specific colostrum antibodies or egg yolk antibodies in newborn calves The prophylactic efficacy of feeding probiotics, specific egg yolk antibodies and specific colostrum antibodies on neonatal diarrhoea was investigated in a field trial with calves, grouped (n = 39/40 per group) according to the following treatments: Group I: feeding no additive; Group II: feeding probiotics (5 g powder/day with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi); Group III: feeding egg powder (10 g/day with specific egg yolk antibodies against rotavirus, coronavirus and Escherichia coli F5); Group IV: feeding colostrum antibodies (10 ml/day containing 1 g bovine immunoglobulins with specific antibodies against rotavirus, coronavirus and E. coli antigens); Group V: feeding egg powder together with probiotics (according to group II and III). The additives were given twice daily with the meal from day 2 to day 14 post-natum. The presence of infectious agents was proved in fecal samples of all calves. Intestinal infections with rotavirus (30.8% of the calves) predominated compared to those with coronavirus (7.1%), E. coli F5 (1.5%) and cryptosporidia (24.2%). In contrast to earlier studies, the manifestation of diarrhoea did not differ significantly between the five groups. Only the growth rate of the calves between day 2 and day 14 of life as a measure of their welfare showed treatmentFspecific differences. The control group (I) showed the lowest body weight gain of about 5.8 kg (SD 5.0), whereas in the treated groups it averaged 6.3 kg (SD 4.1, p = 0,60; group II), 6.8 kg (SD 4.3, p = 0.36; group III), 6.9 kg (SD 4.7, p = 0.61; group IV) and 7.7 kg (SD 4.9, p = 0.08; group V). Considering only the rotavirus-positive calves the body weight gain of the control group (I) was 3.5 kg (SD 4.8) and of the treated groups was 3.8 kg (SD 3.3, p = 0.65; II), 5.0 kg (SD 3.5, p = 0.54; III), 6.6 kg (SD 4.5, p = 0.05; IV) and 6.1 kg (SD 5.0, p = 0.13; V). Obviously, the feeding of antibodies from colostrum or from egg powder does increase the mean body weight gain. The feeding of probiotics alone has nearly no effect. However, in the combination with specific egg antibodies probiotics seem to have a synergistic effect. In serum from the 198 newborn calves the IgG concentration averaged 4.9 mg/ml serum (SD 3.3). From 93 dams of these calves a sample of the first colostrum could be obtained showing a mean IgG concentration of 22.0 mg/ml (SD 11.0). IgG levels in the colostrum and in the serum have been positively correlated (r = 0.37, p < 0.05). Calves with a high intensity of diarrhoea had a significantly (p = 0.01) lower mean IgG serum level (3.7 mg/ml; n = 36; SD 2.5) than calves without diarrhoea (5.6 mg/ml; n = 75; SD 4.0). In Rahmen eines Feldversuches wurde die prophylaktische Wirksamkeit verschiedener Futteradditiva (Probiotikum, spezifische Dotterantikörper, spezifische Kolostrumantikörper) bei der neonatalen Kälberdiarrhoe untersucht. Dazu wurden die Kälber entsprechend der Behandlung in folgende fünf Gruppen (je n = 39/40) eingeteilt: I: Keine Futterzusatzstoffe, II: Verfütterung eines Probiotikums (5 g Pulver/Tag mit Bacillus cereus var. toyoi), III: Verfütterung von Eipulver (10 g/Tag mit spezifischen Dotterantikörpern gegen Rotaviren, Coronaviren und E. coli F5), IV: Verfütterung von Kolostrumantikörpern (10 ml/Tag mit 1 g bovinen Immunglobulin mit spezifischen Antikörpern gegen Rotaviren, Coronaviren und Escherichia coli Antigene), V: Verfütterung von Eipulver zusammen mit einem Probiotikum (analog den Gruppen II und III). Die Prophylaktika wurden zwei Mal täglich vom 2. bis zum 14. Lebenstag mit der Tränke verabreicht. Bei allen Kälbern wurde ein Erregernachweis im Kot geführt. Rotaviren (30,8%) konnten im Vergleich zu Coronaviren (7,1%), E. coli F5 (1,5%) und Kryptosporidien (24,2%) häufiger nachgewiesen werden. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Studien konnten hinsichtlich des Durchfallgeschehens keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen festgestellt werden. Nur die Körperge wichtszunahme der Kälber zwischen 2. und 14. Lebenstag zeigte behandlungsspezifische Unterschiede. Die Kontrollgruppe (I) verbuchte mit 5,8 kg (SD 5,0) die niedrigste Körpergewichtszunahme. Verglichen damit lag die Zunahme der behandelten Gruppen bei 6,3 (SD 4,1; p = 0,60; Gruppe II), 6,8 kg (SD 4,3; p = 0,36; Gruppe III), 6,9 kg (SD 4,7, p = 0,61; Gruppe IV) und bei 7,7 kg (SD 4,9, p = 0,08; Gruppe V). Bei Rotavirus-positiven Kälbern war eine Körpergewichtszunahme von 3,5 kg (SD 4,8; Kontrollgruppe), 3,8 kg (SD 3,3, p = 0,65; Gruppe II), 5,0 kg (SD 3,5, p = 0,54; Gruppe III), 6,6 kg (SD 4,5, p = 0,05; Gruppe IV) und von 6,1 kg (SD 5.0, p = 0,13; Gruppe V) zu verzeichnen. Offensichtlich verhindert die prophylaktische Verfütterung von Kolostrum- oder Dotterantikörpern eine infektionsbedingte Verminderung der Körpergewichtszunahme. Die Applikation des Probiotikums alleine zeigte keinen vergleichbaren Effekt. Allerdings ist eine synergistische Wirkung in Kombination mit Antikörpern nicht auszuschließen. In den Seren der 198 neugeborenen Kälber wurde eine mittlere Immunglobulin G (IgG)-Konzentration von 4,9 mg/ml (SD 3,3) gemessen. Von 93 Muttertieren dieser Kälber konnte das Erstgemelk genommen werden, das eine mittlere IgG-Konzentration von 22,0 mg/ml (SD 11,0) aufwies. Die IgG-Gehalte in den Kolostrumproben und den Kälberseren zeigten eine Korrelation von r = 0,37 (p < 0,05). Kälber mit hochgradigem Durchfall hatten mit 3,7 mg/ml Serum (n = 36, SD 2,5) einen signifikant niedrigeren mittleren IgG-Wert als Kälber ohne Durchfall (5,6 mg/ml, n = 75, SD 4,0). [source]


Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia Originating from the Mitral Annulus

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 10 2005
KOJI KUMAGAI M.D.
Background: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) can eliminate most idiopathic repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardias (RMVTs) originating from the right and left ventricular outflow tracts (RVOT, LVOT). Here, we describe the electrophysiological (EP) findings of a new variant of RMVT originating from the mitral annulus (MAVT). Methods and Results: MAVT was identified in 35 patients out of 72 consecutive left ventricular RMVTs from May 2000 to June 2004. All patients underwent an EP study and RFCA. The sites of origin of the MAVT were grouped into four groups according to the successful ablation sites around the mitral annulus. Group I included the anterior sites (n = 11), group II the anterolateral sites (n = 9), group III the lateral sites (n = 6), and group IV the posterior sites (n = 9). The MAVTs were a wide QRS tachycardia with a delta wave-like beginning of the QRS complex. The transitional zone of the R wave occurred between V1-V2 in all cases. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern might reflect the site of the origin of MAVTs around the mitral annulus. We proposed an algorithm for predicting the site of the focus and the tactics needed for successful RFCA of the MAVT. Conclusions: We described the EP findings of the new variant of RMVT, MAVT. Most MAVTs could be eliminated by RF applications to the endocardial mitral annulus using our proposed tactics. [source]