Group Care (group + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The locus of control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes managed by individual and group care

M. Trento
Abstract Aims The locus of control theory distinguishes people (internals) who attribute events in life to their own control, and those (externals) who attribute events to external circumstances. It is used to assess self-management behaviour in chronic illnesses. Group care is a model of systemic group education that improves lifestyle behaviour and quality of life in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the locus of control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and the possible differences between patients managed by group care and control subjects followed by traditional one-to-one care. Methods Cross-sectional administration of two questionnaires (one specific for diabetes and one generic for chronic diseases) to 83 patients followed for at least 5 years by group care (27 Type 1 and 56 Type 2) and 79 control subjects (28 Type 1 and 51 Type 2) of similar sex, age and diabetes duration. Both tools explore internal control of disease, the role of chance in changing it and reliance upon others (family, friends and health professionals). Results Patients with Type 1 diabetes had lower internal control, greater fatalistic attitudes and less trust in others. Patients with either type of diabetes receiving group care had higher internal control and lower fatalism; the higher trust in others in those with Type 1 diabetes was not statistically significant. The differences associated with group care were independent of sex, age and diabetes duration. Conclusions Patients with Type 1 diabetes may have lower internal control, fatalism and reliance upon others than those with Type 2 diabetes. Receiving group care is associated with higher internal control, reduced fatalism and, in Type 1 diabetes, increased trust in others. [source]

Attachment behaviour towards support staff in young people with intellectual disabilities: associations with challenging behaviour

J. C. De Schipper
Abstract Background Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our purpose was to examine the role of support staff as targets of attachment behaviour for young people with ID by testing the hypothesis that young people who more often engage in attachment interactions with group care staff are less at risk for challenging behaviours. The study design included professional caregivers' report of young persons' attachment behaviour across different relationships to address the relationship-specific nature of attachment behaviour in a group care context. Methods Support staff rated attachment behaviour of 156 young participants with moderate to severe ID who were attending a group care setting. For each participant, we asked two members of the classroom support staff to fill out the Secure Base Safe Haven Observation list. One of them also rated challenging behaviour (Abberant Behavior Checklist). Results Young people who showed more secure attachment behaviour towards professional caregivers were less irritable, less lethargic and less stereotypic in their behaviour, even if we controlled for developmental age and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Two results point in the direction of relationship-specific attachment behaviour: the absence of high consistency in a person's attachment behaviour towards two different caregivers and the independent contribution of each of these relationships to explaining differences in lethargy and stereotypies. A certain preference in attachment behaviour towards specific caregivers was not associated with challenging behaviour. Conclusions Findings suggest that attachment behaviour may be part of young persons' adaptation to the stresses and challenges of group care. Furthermore, adaptation may be determined by the integration of relationships with support staff, because each relationship with a care staff member bears uniquely on challenging behaviour. [source]

Child Care and Work Absences: Trade-Offs by Type of Care

Rachel A. Gordon
Parents face a trade-off in the effect of child-care problems on employment. Whereas large settings may increase problems because of child illness, small group care may relate to provider unavailability. Analyzing the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we find that child-care centers and large family day care lead to mothers' greater work absences because of a sick child, but not to maternal job exits. Greater work absences because of unavailability of small home-based providers are associated with mothers' job exits, especially when mothers have low earnings and use nonrelative caregivers. Our findings accentuate the need for improved hygiene practices in child care, expanded personal leave coverage for parents, and greater backup care for sick and well children. [source]

Extended-stay hospitalization for childhood asthma in Japan

Hidekazu Tani
Abstract Background:, While recent advances in asthma management have enabled adequate control to be frequently achieved in outpatient settings, children whose asthma remains poorly controlled despite outpatient treatment are often referred to extended-stay hospitals. The aim of the present study was to examine trends concerning extended-stay hospitalization and to evaluate the present status of this approach. Methods:, A retrospective study was conducted to assess changes in the number of admissions among 408 children with extended stays at Kamiamakusa General Hospital between 1989 and 2005. Medical and laboratory data of 236 patients admitted since 1994 were obtained from clinical records. Results:, The number of children with extended-stay hospitalizations since 2000 declined dramatically compared with the early 1990s, while the percentage of patients with complications of childhood asthma, such as severe atopic dermatitis, school absenteeism, and obesity, have increased significantly in the recent past. Practical benefits of extended-stay hospitalization were demonstrated by significant improvement of exercise performance and measurement of pulmonary function parameters and serum IgE concentrations by time of discharge. In addition to improvement in asthmatic symptoms, maintenance drug requirements and frequency of school absenteeism were reduced. Conclusions:, The medical mission of extended-stay hospitalizations is currently limited due to the availability of improved pharmacotherapy. Some patients, however, with exceptionally severe asthma or psychological problems that interact with their medical condition still fare poorly under outpatient care and could benefit from group care. Further study is needed to identify the components of long-term programs essential to produce change. [source]

Does what happens in group care stay in group care?

The relationship between problem behaviour trajectories during care, post-placement functioning
ABSTRACT Residential programmes for youth may improve youth behaviour during placement, but it is not clear whether there is an association between a youth's behaviour pattern during placement and post-placement outcomes. Life course perspective has been used to understand longitudinal patterns and pathways, and new statistical methods have been developed to identify latent trajectory groups. This study used administrative data from a family-style group care programme to assess whether a youth's externalizing behaviour trajectory while in placement can significantly predict delinquency and adjustment outcomes at discharge and 6-month follow-up. Findings from multinomial logistic regression revealed a statistically significant relationship between a youth's behaviour trajectory class and outcomes. Behaviour pattern during care was a stronger predictor of outcome than cross-sectional measures such as other demographic factors, placement history or mental-health need indicators. [source]

Time use in Russian Baby Homes

L. G. Tirella
Abstract Background We investigated time use of Russian children residing in Baby Homes to document their opportunities and experiences during institutional care. Methods Time use of 138 non-special needs, randomly selected children (65 female vs. 73 male, age 1 month to 4 years) in Baby Homes in Murmansk, Russia, was analysed. Baby Home specialists were trained in time-use spot observation methodology. Each child was observed every 10 min for 5 h (31 observations/child; >4000 data points). At each observation, we coded: who the child was with, adult role, what the child was doing, location and vocalizations. Results Children spent 50% of their time alone, 27% with a caregiver, 15% with another adult, and 7% with another child. Infants spent significantly more time alone (65%) than toddlers (43%) or pre-schoolers (46%) [F(2,133) = 13.05, P < 0.0001]. Caregivers supervised children (58%), led group activities (16%), cared for individuals (14%), or were absent from the room (12%). Children spent the most time (32%) in activities of daily living; remaining time was spent in meaningful play (27%), non-purposeful activity (16%) or sleep (18%). The percentage of time spent in meaningful play significantly increased across age groups [infants 10%, toddlers 25%, pre-schoolers 36%, F(2,133) = 26.9, P < 0.001]. Infants (23%) and toddlers (20%) spent significantly more time than the older group (10%) in non-purposeful activity [F(2,133) = 26.9, P < 0.001]. In 12% of observations, an adult was speaking to the child, in 10% to the group, and <1% to another adult. Child vocalizations varied by age: infants 42% of observations, toddlers 56%, and pre-schoolers 59%. Older children directed more vocalizations to adults than younger children [F(2,133) = 24.47, P < 0.001]. Conclusion Time use of children residing in Baby Homes is limited by routinized schedules and care, at the expense of child-directed or interactive play with adults. Despite close proximity and living in group care, children's vocalizations and interactions with others are limited. [source]