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## Ground Motions (ground + motion)
Kinds of Ground Motions
## Selected Abstracts## Wavelet energy spectrum for time-frequency localization of earthquake energy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMAGING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2003Ziqin ZhouAbstract The authors recently developed a method for time-frequency signal analysis of earthquake records using Mexican hat wavelets. Ground motions in earthquakes are postulated as a sequence of simple penny-shaped ruptures at different locations along a fault line and occurring at different times. In this article, a wavelet energy spectrum is proposed for time-frequency localization of the earthquake input energy. The ground acceleration generated by a simple penny-shaped rupture is used as the basis to form the mother wavelet. The symmetric Mexican hat wavelet is chosen as the mother wavelet. The spectrum is presented pictorially in a two-dimensional, time-frequency domain. The proposed wavelet energy spectrum can be used to observe the evolution of the frequency contents of earthquake energy over time and distance of the site from the epicenter in a more accurate manner than the traditional time series (accelerogram) or frequency domain (Fourier amplitude spectrum) representation. It can be viewed as a microscope for looking into the time-frequency characteristics of earthquake acceleration records. The wavelet energy spectrum provides frequency evolution information to be used in the structural design process. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol 13, 133,140, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ima.10038 [source] ## Linear analysis of concrete arch dams including dam,water,foundation rock interaction considering spatially varying ground motions EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 7 2010Jin-Ting WangAbstract The available substructure method and computer program for earthquake response analysis of arch dams, including the effects of dam,water,foundation rock interaction and recognizing the semi-unbounded size of the foundation rock and fluid domains, are extended to consider spatial variations in ground motions around the canyon. The response of Mauvoisin Dam in Switzerland to spatially varying ground motion recorded during a small earthquake is analyzed to illustrate the results from this analysis procedure. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Prediction of spatially distributed seismic demands in specific structures: Structural response to loss estimation EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 6 2010Brendon A. BradleyAbstract A companion paper has investigated the effects of intensity measure (IM) selection in the prediction of spatially distributed response in a multi-degree-of-freedom structure. This paper extends from structural response prediction to performance assessment metrics such as probability of structural collapse; probability of exceeding a specified level of demand or direct repair cost; and the distribution of direct repair loss for a given level of ground motion. In addition, a method is proposed to account for the effect of varying seismological properties of ground motions on seismic demand that does not require different ground motion records to be used for each intensity level. Results illustrate that the conventional IM, spectral displacement at the first mode, Sde(T1), produces higher risk estimates than alternative velocity-based IM's, namely spectrum intensity, SI, and peak ground velocity, PGV, because of its high uncertainty in ground motion prediction and poor efficiency in predicting peak acceleration demands. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Prediction of spatially distributed seismic demands in specific structures: Ground motion and structural response EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 5 2010Brendon A. BradleyAbstract The efficacy of various ground motion intensity measures (IMs) in the prediction of spatially distributed seismic demands (engineering demand parameters, (EDPs)) within a structure is investigated. This has direct implications to building-specific seismic loss estimation, where the seismic demand on different components is dependent on the location of the component in the structure. Several common IMs are investigated in terms of their ability to predict the spatially distributed demands in a 10-storey office building, which is measured in terms of maximum interstorey drift ratios and maximum floor accelerations. It is found that the ability of an IM to efficiently predict a specific EDP depends on the similarity between the frequency range of the ground motion that controls the IM and that of the EDP. An IMs predictability has a direct effect on the median response demands for ground motions scaled to a specified probability of exceedance from a ground motion hazard curve. All of the IMs investigated were found to be insufficient with respect to at least one of magnitude, source-to-site distance, or epsilon when predicting all peak interstorey drifts and peak floor accelerations in a 10-storey reinforced concrete frame structure. Careful ground motion selection and/or seismic demand modification is therefore required to predict such a spatially distributed demands without significant bias. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## A substructure shaking table test for reproduction of earthquake responses of high-rise buildings EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2009Xiaodong JiAbstract When subjected to long-period ground motions, high-rise buildings' upper floors undergo large responses. Furniture and nonstructural components are susceptible to significant damage in such events. This paper proposes a full-scale substructure shaking table test to reproduce large floor responses of high-rise buildings. The response at the top floor of a virtual 30-story building model subjected to a synthesized long-period ground motion is taken as a target wave for reproduction. Since a shaking table has difficulties in directly reproducing such large responses due to various capacity limitations, a rubber-and-mass system is proposed to amplify the table motion. To achieve an accurate reproduction of the floor responses, a control algorithm called the open-loop inverse dynamics compensation via simulation (IDCS) algorithm is used to generate a special input wave for the shaking table. To implement the IDCS algorithm, the model matching method and the H, method are adopted to construct the controller. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the open-loop IDCS algorithm and compare the performance of different methods of controller design. A series of full-scale substructure shaking table tests are conducted in E-Defense to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and examine the seismic behavior of furniture. The test results demonstrate that the rubber-and-mass system is capable of amplifying the table motion by a factor of about 3.5 for the maximum velocity and displacement, and the substructure shaking table test can reproduce the large floor responses for a few minutes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic evaluation of 1940s asymmetric wood-frame building using conventional measurements and high-definition laser scanning EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2009Khalid M. MosalamAbstract This study presents results from shake table experiments of a wood-frame building conducted at the University of California, Berkeley. A 13.5-ft × 19.5-ft two-story wood-frame building representing San Francisco 1940s design of a residential building with a garage space on the first story (house-over-garage) was tested. The test building was subjected to scaled ground motion based on Los Gatos record from Loma Prieta 1989 earthquake. The strong motion time history was scaled to match design spectra of a site in Richmond district of San Francisco. The test results demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of the test building due to soft story mechanism and significant twisting when shaken in two horizontal directions. In addition to conventional instrumentation for measuring acceleration and position of selected points of the test building, high-definition laser scanning technology was employed to assess global and local anomalies of the building after the shake table tests. The analysis conducted in this study showed very good correlation between conventional data recorded from position transducers and the laser scans. These laser scans expanded limits of conventional data at discrete points and allowed analyzing the whole building after shaking. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Design of passive systems for control of inelastic structures EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 6 2009Gian Paolo CimellaroAbstract A design strategy for control of buildings experiencing inelastic deformations during seismic response is formulated. The strategy is using weakened, and/or softened, elements in a structural system while adding passive energy dissipation devices (e.g. viscous fluid devices, etc.) in order to control simultaneously accelerations and deformations response during seismic events. A design methodology is developed to determine the locations and the magnitude of weakening and/or softening of structural elements and the added damping while insuring structural stability. A two-stage design procedure is suggested: (i) first using a nonlinear active control algorithm, to determine the new structural parameters while insuring stability, then (ii) determine the properties of equivalent structural parameters of passive system, which can be implemented by removing or weakening some structural elements, or connections, and by addition of energy dissipation systems. Passive dampers and weakened elements are designed using an optimization algorithm to obtain a response as close as possible to an actively controlled system. A case study of a five-story building subjected to El Centro ground motion, as well as to an ensemble of simulated ground motions, is presented to illustrate the procedure. The results show that following the design strategy, a control of both peak inter-story drifts and total accelerations can be obtained. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Real-time hybrid testing using the unconditionally stable explicit CR integration algorithm EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 1 2009Cheng ChenAbstract Real-time hybrid testing combines experimental testing and numerical simulation, and provides a viable alternative for the dynamic testing of structural systems. An integration algorithm is used in real-time hybrid testing to compute the structural response based on feedback restoring forces from experimental and analytical substructures. Explicit integration algorithms are usually preferred over implicit algorithms as they do not require iteration and are therefore computationally efficient. The time step size for explicit integration algorithms, which are typically conditionally stable, can be extremely small in order to avoid numerical stability when the number of degree-of-freedom of the structure becomes large. This paper presents the implementation and application of a newly developed unconditionally stable explicit integration algorithm for real-time hybrid testing. The development of the integration algorithm is briefly reviewed. An extrapolation procedure is introduced in the implementation of the algorithm for real-time testing to ensure the continuous movement of the servo-hydraulic actuator. The stability of the implemented integration algorithm is investigated using control theory. Real-time hybrid test results of single-degree-of-freedom and multi-degree-of-freedom structures with a passive elastomeric damper subjected to earthquake ground motion are presented. The explicit integration algorithm is shown to enable the exceptional real-time hybrid test results to be achieved. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic performance of a 3D full-scale high-ductility steel,concrete composite moment-resisting structure,Part I: Design and testing procedure EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 14 2008A. BraconiAbstract A multi-level pseudo-dynamic (PSD) seismic test programme was performed on a full-scale three-bay two-storey steel,concrete composite moment-resisting frame built with partially encased composite columns and partial-strength connections. The system was designed to provide strength and ductility for earthquake resistance with energy dissipation located in ductile components of beam-to-column joints including flexural yielding of beam end-plates and shear yielding of the column web panel zone. In addition, the response of the frame depending on the column base yielding was analysed. Firstly, the design of the test structure is presented in the paper, with particular emphasis on the ductile detailing of beam-to-column joints. Details of the construction of the test structure and the test set-up are also given. The paper then provides a description of the non-linear static and dynamic analytical studies that were carried out to preliminary assess the seismic performance of the test structure and establish a comprehensive multi-level PSD seismic test programme. The resulting test protocol included the application of a spectrum-compatible earthquake ground motion scaled to four different peak ground acceleration levels to reproduce an elastic response as well as serviceability, ultimate, and collapse limit state conditions, respectively. Severe damage to the building was finally induced by a cyclic test with stepwise increasing displacement amplitudes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## A new approach of selecting real input ground motions for seismic design: The most unfavourable real seismic design ground motions EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2007Chang-Hai ZhaiAbstract This paper presents a new way of selecting real input ground motions for seismic design and analysis of structures based on a comprehensive method for estimating the damage potential of ground motions, which takes into consideration of various ground motion parameters and structural seismic damage criteria in terms of strength, deformation, hysteretic energy and dual damage of Park & Ang damage index. The proposed comprehensive method fully involves the effects of the intensity, frequency content and duration of ground motions and the dynamic characteristics of structures. Then, the concept of the most unfavourable real seismic design ground motion is introduced. Based on the concept, the most unfavourable real seismic design ground motions for rock, stiff soil, medium soil and soft soil site conditions are selected in terms of three typical period ranges of structures. The selected real strong motion records are suitable for seismic analysis of important structures whose failure or collapse will be avoided at a higher level of confidence during the strong earthquake, as they can cause the greatest damage to structures and thereby result in the highest damage potential from an extended real ground motion database for a given site. In addition, this paper also presents the real input design ground motions with medium damage potential, which can be used for the seismic analysis of structures located at the area with low and moderate seismicity. The most unfavourable real seismic design ground motions are verified by analysing the seismic response of structures. It is concluded that the most unfavourable real seismic design ground motion approach can select the real ground motions that can result in the highest damage potential for a given structure and site condition, and the real ground motions can be mainly used for structures whose failure or collapse will be avoided at a higher level of confidence during the strong earthquake. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Estimation of strength reduction factors via normalized pseudo-acceleration response spectrum EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 6 2007Debasis KarmakarAbstract Estimation of design forces in ductility-based earthquake-resistant design continues to be carried out with the application of response modification factors on elastic design spectra, and it remains interesting to explore how best to estimate strength reduction factors (SRFs) for a design situation. This paper considers the relatively less explored alternative of modelling SRF spectrum via a given response spectrum. A new model is proposed to estimate the SRF spectrum in terms of a pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) spectrum and ductility demand ratio with the help of two coefficients. The proposed model is illustrated for an elasto-plastic oscillator, in case of 10 recorded accelerograms and three ductility ratios. The proposed model is convenient and is able to predict SRF spectrum reasonably well, particularly at periods up to 1.0 s. Coefficients of the proposed model may also be determined in case of a given design spectrum when there is uncertainty in SRF spectrum due to uncertainty in temporal characteristics of the ground motion. This is illustrated with the help of 474 accelerograms recorded in western U.S.A. and different scaled PSA spectra. It is shown that probabilistic estimates may be obtained in this situation for SRF spectrum by assuming the error residuals to be log normally distributed with period-dependent parameters. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic reliability functions for multistorey frame and wall-frame systems EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 15 2006Jorge L. AlamillaAbstract Seismic reliability functions of multistorey frame systems are expressed as values of Cornell's ,index in terms of two alternative measures of the earthquake intensity, normalized with respect to the yield displacement or to the deformation capacity of a simplified model of the global behaviour of the system obtained by pushover analysis. The safety margin is defined as the difference of the natural logarithms of the intensity that leads to collapse and that assumed to act on the system. The problem of defining a deformation capacity for a multistorey system is circumvented in this manner. The method proposed is illustrated through its application to several reinforced concrete rigid frames, including both column-and-beam and wall-frame systems. Ground motion excitations are representative of those recorded at soft soil sites in the Valley of Mexico. A comparison is made of the reliability functions obtained on the basis of the gross section or the cracked section of reinforced concrete members. The results show that the reliability functions do not only depend on the expected values of the normalized intensity, but also on its dispersion, which is sensitive to the ratio of the fundamental period of the system to the dominant period of the ground motion. Some comments are presented about the establishment of reliability-based seismic design criteria for generic systems. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Generation of spatially nonuniform ground motion for nonlinear analysis of a concrete arch dam EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2006S. W. AlvesAbstract An accelerometer array at Pacoima Dam with three locations along the base and abutments recorded ground motion from a magnitude 4.3 earthquake on 13 January 2001. These records present an opportunity to study spatial nonuniformity for the motion in a canyon. Topographic amplification is characterized by ratios of response spectral displacement between locations, and seismic wave travel times are studied using cross-correlation functions to obtain delays. Results of the analysis of the 2001 earthquake records are used to generate ground motion for the 1994 Northridge earthquake to replace records that were not able to be fully digitized. The ground motion generated for the Northridge earthquake is used as input to a finite element model of Pacoima Dam. The response of the model is consistent with observations of Pacoima Dam after the Northridge earthquake. Comparison of the response due to nonuniform input with the response due to uniform input demonstrates the importance of accounting for spatial nonuniformity because of the significance that the pseudostatic component has for the response to nonuniform input. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Pre- and post-test mathematical modelling of a plan-asymmetric reinforced concrete frame building, EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2006Peter FajfarAbstract Pre- and post-test analyses of the structural response of a three-storey asymmetric reinforced concrete frame building were performed, aimed at supporting test preparation and performance as well as studying mathematical modelling. The building was designed for gravity loads only. Full-scale pseudo-dynamic tests were performed in the ELSA laboratory in Ispra. In the paper the results of initial parametric studies, of the blind pre-test predictions, and of the post-test analysis are summarized. In all studies a simple mathematical model, with one-component member models with concentrated plasticity was employed. The pre-test analyses were performed using the CANNY program. After the test results became available, the mathematical model was improved using an approach based on a displacement-controlled analysis. Basically, the same mathematical model was used as in pre-test analyses, except that the values of some of the parameters were changed. The OpenSees program was employed. Fair agreement between the test and numerical results was obtained. The results prove that relatively simple mathematical models are able to adequately simulate the detailed seismic response of reinforced concrete frame structures to a known ground motion, provided that the input parameters are properly determined. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Spectral shape, epsilon and record selection EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 9 2006Jack W. BakerAbstract Selection of earthquake ground motions is considered with the goal of accurately estimating the response of a structure at a specified ground motion intensity, as measured by spectral acceleration at the first-mode period of the structure, Sa(T1). Consideration is given to the magnitude, distance and epsilon (,) values of ground motions. First, it is seen that selecting records based on their , values is more effective than selecting records based on magnitude and distance. Second, a method is discussed for finding the conditional response spectrum of a ground motion, given a level of Sa(T1) and its associated mean (disaggregation-based) causal magnitude, distance and , value. Records can then be selected to match the mean of this target spectrum, and the same benefits are achieved as when records are selected based on ,. This mean target spectrum differs from a Uniform Hazard Spectrum, and it is argued that this new spectrum is a more appropriate target for record selection. When properly selecting records based on either spectral shape or ,, the reductions in bias and variance of resulting structural response estimates are comparable to the reductions achieved by using a vector-valued measure of earthquake intensity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Inelastic displacement ratios for evaluation of structures built on soft soil sites EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 6 2006Jorge Ruiz-GarcíaAbstract This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive statistical study aimed at evaluating peak lateral inelastic displacement demands of structures with known lateral strength and stiffness built on soft soil site conditions. For that purpose, empirical information on inelastic displacement ratios which are defined as the ratio of peak lateral inelastic displacement demands to peak elastic displacement demands are investigated. Inelastic displacement ratios were computed from the response of single-degree-of-freedom systems having 6 levels of relative lateral strength when subjected to 118 earthquake ground motions recorded on bay-mud sites of the San Francisco Bay Area and on soft soil sites located in the former lake-bed zone of Mexico City. Mean inelastic displacement ratios and their corresponding scatter are presented for both ground motion ensembles. The influence of period of vibration normalized by the predominant period of the ground motion, the level of lateral strength, earthquake magnitude, and distance to the source are evaluated and discussed. In addition, the effects of post-yield stiffness and of stiffness and strength degradation on inelastic displacement ratios are also investigated. It is concluded that magnitude and distance to the source have negligible effects on constant-strength inelastic displacement ratios. Results also indicate that weak and stiffness-degrading structures in the short spectral region could experience inelastic displacement demands larger than those corresponding to non-degrading structures. Finally, a simplified equation obtained using regression analyses aimed at estimating mean inelastic displacement ratios is proposed for assisting structural engineers in performance-based assessment of structures built on soft soil sites. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Ground motion duration effects on nonlinear seismic response EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 1 2006Iunio IervolinoAbstract The study presented in this paper addresses the question of which nonlinear demand measures are sensitive to ground motion duration by statistical analyses of several case studies. A number of single degree of freedom (SDOF) structures were selected considering: (1) four oscillation periods; (2) three evolutionary and non-evolutionary hysteretic behaviours; (3) two target ductility levels. Effects of duration are investigated, by nonlinear dynamic analysis, with respect to six different demand indices ranging from displacement ductility ratio to equivalent number of cycles. Input is made of six real accelerogram sets representing three specific duration scenarios (small, moderate and large duration). For all considered demand quantities time-history results are formally compared by statistical hypothesis test to asses the difference, if any, in the demand concerning different scenarios. Incremental dynamic analysis curves are used to evaluate duration effect as function of ground motion intensity (e.g. spectral acceleration corresponding to the SDOF's oscillation period). Duration impact on structural failure probability is evaluated by fragility curves. The results lead to the conclusion that duration content of ground motion is statistically insignificant to displacement ductility and cyclic ductility demand. The conclusions hold regardless of SDOF's period and hysteretic relationship investigated. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Estimate of input energy for elasto-plastic SDOF systems during earthquakes based on discrete wavelet coefficients EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 15 2005Jun IyamaAbstract The response of an elasto-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF) system to ground motion is estimated based on wavelet coefficients calculated by discrete wavelet transform. Wavelet coefficients represent both the time and frequency characteristics of input ground motion, and thus can be considered to be directly related to the dynamic response of a non-linear system. This relationship between the energy input into an elastic SDOF system and wavelet coefficients is derived based on the assumption that wavelets deliver energy to the structure instantaneously and the quantity of energy is constant regardless of yielding. These assumptions are shown to be valid when the natural period of the system is in the predominant period range of the wavelet, the most common scenario for real structures, through dynamic response analysis of a single wavelet. The wavelet-based estimation of elastic and plastic energy transferred by earthquake ground motion is thus shown to be in good agreement with the dynamic response analysis when the natural period is in the predominant range of the input. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic demand sensitivity of reinforced concrete shear-wall building using FOSM method EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 14 2005Tae-Hyung LeeAbstract The uncertainty in the seismic demand of a structure (referred to as the engineering demand parameter, EDP) needs to be properly characterized in performance-based earthquake engineering. Uncertainties in the ground motion and in structural properties are responsible for EDP uncertainty. In this study, sensitivity of EDPs to major uncertain variables is investigated using the first-order second-moment method for a case study building. This method is shown to be simple and efficient for estimating the sensitivity of seismic demand. The EDP uncertainty induced by each uncertain variable is used to determine which variables are most significant. Results show that the uncertainties in ground motion are more significant for global EDPs, namely peak roof acceleration and displacement, and maximum inter-storey drift ratio, than those in structural properties. Uncertainty in the intensity measure (IM) of ground motion is the dominant variable for uncertainties in local EDPs such as the curvature demand at critical cross-sections. Conditional sensitivity of global and local EDPs given IM is also estimated. It is observed that the combined effect of uncertainties in structural properties is more significant than uncertainty in ground motion profile at lower IM levels, while the opposite is true at higher IM levels. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## A vector-valued ground motion intensity measure consisting of spectral acceleration and epsilon EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2005Jack W. BakerAbstract The ,strength' of an earthquake ground motion is often quantified by an Intensity Measure (IM), such as peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration at a given period. This IM is used to predict the response of a structure. In this paper an intensity measure consisting of two parameters, spectral acceleration and epsilon, is considered. The IM is termed a vector-valued IM, as opposed to the single parameter, or scalar, IMs that are traditionally used. Epsilon (defined as a measure of the difference between the spectral acceleration of a record and the mean of a ground motion prediction equation at the given period) is found to have significant ability to predict structural response. It is shown that epsilon is an indicator of spectral shape, explaining why it is related to structural response. By incorporating this vector-valued IM with a vector-valued ground motion hazard, we can predict the mean annual frequency of exceeding a given value of maximum interstory drift ratio, or other such response measure. It is shown that neglecting the effect of epsilon when computing this drift hazard curve leads to conservative estimates of the response of the structure. These observations should perhaps affect record selection in the future. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Optimal design of supplemental viscous dampers for irregular shear-frames in the presence of yielding EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2005Oren LavanAbstract A methodology for the optimal design of supplemental viscous dampers for regular as well as irregular yielding shear-frames is presented. It addresses the problem of minimizing the added damping subject to a constraint on an energy-based global damage index (GDI) for an ensemble of realistic ground motion records. The applicability of the methodology for irregular structures is achieved by choosing an appropriate GDI. For a particular choice of the parameters comprising the GDI, a design for the elastic behavior of the frame or equal damage for all stories is achieved. The use of a gradient-based optimization algorithm for the solution of the optimization problem is enabled by first deriving an expression for the gradient of the constraint. The optimization process is started for one ,active' ground motion record which is efficiently selected from the given ensemble. If the resulting optimal design fails to satisfy the constraints for other records from the original ensemble, additional ground motions (loading conditions) are added one by one to the ,active' set until the optimum is reached. Two examples for the optimal designs of supplemental dampers are given: a 2-story shear frame with varying strength distribution and a 10-story shear frame. The 2-story shear frame is designed for one given ground motion whereas the 10-story frame is designed for an ensemble of twenty ground motions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic design of bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 4-5 2005A. LupoiAbstract The effects of the spatial variability of the ground motion on the response of bridge structures are investigated in this study. Following a well-established convention, the phenomenon is represented as the combined effect of three causes: the loss of coherence of the motion with distance, the wave-passage, and the local site conditions. Since the nature and amount of non-synchronism vary within ample limits a statistical approach is adopted. A parametric study is carried out on a representative set of bridges subjected to carefully selected combinations of the factors inducing spatial variability. The investigation has shown that the phenomenon affects the response considerably and, hence, the level of protection of these structures. It is observed that for all bridge types considered, the ductility demands at the base of the piers in the presence of spatial variability increase in the majority of cases. Further, for a given bridge type, the probabilities of failure vary by more than one order of magnitude depending on the combination of the parameters. Attention has been focused on a parameter representing the ratio between the maximum curvature ductility demand and the same quantity for the case of fully synchronous motion. This parameter has been used to correct the conventional synchronous design procedure by increasing the available ductility. The re-analysis of all the cases with a modified ductility capacity shows that the procedure is effective in reducing the fragilities to the values corresponding to synchronous input. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic base-isolation by use of a telescoping stepping mechanism EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2005Maria D. Martinez-RodrigoAbstract A new base-isolation mechanism corresponding to a variance of the stepping A-shaped frame is proposed and its seismic performance is investigated numerically for strong ground accelerations with peak values in the range from 0.5 to 1g. In its simplest two-dimensional form, the system consists of a frame with two telescoping legs pinned at the apex at a sharp angle. The legs are attached to the foundation through a spring and a damper acting in parallel. Both the springs and viscous dampers have bilinear characteristics that make them very stiff in compression but very soft in tension. As the structure rocks sideways, the length of the loaded leg remains essentially constant while the length of the unloaded leg increases. When the ground acceleration changes direction, the process is reversed. The resulting system has three main characteristics: (i) as the structure steps on a rigid leg, the maximum acceleration that can be transmitted to the superstructure is limited to a value which is approximately independent of the amplitude of the ground motion; (ii) there is a systematic lifting of the superstructure with kinetic energy being systematically transformed into potential energy during the strong phase of the ground motion; and (iii) the system is slowly self-centering at the end of the earthquake. The seismic performance of the system is evaluated for a tall bridge pier and for a smaller frame that could be used in a multi-story building. The results obtained for the 1940 El Centro ground motion scaled to 1g and for the near-field Rinaldi ground motion recorded during the Northridge earthquake show that substantial reductions of the absolute acceleration can be obtained with reasonable relative displacements of the superstructure and small strokes in the isolation devices. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Seismic performance evaluation of steel arch bridges against major earthquakes. EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 14 2004Part 1: dynamic analysis approachAbstract In this study the inelastic behavior of steel arch bridges subjected to strong ground motions from major earthquakes is investigated by dynamic analyses of a typical steel arch bridge using a three-dimensional (3D) analytical model, since checking seismic performance against severe earthquakes is not usually performed when designing such kinds of bridge. The bridge considered is an upper-deck steel arch bridge having a reinforced concrete (RC) deck, steel I-section girders and steel arch ribs. The input ground motions are accelerograms which are modified ground motions based on the records from the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. Both the longitudinal and transverse dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied by investigation of time-history responses of the main parameters. It is found that seismic responses are small when subjected to the longitudinal excitation, but significantly large under the transverse ground motion due to plasticization formed in some segments such as arch rib ends and side pier bases where axial force levels are very high. Finally, a seismic performance evaluation method based on the response strain index is proposed for such steel bridge structures. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Response of a double-wedge base-isolation device EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 13 2004J. Enrique LucoAbstract A novel base-isolation device is described and its performance is compared with that of a friction pendulum bearing. In its simplest form, the device consists of two wedges sliding on a horizontal plane in opposite directions and constrained from retreating by ratchets or bilinear dampers. The superstructure rests at the intersection of the two wedges. For a sufficiently large horizontal acceleration of the base, the structure starts to move up the inclined plane of one of the wedges, which remains fixed while the second wedge is slaved to follow the structure. As the direction of the base acceleration reverses, the process is reversed and the structure starts to climb on the second inclined plane while the first wedge follows. The overall result is that the horizontal acceleration of the structure is reduced with respect to that of the base and that kinetic energy associated with horizontal velocities is systematically transformed into potential energy. In the case of motion in a vertical plane, the device has the following advantages over a friction pendulum: (i) the sliding surface is linear instead of curved, (ii) kinetic energy is systematically transformed into potential energy during the strong ground motion, and (iii) the device is slowly self-centering. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Semi-empirical model for site effects on acceleration time histories at soft-soil sites. EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 13 2004Part 2: calibrationAbstract A previously developed simplified model of ground motion amplification is applied to the simulation of acceleration time histories at several soft-soil sites in the Valley of Mexico, on the basis of the corresponding records on firm ground. The main objective is to assess the ability of the model to reproduce characteristics such as effective duration, frequency content and instantaneous intensity. The model is based on the identification of a number of parameters that characterize the complex firm-ground to soft-soil transfer function, and on the adjustment of these parameters in order to account for non-linear soil behavior. Once the adjusted model parameters are introduced, the statistical properties of the simulated and the recorded ground motions agree reasonably well. For the sites and for the seismic events considered in this study, it is concluded that non-linear soil behavior may have a significant effect on the amplification of ground motion. The non-linear soil behavior significantly affects the effective ground motion duration for the components with the higher intensities, but it does not have any noticeable influence on the lengthening of the dominant ground period. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## A modal pushover analysis procedure to estimate seismic demands for unsymmetric-plan buildings EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2004Anil K. ChopraAbstract An Erratum has been published for this article in Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn. 2004; 33:1429. Based on structural dynamics theory, the modal pushover analysis (MPA) procedure retains the conceptual simplicity of current procedures with invariant force distribution, now common in structural engineering practice. The MPA procedure for estimating seismic demands is extended to unsymmetric-plan buildings. In the MPA procedure, the seismic demand due to individual terms in the modal expansion of the effective earthquake forces is determined by non-linear static analysis using the inertia force distribution for each mode, which for unsymmetric buildings includes two lateral forces and torque at each floor level. These ,modal' demands due to the first few terms of the modal expansion are then combined by the CQC rule to obtain an estimate of the total seismic demand for inelastic systems. When applied to elastic systems, the MPA procedure is equivalent to standard response spectrum analysis (RSA). The MPA estimates of seismic demand for torsionally-stiff and torsionally-flexible unsymmetric systems are shown to be similarly accurate as they are for the symmetric building; however, the results deteriorate for a torsionally-similarly-stiff unsymmetric-plan system and the ground motion considered because (a) elastic modes are strongly coupled, and (b) roof displacement is underestimated by the CQC modal combination rule (which would also limit accuracy of RSA for linearly elastic systems). Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Behavior of moment-resisting frame structures subjected to near-fault ground motions EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 6 2004Babak AlaviAbstract Near-fault ground motions impose large demands on structures compared to ,ordinary' ground motions. Recordings suggest that near-fault ground motions with ,forward' directivity are characterized by a large pulse, which is mostly orientated perpendicular to the fault. This study is intended to provide quantitative knowledge on important response characteristics of elastic and inelastic frame structures subjected to near-fault ground motions. Generic frame models are used to represent MDOF structures. Near-fault ground motions are represented by equivalent pulses, which have a comparable effect on structural response, but whose characteristics are defined by a small number of parameters. The results demonstrate that structures with a period longer than the pulse period respond very differently from structures with a shorter period. For the former, early yielding occurs in higher stories but the high ductility demands migrate to the bottom stories as the ground motion becomes more severe. For the latter, the maximum demand always occurs in the bottom stories. Preliminary regression equations are proposed that relate the parameters of the equivalent pulse to magnitude and distance. The equivalent pulse concept is used to estimate the base shear strength required to limit story ductility demands to specific target values. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Design of bilinear hysteretic isolation systems EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 9 2003M. FragiacomoAbstract This paper concerns the design of passive base isolation systems characterized by a bilinear hysteretic behaviour. The study refers to the case where the structure to be isolated (superstructure) vibrates according to the first mode. In this case the whole isolated structure can be modelled by a two-degree-of-freedom system. The base isolation effectiveness has been evaluated for different characteristics of the device, namely mass, strength, elastic and plastic stiffness, by using mainly energetic quantities. The optimum values for the base device have been obtained by minimizing the input energy and the displacement of the superstructure. Conclusions are drawn for superstructures with a fundamental period of 0.5s, a damping ratio of 5% and for three different kinds of earthquake ground motions. The study showed that the seismic input greatly affects the behaviour of the isolated structure, and therefore the design ground motion must be carefully chosen, dependent on the characteristics of the site. A simple procedure that involves mainly linear dynamic analyses is proposed for the design of base devices used in conjunction with superstructures of any fundamental vibration period. The procedure produces good results in spite of its simplicity, and therefore it is suitable for practical use by design engineers. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Hybrid platform for vibration control of high-tech equipment in buildings subject to ground motion. EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2003Part 1: experimentAbstract This paper presents an experimental study, while a companion paper addresses an analytical study, to explore the possibility of using a hybrid platform to mitigate vibration of a batch of high-tech equipment installed in a building subject to nearby traffic-induced ground motion. A three-storey building model and a hybrid platform model are designed and manufactured. The hybrid platform is mounted on the building floor through passive mounts composed of leaf springs and oil dampers and controlled actively by an electromagnetic actuator with velocity feedback control strategy. The passive mounts are designed in such a way that the stiffness and damping ratio of the platform can be changed. A series of shaking table tests are then performed on the building model without the platform, with the passive platform of different parameters, and with the hybrid platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid platform is very effective in reducing the velocity response of a batch of high-tech equipment in the building subject to nearby traffic-induced ground motion if dynamic properties of the platform and control feedback gain are selected appropriately. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] |