Great Flexibility (great + flexibility)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Co-initial Swap Market Model

ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 2 2004
Stefano Galluccio
In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to the pricing and the risk management of generic European style interest-rate derivatives. This new model has great flexibility and has the advantage of avoiding complex model calibration techniques typical of standard short-rate models. Dynamics is assigned on a set of co-initial forward swap rates, and arbitrage-free restrictions are determined in a normal and lognormal setup. Model implementation and calibration are discussed, and details of two example applications are also presented. (J.E.L.: G12, G13). [source]

Transport and deformation of droplets in a microdevice using dielectrophoresis

Pushpendra Singh Professor
Abstract In microfluidic devices the fluid can be manipulated either as continuous streams or droplets. The latter is particularly attractive as individual droplets can not only move but also split and fuse, thus offering great flexibility for applications such as laboratory-on-a-chip. We consider the transport of liquid drops immersed in a surrounding liquid by means of the dielectrophoretic force generated by electrodes mounted at the bottom of a microdevice. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach is used to study the motion of droplets subjected to both hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces. Our technique is based on a finite element scheme using the fundamental equations of motion for both the droplets and surrounding fluid. The interface is tracked by the level set method and the electrostatic forces are computed using the Maxwell stress tensor. The DNS results show that the droplets move, and deform, under the action of nonuniform electric stresses on their surfaces. The deformation increases as the drop moves closer to the electrodes. The extent to which the isolated drops deform depends on the electric Weber number. When the electric Weber number is small, the drops remain spherical; otherwise, the drops stretch. Two droplets, however, that are sufficiently close to each other, can deform and coalesce, even if the electric Weber number is small. This phenomenon does not rely on the magnitude of the electric stresses generated by the bulk electric field, but instead is due to the attractive electrostatic drop,drop interaction overcoming the surface tension force. Experimental results are also presented and found to be in agreement with the DNS results. [source]

The Mechanics of Duetting in a New Zealand Endemic, the Kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni): Song at a Snail's Pace

ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
Laura E. Molles
New Zealand's endemic, duetting kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) produce one of the longest known bird songs (ca 30 s) and duets that differ strikingly from those of most duetters in their unusual length and non-repetitive structure, long pauses between component phrases, and the great flexibility in sex roles. Here we present a structural analysis of the vocalizations of 17 kokako pairs collected during natural song bouts and in response to conspecific playback, to gain insight into the functional role of this extraordinary vocal behavior. Males tend to sing a greater proportion of the duet than females. Like many duetting species, kokako have a moderately sized repertoire of phrases (mean repertoire size =18) and pair members tend to sing antiphonally rather than in unison. Sharing of phrase types is high among neighboring kokako ( = 86%) and repertoires are not sex specific, as is typical of some but not all duetting species. Timing characteristics, broad sharing of phrase types, and countersinging behavior strongly suggest that kokako duets play an important role in territory defense. Additionally, differences in pairs' sex role and phrase sequence flexibility suggest that these aspects of duet performance may reflect pair-bond length or commitment, and require a time investment by pair members. [source]

Sol,Gel Derived Nanocomposites for Optical Applications

Peter W. de Oliveira
This paper provides a selective description of the development of nanostructured materials and the fabrication of the devices for optical applications. Examples are interference coatings, refractive and diffractive lenses, and macro- and micro-GRIN (graded refractive index) optical elements. Hybrid materials containing nanoparticles are of particular interest for the production of optical elements because, by exploiting the intrinsic solid state properties of the nanoparticles, nanocomposites can be tailored to exhibit the desired properties. A particular advantage of wet chemical processing lies in its great flexibility for depositing functional coatings. [source]

Conjugated Polymer Based on Polycyclic Aromatics for Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: A Case Study of Quadrathienonaphthalene Polymers with 2% Efficiency

Shengqiang Xiao
Abstract Polycyclic aromatics offer great flexibility in tuning the energy levels and bandgaps of resulting conjugated polymers. These features have been exploited in the recent examples of benzo[2,1- b:3,4- b']dithiophene (BDT)-based polymers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics (ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2009, 1, 1613). Taking one step further, a simple oxidative photocyclization is used here to convert the BDT with two pendent thiophene units into an enlarged planar polycyclic aromatic ring,quadrathienonaphthalene (QTN). The reduced steric hindrance and more planar structure promotes the intermolecular interaction of QTN- based polymers, leading to increased hole mobility in related polymers. As-synthesized homopolymer (HMPQTN) and donor,acceptor polymer (PQTN - BT) maintain a low highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level, ascribable to the polycyclic aromatic (QTN) moiety, which leads to a good open-circuit voltage in BHJ devices of these polymers blended with PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester; HMPQTN: 0.76,V, PQTN - BT: 0.72,V). The donor,acceptor polymer (PQTN - BT) has a smaller optical bandgap (1.6,eV) than that of HMPQTN (2.0,eV), which explains its current (5.69,mA,cm,2) being slightly higher than that of HMPQTN (5.02,mA,cm,2). Overall efficiencies over 2% are achieved for BHJ devices fabricated from either polymer with PCBM as the acceptor. [source]

Evaluation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for use in risk assessment,

Weihsueh A. Chiu
Abstract Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are sophisticated dosimetry models that offer great flexibility in modeling exposure scenarios for which there are limited data. This is particularly of relevance to assessing human exposure to environmental toxicants, which often requires a number of extrapolations across species, route, or dose levels. The continued development of PBPK models ensures that regulatory agencies will increasingly experience the need to evaluate available models for their application in risk assessment. To date, there are few published criteria or well-defined standards for evaluating these models. Herein, important considerations for evaluating such models are described. The evaluation of PBPK models intended for risk assessment applications should include a consideration of: model purpose, model structure, mathematical representation, parameter estimation, computer implementation, predictive capacity and statistical analyses. Model purpose and structure require qualitative checks on the biological plausibility of a model. Mathematical representation, parameter estimation, computer implementation involve an assessment of the coding of the model, as well as the selection and justification of the physical, physicochemical and biochemical parameters chosen to represent a biological organism. Finally, the predictive capacity and sensitivity, variability and uncertainty of the model are analysed so that the applicability of a model for risk assessment can be determined. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Aerobic biodegradation of MtBE in an upflow fixed bed reactor

Emma Bianchi
Abstract BACKGROUND: An aerobic upflow fixed bed reactor (UFBR) was densely colonized by a bacterial consortium, obtained from gasoline polluted waters, able to mineralize MtBE and BTEX. The system was studied in order to determine its capability to degrade the MtBE present in prepared solutions and in real contaminated aquifers and was operating for more than a year. RESULTS: Efficient colonization of the reactor took about 50 days, utilizing bacteria grown in continuous culture in a fermenter connected to the UFBR. During the study the influence of feed concentration of MtBE, temperature and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was analyzed. The system, running at 18 C on synthetic medium, was fed at an influent MtBE concentration of 27.8 mg L,1 with HRT of 5 h showing 99.98% of MtBE degradation. When working with polluted groundwater, the system achieved 100% BTEX degradation and 99.34% MtBE degradation. CONCLUSION: The UFBR was tested on synthetic medium spiked with MtBE and on groundwater contaminated with MtBE and BTEX at concentrations of 50,60 ppm and a few ppm, respectively. The reactor responded efficiently showing great flexibility and capability of adjustment to different operating conditions with MtBE degradation of nearly 100%. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Advances in Campylobacter biology and implications for biotechnological applications

Byeonghwa Jeon
Summary Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiology of this organism. It is apparent that C. jejuni utilizes sophisticated mechanisms for effective colonization of the intestinal tracts in various animal species. Although Campylobacter is fragile in the environment and requires fastidious growth conditions, it exhibits great flexibility in the adaptation to various habitats including the gastrointestinal tract. This high adaptability is attributable to its genetically, metabolically and phenotypically diverse population structure and its ability to change in response to various challenges. Unlike other enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Campylobacter is unable to utilize exogenous glucose and mainly depends on the catabolism of amino acids as a carbon source. Campylobacter proves highly mutable in response to antibiotic treatments and possesses eukaryote-like dual protein glycosylation systems, which modify flagella and other surface proteins with specific sugar structures. In this review we will summarize the distinct biological traits of Campylobacter and discuss the potential biotechnological approaches that can be developed to control this enteric pathogen. [source]

Polymeric Photosensitizer Prodrugs for Photodynamic Therapy

Marino A. Campo
ABSTRACT A targeting strategy based on the selective enzyme-mediated activation of polymeric photosensitizer prodrugs (PPP) within pathological tissue has led to the development of agents with the dual ability to detect and treat cancer. Herein, a detailed study of a simple model system for these prodrugs is described. We prepared "first-generation" PPP by directly tethering the photosensitizer (PS) pheophorbide a to poly-(l)-lysine via epsilon amide links and observed that by increasing the number of PS on a polymer chain, energy transfer between PS units improved leading to better quenching efficiency. Fragmentation of the PPP backbone by trypsin digestion gave rise to a pronounced fluorescence increase and to more efficient generation of reactive oxygen species upon light irradiation. In vitro tests using the T-24 bladder carcinoma cell line and ex vivo experiments using mouse intestines illustrated the remarkable and selective ability of these PPP to fluoresce and induce phototoxicity upon enzymatic activation. This work elucidated the basic physicochemical parameters, such as water solubility and quenching/activation behavior, required for the future elaboration of more adaptable "second-generation" PPP, in which the PS is tethered to a proteolytically stable polymer backbone via enzyme-specific peptide linkers. This polymer architecture offers great flexibility to tailor make the PPP to target any pathological tissue known to over-express a specific enzyme. [source]

Polygonal finite element formulations for 2d linear-elastic FE problems

Markus Kraus
Polygonal finite elements provide great flexibility meshing complex structures and for the refinement of meshes. The actual task in the development of these elements is to offer adequate and secure numerical results compared with regular finite elements at low computational costs. Particulary, finding an efficient and appropriate interpolation of the arbitrary element domain exhibits strong difficulties. Based on the general interpolant equation three element formulations are shown that use different interpolation strategies. The elements' performances are shown with a numerical example considering 2d linear elasticity. The results of the different element formulations are compared among each other, with analytical as well as with regular elements' results. ( 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Dithioether ligands containing a 2,6-disubstituted pyridine linker with two thioether-heterocycle arms

Archimede Rotondo
The structure of 2,6-bis(2-pyridyltsulfanylmethyl)pyridine (pytmp), (I), C17H15N3S2, presents a twisted conformation, with the three planar moieties almost perpendicular to each other. The structures of two related derivatives, namely 2,6-bis(6-methyl-2-pyridylsulfanylmethyl)pyridine (mpytmp), (II), C19H19N3S2, and 2,6-bis(4-methyl-2-pyrimidylsulfanylmethyl)pyridine (mprtmp) n- pentane hemisolvate, (III), C17H17N5S20.5C5H12, present extended planar fragments with just one quasi-perpendicular arylsulfanylmethyl side arm, such that the molecules are folded in an L-shaped conformation. All three conformations appear different from those adopted by similar compounds, demonstrating the great flexibility of such species, although such differences in conformational behaviour might drive specific coordination modes. [source]

Spatial ecology of a threatened python (Morelia spilota imbricata) and the effects of anthropogenic habitat change

Abstract Large predators play important ecological roles, but often are sensitive to habitat changes and thus are early casualties of habitat perturbation. Pythons are among the largest predators in many Australian environments, and hence warrant conservation-orientated research. Carpet pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) have declined across much of south-western Australia presumably because of habitat clearance and degradation. Information on habitat use, home range sizes and movements is needed to plan for the conservation of this important predator. We studied pythons at two study sites (Garden Island and Dryandra Woodland) with markedly different climates, habitat types and disturbance histories. We surgically implanted radio-transmitters in 91 pythons and tracked them for periods of 1 month to 4 years. Dryandra pythons remained inactive inside tree hollows during cooler months (May,September), whereas some (especially small) pythons on Garden Island continued to move and feed. Overall weekly displacements (mean = 100,150 m) were similar at the two study sites and among sex/age classes, except that reproductive females were sedentary during summer while they were incubating eggs. Home ranges averaged 15,20 ha. Adult male pythons had larger home ranges than adult females at Dryandra, but not at Garden Island. Radio-tracked snakes at Dryandra exhibited high site fidelity, returning to previously occupied logs after long absences and reusing tree hollows for winter shelter. Many of the logs used by snakes had been felled during plantation establishment >70 years ago, with little subsequent regeneration of source trees. In contrast, Garden Island snakes usually sheltered under dense shrubs. Habitat usage was similar among different sex/age classes of snakes at each site, except that juvenile pythons were more arboreal than adults. Although carpet pythons demonstrate great flexibility in habitat use, certain habitat elements appear critical for the persistence of viable populations. Fire plays a central role in this process, albeit in complex ways. For example, low-intensity fires reduce the availability of hollow logs on the ground at Dryandra and fail to regenerate shrub thickets required by prey species. Paradoxically, high-intensity fires stimulate shrub thickets and fell trees creating new logs , but might also threaten overwinter trees. Thus, the impact of disturbances (such as wildfires) on the viability of python populations will be mediated in complex ways by alteration to important microhabitats such as vegetation cover or log availability. At Dryandra, landscape management should include occasional fire events to generate new logs as well as shrub thickets used by prey. Strategic burning may also be required at Garden Island to regenerate some vegetation communities. [source]

Partly Functional Temporal Process Regression with Semiparametric Profile Estimating Functions

BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2009
Jun Yan
Summary Marginal mean models of temporal processes in event time data analysis are gaining more attention for their milder assumptions than the traditional intensity models. Recent work on fully functional temporal process regression (TPR) offers great flexibility by allowing all the regression coefficients to be nonparametrically time varying. The existing estimation procedure, however, prevents successive goodness-of-fit test for covariate coefficients in comparing a sequence of nested models. This article proposes a partly functional TPR model in the line of marginal mean models. Some covariate effects are time independent while others are completely unspecified in time. This class of models is very rich, including the fully functional model and the semiparametric model as special cases. To estimate the parameters, we propose semiparametric profile estimating equations, which are solved via an iterative algorithm, starting at a consistent estimate from a fully functional model in the existing work. No smoothing is needed, in contrast to other varying-coefficient methods. The weak convergence of the resultant estimators are developed using the empirical process theory. Successive tests of time-varying effects and backward model selection procedure can then be carried out. The practical usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated through a simulation study and a real example of recurrent exacerbation among cystic fibrosis patients. [source]