Great Cardiac Vein (great + cardiac_vein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Temporary Occlusion of the Great Cardiac Vein and Coronary Sinus to Facilitate Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of the Mitral Isthmus

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
ANDRE D'AVILA M.D.
Introduction: Ablation of the mitral isthmus to achieve bidirectional conduction block is technically challenging, and incomplete block slows isthmus conduction and is often proarrhythmic. The presence of the blood pool in the coronary venous system may act as a heat-sink, thereby attenuating transmural RF lesion formation. This porcine study tested the hypothesis that elimination of this heat-sink effect by complete air occlusion of the coronary sinus (CS) would facilitate transmural endocardial ablation at the mitral isthmus. Methods: This study was performed in nine pigs using a 30 mm-long prototype linear CS balloon catheter able to occlude and displace the blood within the CS (the balloon was inflated with ,5 cc of air). Using a 3.5 mm irrigated catheter (35 W, 30 cc/min, 1 minute lesions), two sets of mitral isthmus ablation lines were placed per animal: one with the balloon deflated (CS open) and one inflated (CS Occluded). After ablation, gross pathological analysis of the linear lesions was performed. Results: A total of 17 ablation lines were placed: 7 with CS Occlusion, and 10 without occlusion. Despite similar biophysical characteristics of the individual lesions, lesion transmurality was consistently noted only when using the air-filled CS balloon. Conclusions: Temporary displacement of the venous blood pool using an air-filled CS balloon permits transmurality of mitral isthmus ablation; this may obviate the need for ablation within the CS to achieve bidirectional mitral isthmus conduction. [source]


Mapping the Coronary Sinus and Great Cardiac Vein

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
MICHAEL GIUDICI
GIUDICI, M., et al.: Mapping the Coronary Sinus and Great Cardiac Vein. The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the pacing and sensing characteristics of electrodes placed in the proximal cardiac veins. A detailed mapping of the coronary sinus (CS) and great cardiac vein (GCV) was done on 25 patients with normal sinus rhythm using a deflectable electrophysiological catheter. Intrinsic bipolar electrograms and atrial and ventricular pacing voltage thresholds were measured. For measurement purposes, the GCV and the CS were each subdivided into distal (D), middle (M), and proximal (P) regions, for a total of six test locations. Within the CS and GCV, the average atrial pacing threshold was always lower (P < 0.05) than the ventricle with an average ventricular to atrial ratio > 5, except for the GCV-D. The average atrial threshold in the CS and GCV ranged from 0.2, to 1.0-V higher than in the atrial appendage. Diaphragmatic pacing was observed in three patients. Atrial signal amplitude was greatest in the CS-M, CS-D, and GCV-P and smaller in the CS-P, GCV-M, and GCV-D. Electrode spacing did not significantly affect P wave amplitude, while narrower electrode spacing attenuated R wave amplitude. The average P:R ratio was highest with 5-mm-spaced electrodes compared to wider spaced pairs. The P:R ratio in the CS was higher (P < 0.05) than in all positions of the GVC. It is possible to pace the atrium independent of the ventricle at reasonably low thresholds and to detect atrial depolarization without undue cross-talk or noise using closely spaced bipolar electrode pairs. The areas of the proximal, middle, and distal CS produced the best combination of pacing and sensing parameters. [source]


Effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty on coronary adenosine concentrations in humans

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 2 2000
Paganelli
Background Even minimal amounts of adenosine is released during myocardial ischemia. Its role in coronary blood flow has been extensively studied, but little is known about its behaviour during percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) in man. Material and methods Using in situ samples the aim of this study was to evaluate adenosine plasma concentration before and after PTCA. Ten patients (8 men and 2 women, mean age 65 9 years) with a single stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of at least 70% and 10 healthy volunteers (4 men and 6 women, mean age 55 9 years) were included in the study. Results and discussion We found that there is a close relationship between the degree of the stenosis and the adenosine concentrations in the great cardiac vein and in the LAD, and that after PTCA there is a drop in adenosine concentration downstream from the stenosis. This study confirms the crucial role of adenosine in coronary blood flow control. [source]


Impact of Tricuspid Regurgitation and Prior Coronary Bypass Surgery on the Geometry of the Coronary Sinus: A Rotational Coronary Angiography Study

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
DAN BLENDEA M.D., Ph.D.
Coronary Venous Geometry in Patients Undergoing CRT.,Introduction: The coronary sinus (CS) is often distorted in patients with advanced cardiomyopathy, making CS cannulation difficult. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the underlying cardiac pathology on the variability of the CS anatomy, using rotational coronary venous angiography (RCVA). Methods and Results: Seventy-nine patients undergoing RCVA for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were evaluated: age 63 15 years, 43% with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aspects of the CS anatomy which could impact cannulation were examined: the CS ostial angle, the posterior displacement of the CS away from the atrioventricular groove, a measure of CS curvature, and the presence of stenoses and aneurysmal dilatations. The CS ostial angle was variable (65,151, mean 119 19, <90 in 8 patients) and decreased significantly (P = 0.0022) with increasing severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), reaching 94 18 in patients with severe TR. The posterior displacement of the CS was significantly more accentuated in patients with prior CABG when compared with the patients without CABG (7.1 3.7 vs 4.5 2.8 mm; P = 0.0246). The decrease in luminal diameter at the CS,great cardiac vein (GCV) junction was 2.0 1.0 mm, being more pronounced in patients with prior CABG versus nonCABG (26 vs 20%; P = 0.042). Stenoses and aneurysmal dilatations of the CS,GCV were encountered in 4 (5%) and 6 (8%) of patients, respectively, all of them with prior CABG, representing 12% and 18% of the CABG group. Conclusion: The CS anatomy in patients undergoing CRT is variable, and is impacted by the severity of the underlying TR and history of a prior CABG. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 436,440, April 2010) [source]


Idiopathic Left Ventricular Arrhythmias Originating Adjacent to the Left Aortic Sinus of Valsalva: Electrophysiological Rationale for the Surface Electrocardiogram

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
TAKUMI YAMADA M.D.
IVT Arising Adjacent to the Left Sinus of Valsalva.Background: Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) may be amenable to catheter ablation within or adjacent to the left sinus of Valsalva (LSOV). However, features that discriminate these sites have not been defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the electrocardiographic and electrophysiological features of VAs originating within or adjacent to the LSOV. Methods and Results: We studied 48 consecutive patients undergoing successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs originating from the left coronary cusp (LCC, n = 29), aortomitral continuity (AMC, n = 10) and great cardiac vein or anterior interventricular cardiac vein (Epi, n = 9). A small r wave, or rarely an R wave, was typically observed in lead I during the VAs and pacing in these regions. An S wave in lead V5 or V6 occurred significantly more often during both the VAs and pacing from the AMC than during that from the LCC and Epi (p < 0.05 to 0.0001). For discriminating whether VA origins can be ablated endocardially or epicardially, the maximum deflection index (MDI = the shortest time to the maximum deflection in any precordial lead/QRS duration) was reliable for VAs arising from the AMC (100%), but was less reliable for LCC (73%) and Epi (67%) VAs. In 3 (33%) of the Epi VAs, the site of an excellent pace map was located transmurally opposite to the successful ablation site (LCC = 1 and AMC = 2). Conclusions: The MDI has limited value for discriminating endocardial from epicardial VA origins in sites adjacent to the LSOV probably due to preferential conduction, intramural VA origins or myocardium in contact with the LCC. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 170-176, February 2010) [source]


Mapping the Coronary Sinus and Great Cardiac Vein

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
MICHAEL GIUDICI
GIUDICI, M., et al.: Mapping the Coronary Sinus and Great Cardiac Vein. The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the pacing and sensing characteristics of electrodes placed in the proximal cardiac veins. A detailed mapping of the coronary sinus (CS) and great cardiac vein (GCV) was done on 25 patients with normal sinus rhythm using a deflectable electrophysiological catheter. Intrinsic bipolar electrograms and atrial and ventricular pacing voltage thresholds were measured. For measurement purposes, the GCV and the CS were each subdivided into distal (D), middle (M), and proximal (P) regions, for a total of six test locations. Within the CS and GCV, the average atrial pacing threshold was always lower (P < 0.05) than the ventricle with an average ventricular to atrial ratio > 5, except for the GCV-D. The average atrial threshold in the CS and GCV ranged from 0.2, to 1.0-V higher than in the atrial appendage. Diaphragmatic pacing was observed in three patients. Atrial signal amplitude was greatest in the CS-M, CS-D, and GCV-P and smaller in the CS-P, GCV-M, and GCV-D. Electrode spacing did not significantly affect P wave amplitude, while narrower electrode spacing attenuated R wave amplitude. The average P:R ratio was highest with 5-mm-spaced electrodes compared to wider spaced pairs. The P:R ratio in the CS was higher (P < 0.05) than in all positions of the GVC. It is possible to pace the atrium independent of the ventricle at reasonably low thresholds and to detect atrial depolarization without undue cross-talk or noise using closely spaced bipolar electrode pairs. The areas of the proximal, middle, and distal CS produced the best combination of pacing and sensing parameters. [source]


Great cardiac vein variations

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2004
Gerald S. Bales
Abstract A novel variation in the relationship of the great cardiac vein to the circumflex artery was observed in an otherwise normal cadaver heart. Vessels originated and terminated normally, but in their midcourse they were twisted around each other such that each made one complete loop around the other. This variation did not seem to be involved in any pathologies. Variations in the course of the great cardiac vein have been little studied until recently, but their simplicity emphasizes the uniqueness of our intertwined case. Commonly, the great cardiac vein varies with respect to presence, location, and the superficial or deep relationship of single crossings of the anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries. Although rare, the intertwined variation described in the present case may have important basic science implications for understanding mechanisms of vasculo-angiogenesis, and clinical implications for catheter-based procedures and surgeries in the region of the coronary sulcus. Also, a review of great cardiac vein variations is presented herein. Clin. Anat. 17:436,443, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]