Great Advantages (great + advantage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Vertical double-gate MOSFET device technology

Meishoku Masahara
Abstract Silicon device technology is facing several difficulties. Especially, explosion of power consumption due to short-channel effects (SCEs) becomes the biggest issue in further device scaling down. Fortunately, double-gate (DG) MOSFETs have promising potential to overcome this obstacle. The DG-MOSFET is recognized to be the most scalable MOSFET for its high SCE immunity. In addition, independent DG-MOSFET (4T-DG-MOSFET) has great advantage to enable the threshold voltage control for the flexible power management. Through this work, we have realized ideal DG-MOSFETs using newly developed vertical DG-MOSFET device technology. This article examines the effectiveness of the vertical DG-MOSFETs in future high-performance and ultralow-power CMOS circuits. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 91(1): 46, 51, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.10021 [source]

Estimating within-field variation using a nonparametric density algorithm

A. Castrignanò
Abstract The application of site-specific techniques and technologies in precision farming requires subdividing a field into a generally small number of contiguous homogeneous zones. The proposed algorithm of clustering is based on nonparametric density estimate, where a cluster is defined as a region surrounding a local maximum of the probability density function. Soil samples were collected in a 2-ha field of the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Institute, located in Foggia (Southern Italy) and some of the most production-affecting soil properties were interpolated by using the geostatistical techniques of kriging and cokriging. The application of the clustering approach to the (co)kriged surface variables produced the subdivision of the field into five distinct classes. The proposed algorithm proves quite promising in identifying spatially contiguous zones, which are more homogeneous in soil properties than the whole-field. Its great advantage consists in giving an additional description of the residual variation within the class and such a piece of information is very useful in precision farming as a basis for the variable-rate application of agronomic inputs. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Seasonal changes in radiation and evaporation implied from the diurnal distribution of rainfall in the Lower Mekong

Kumiko Tsujimoto
Abstract Solar radiation is an important input to many empirical equations for estimating evaporation, which in turn plays an important role in the hydrologic cycle in the Lower Mekong River Basin due to the high evaporation potential of the tropical monsoon climate. Few proper meteorological data exist for the Lower Mekong River Basin, however, and the region's meteorological conditions, including seasonal variation in radiation and evaporation, have not been clarified. In this study, ground-based hourly hydrometeorological data were collected at three observation stations located in different land-use types (urban district, paddy area, and lake) in the Lower Mekong River Basin. These data were analysed to investigate the seasonal variation in radiation and evaporation related to the diurnal distribution of rainfall. Contrary to common expectations, our results showed that rainy and dry seasons had nearly the same amount of solar radiation in the Lower Mekong River Basin because (1) rainy seasons had a relatively larger amount of extraterrestrial radiation; (2) no rain fell on nearly half of the days during rainy seasons; and (3) the amount of solar radiation on rainy days reached 88% of that on non-rainy days. The third factor was attributed to the high frequency of evening rainfall. Furthermore, this rainfall,radiation relationship meant that rainy seasons had a large amount of net radiation due to the low reduction ratio of solar radiation and an increase in long-wave incoming radiation. Accordingly, rainy seasons had a high evaporation potential. Moreover, for the rain-fed rice paddies that prevail in this region, sufficient radiation during the rainy season would be a great advantage for rice growing. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An efficient time-domain damping solvent extraction algorithm and its application to arch dam,foundation interaction analysis

Hong Zhong
Abstract The dynamic structure,unbounded foundation interaction plays an important role in the seismic response of structures. The damping solvent extraction (DSE) method put forward by Wolf and Song has a great advantage of simplicity, with no singular integrals to be evaluated, no fundamental solution required and convolution integrals avoided. However, implementation of DSE in the time domain to large-scale engineering problems is associated with enormous difficulties in evaluating interaction forces on the structure,unbounded foundation interface, because the displacement on the corresponding interface is an unknown vector to be found. Three sets of interrelated large algebraic equations have to be solved simultaneously. To overcome these difficulties, an efficient algorithm is presented, such that the solution procedure can be greatly simplified and computational effort considerably saved. To verify its accuracy, two examples with analytical solutions were investigated, each with a parameter analysis on the domain size and amount of artificial damping. Then with the parameters suggested in the parameter study, the complex frequency,response functions and earthquake time history analysis of Morrow Point dam were presented to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of DSE approach. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Diameter of the human internal acoustic meatus and sex determination

N. Lynnerup
Abstract We report the results of testing the diameter of the internal opening of the acoustic canal in the petrous part of the temporal bone for sex determination of skeletal remains. The method involves measuring the diameter using a suite of ordinary drills. The method is very simple and has the great advantage of utilising one of the sturdiest bone elements of the human skeleton. The method may be especially useful for the analyses of very fragmented skeletal remains or cremated bones, where the petrous bone may still be readily recognisable. The method was tested using a forensic sample of 113 left petrous bones with known sex. Intra- and inter-observer testing was also performed. We found a statistically significant difference in diameter between males and females (means: males: 3.7,mm; females: 3.4,mm; P,<,0.009). However, the low predictive value (70%) for correct sexing using two sectioning points (,<,3.0,mm,=,female; >3.5,mm,=,male) was disappointing. No additional accuracy was gained by employing both left and right petrous bones (a bilateral sample of 60 petrous bones was also tested), although left and right side diameter is highly correlated (R,=,0.778; P,=,0.0001). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of a dipstick dye immunoassay for diagnosing hydatidosis

Younes Sbihi
Abstract We have developed a kit to diagnose hydatidosis, based on the detection of specific antibodies. This disease, caused by larvae of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a zoonosis commonly found throughout the world. The diagnostic kit discriminates between positive and negative cases in a way that is easily interpreted, i.e., positive cases form a colored band on an inert substrate. The results show test sensitivity to be some 94.87% and specificity 85.71%, which is comparable to those of the ELISA technique. The high sensitivity and specificity of this test affords the great advantage of speed in diagnosing this parasitosis. No other equipment or procedure is required. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 17:219,222, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

HPLC for stress-free screening of potential prostate cancer marker catechol estrogens in urine using a diamond-electrode electrochemical and a fluorescence detector

Masatoki Katayama
Abstract Improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of a simultaneous stress-free screening method for catechol estrogens as a potential prostate cancer marker in urine has been accomplished by HPLC with a diamond-electrode electrochemical detector and a fluorescence detector. Since taking urine samples generates less stress (or pain) than the drawing of blood, the method can readily be applied to almost any patient, and will also assist in improving the sensitivity and specificity of the prostatic specific antigen test. Catechol estrogens (2-hydroxyestrone, 4-hydroxyestrone, 2-methoxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, and 2-hydroxyestriol) and estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estriol) were separated on an Inertsil ODS-II column with acetonitrile,potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0). The diamond-electrode electrochemical detector used had the great advantage of being a maintenance-free system, and could sequentially analyze hundreds of samples. Fluorescence detection improved the sensitivity 10,500 times (e. g., the LOD of 2-hydroxyestriol was improved 250 times) compared to previous electrochemical detection reports, and dual detection improved peak identification in the urine samples. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of catechol estrogens in spiked urine in a preliminary study on estrogens and PSA values in biopsy and prostate cancer patients. [source]

Protecting babies: vaccine strategies to prevent foetopathy in Neospora caninum -infected cattle

Review Article
SUMMARY Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is a significant infectious abortifacient agent in cattle. Despite the fact that it is a member of a well described taxonomic group, it is a relatively newly discovered parasite and its biology is not yet fully understood. Cattle become infected either congenitally via transplacental transmission or post-natally by ingesting oocysts derived from the definitive host; dogs and coyotes are the only definitive hosts that have been described to date. It is not known which of these two forms of transmission occurs most frequently and which is the most likely to result in abortion; there are no drugs available to treat infected cattle, so current control strategies rely on prevention of infection by management methods and strict hygiene; an effective vaccine would be a great advantage in its control. Neospora caninum is an economically important veterinary pathogen, but we can also draw analogies between its foetopathic effects and those of human pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamydophila abortus and Plasmodium falciparum. Understanding the immune response and the materno,foetal relationship in N. caninum -infected cattle may help us to design vaccination strategies, not only for neosporosis but also for other foetopathic agents. [source]

Short-term dynamics and long-term recolonization of protozoa in soil

Most studies of Protozoa in the soil are based on the "most probable number" (MPN) estimates from cultured sub-samples. This approach has been criticized in recent years by protistologists. In order to work around these criticisms, we have tried to develop a set of procedures that rely on direct counts, without culturing. We show that the method is more sensitive and requires less effort than the MPN approach. Our species extractions focus on "active species at the time of sampling", and we tried to estimate the variation between days, as species adjust to soil moisture and temperature changes over several days. These variations are compared to species composition and abundance fluctuations observed between seasons, in decomposing leaf litter bags. We also obtained abundance and community structure data based on samples from a 25-year agro-ecosystem chronosequence under no-tillage management. We found that direct count methods, without prior culturing of samples, were more sensitive in detecting changes over several days, over several months, and in decadal succession from field samples. This provides a great advantage over culture-based methods that generally fail to distinguish between encysted and re-activated species. [source]

Early fate of Myristica hypargyraea seeds dispersed by Ducula pacifica in Tonga, Western Polynesia

Abstract Although pigeons from the genus Ducula are considered among the best avian dispersers of large seeds in Asia and the Pacific, little has been documented on their role. The early fate of dispersed and undispersed seeds of the large-seeded tree Myristica hypargyraea A. Gray was studied in order to understand the advantage of seed dispersal by the Pacific Pigeon, Ducula pacifica Gmelin in Tonga. Frequency of visits by frugivores to fruiting trees and dispersal distance of seeds were measured. Pre-dispersal vertebrate seed predation was assessed, then post-dispersal predation was measured over 160 days. Overall, pre-dispersal seed predation by parrots was low but variable among trees sampled. Most seeds (54.7%) in the study area were estimated to be dispersed by D. pacifica; 79.7% of those ingested were expelled directly beneath conspecific fruiting crowns, 20% were dispersed locally and <,0.3% were dispersed more than 300 m into a different forest type. Flying foxes (Pteropus tonganus Quoy and Gaimard) dispersed very few seeds (0.7%) and all were dropped below fruiting crowns. Between 4% and 39% of dispersed and undispersed seeds were still viable, or had established seedlings after 160 days. Most seeds had been removed or killed by rats, and seed survival was highest for locally dispersed seeds (approx. 20 m from source trees and within the M. hypargyraea forest). Although D. pacifica was the only frugivore observed to disperse seeds into this higher zone of survival, overall they did not confer a great advantage to seed survival since significant numbers of seeds/seedlings also persisted under fruiting crowns (27% under crowns compared with 39% locally dispersed). Nevertheless, D. pacifica was the only vector by which seeds were regularly moved within the M. hypargyraea forest and over longer distances, and hence, D. pacifica still plays a significant role in the regeneration of M. hypargyraea. [source]

Dichloro-Bis(aminophosphine) Complexes of Palladium: Highly Convenient, Reliable and Extremely Active Suzuki,Miyaura Catalysts with Excellent Functional Group Tolerance

Abstract Dichloro-bis(aminophosphine) complexes are stable depot forms of palladium nanoparticles and have proved to be excellent Suzuki,Miyaura catalysts. Simple modifications of the ligand (and/or the addition of water to the reaction mixture) have allowed their formation to be controlled. Dichlorobis[1-(dicyclohexylphosphanyl)piperidine]palladium (3), the most active catalyst of the investigated systems, is a highly convenient, reliable, and extremely active Suzuki catalyst with excellent functional group tolerance that enables the quantitative coupling of a wide variety of activated, nonactivated, and deactivated and/or sterically hindered functionalized and heterocyclic aryl and benzyl bromides with only a slight excess (1.1,1.2,equiv) of arylboronic acid at 80,°C in the presence of 0.2,mol,% of the catalyst in technical grade toluene in flasks open to the air. Conversions of >95,% were generally achieved within only a few minutes. The reaction protocol presented herein is universally applicable. Side-products have only rarely been detected. The catalytic activities of the aminophosphine-based systems were found to be dramatically improved compared with their phosphine analogue as a result of significantly faster palladium nanoparticle formation. The decomposition products of the catalysts are dicyclohexylphosphinate, cyclohexylphosphonate, and phosphate, which can easily be separated from the coupling products, a great advantage when compared with non-water-soluble phosphine-based systems. [source]

Potential role of colour-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast in the screening and follow-up of vesicoureteral reflux

G Ascenti
Primary vesicoureteral reflux is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infections in children. The first-choice technique for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux is voiding cystourethrography, followed by cystoscintigraphy; cystoscintigraphy, however, has the advantage of only minor irradiation of the patient, but it does not allow the morphological evaluation of bladder and vesicoureteral reflux grading. Colour-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast is a recently introduced method for imaging vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of colour-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Twenty children (11M, 9F) aged between 0.4 and 4.9 y underwent colour-Doppler cystosonography using a diluted solution of Levovist® (Schering, Germany), after filling up the bladder with saline. In all patients, vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis and grading had been performed previously by voiding cystourethrography within 5 d from ultrasonography. Our data showed high accuracy in the detection of medium to severe vesicoureteral reflux (grades III-V), confirmed by radiological features in 9/9 patients. Conversely, in the 11 patients with mild vesicoureteral reflux (grades I-II), this technique showed extremely low sensitivity, allowing diagnosis in only four cases. Conclusions: Colour-Doppler cystosonography, because of the absence of ionizing radiations, has great advantages, particularly in patients needing prolonged monitoring. Despite experiences reported in the literature, this technique has a role in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Our group chooses colour-Doppler cystosonography for the follow-up of medium-severe grade vesicoureteral reflux already diagnosed by radiology and/or scintigraphy. Cystoscintigraphy is employed only to confirm cases resulting negative at ultrasonography. [source]

Development of microreactor array chip-based measurement system for massively parallel analysis of enzymatic activity

Yosuke Hosoi
Abstract Microarray chip technology such as DNA chips, peptide chips, and protein chips is one of the promising approaches for achieving high-throughput screening (HTS) of biomolecule function since it has great advantages in feasibility of automated information processing due to one-to-one indexing between array position and molecular function as well as massively parallel sample analysis as a benefit of downsizing and large-scale integration. Mostly, however, the function that can be evaluated by such microarray chips is limited to affinity of target molecules. In this paper, we propose a new HTS system and enzymatic activity based on microreactor array chip technology. A prototype of the automated and massively parallel measurement system for fluorometric assay of enzymatic reactions was developed by the combination of microreactor array chips and a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope. Design strategy of microreactor array chips and an optical measurement platform for the high-throughput enzyme assay are discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(4): 35,41, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/ecj.10056 [source]

Arbitrary placement of local meshes in a global mesh by the interface-element method (IEM)

Hyun-Gyu KimArticle first published online: 25 FEB 200
Abstract A new method is proposed to place local meshes in a global mesh with the aid of the interface-element method (IEM). The interface-elements use moving least-square (MLS)-based shape functions to join partitioned finite-element domains with non-matching interfaces. The supports of nodes are defined to satisfy the continuity condition on the interfaces by introducing pseudonodes on the boundaries of interface regions. Particularly, the weight functions of nodes on the boundaries of interface regions span only neighbouring nodes, ensuring that the resulting shape functions are identical to those of adjoining finite-elements. The completeness of the shape functions of the interface-elements up to the order of basis provides a reasonable transfer of strain fields through the non-matching interfaces between partitioned domains. Taking these great advantages of the IEM, local meshes can be easily inserted at arbitrary places in a global mesh. Several numerical examples show the effectiveness of this technique for modelling of local regions in a global domain. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

IPv6 networks over DVB-RCS satellite systems

Ricardo Castellot Lou
Abstract Satellite plays an important role in global information infrastructure (GII) and next generation networks (NGNs). Similarly, satellite communication systems have great advantages to support IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) networks as a technology that allows universal access to broadband e-services (audio, video, VPN, etc.). In the context of DVB-S2 (digital video broadcast-satellite) and DVB-RCS (digital video broadcast-return channel via satellite) standards, this paper presents the current SatSix project (satellite-based communications systems within IPv6 networks) within the European 6th Framework Programme, which is implementing innovative concepts and effective solutions (in relation with the economical cost) for broadband satellite systems and services using the technology presented above. This project is promoting the introduction of the IPv6 protocol into satellite-based communication systems. Moreover, through SatSix, the industry is addressing the next generation Internet, IPv6. It also enhances its competitive position in satellite broadband multimedia systems by exploiting the common components defined by the European DVB-S2 and DVB-RCS satellite broadband standards. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Tradition and Sacred Texts

Robert Murray
It places a particular stress on the central place of liturgy in this relationship. It then compares Catholic views with those of the Eastern Orthodox, noting particularly what Syrian exegesis has to teach Western readers, and with those of Protestant and Anglican Christianity. It then addresses the claims of the heirs of tradition, believers, to be interpreters of scripture vis-à-vis scientific biblical scholarship, concluding that they have great advantages in sympathy and imagination in entering into dialogue with the texts. [source]

Poly(glutamic acid) poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels prepared by photoinduced polymerization: Synthesis, characterization, and preliminary release studies of protein drugs

Zhiqiang Yang
Abstract A class of new biodegradable hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-graft-poly(glutamic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate was synthesized by photoinduced polymerization. Because all the polymeric constituents were highly hydrophilic, crosslinking could be performed in aqueous solutions. This type of crosslinked hydrogel was prepared by modifying a select number of acidic side-groups on poly(glutamic acid) with poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. These modified chains were then crosslinked in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate under a photoinduced polymerization at a wavelength of 365 nm. Swelling experiments were conducted to study the crosslinking density, pH-responsive behavior, and degradation of the hydrogel. Results showed that the degree of swelling of this type of hydrogels increased as the crosslinker concentration (or density) was reduced. Because of the presence of acidic side chains on poly(glutamic acid), swelling behavior was found to be pH-responsive, increasing at high pH in response to the increase in the amount of ionized acidic side chains. The degradation rate of these hydrogels also varied with pH. More rapid degradation was observed under stronger alkaline conditions because of the hydrolysis of the ester bonds between the crosslinker and the polymer backbone. Practically useful degradation rates could be achieved for such hydrogels under physiological conditions. Drug release rates from these hydrogels were found to be proportional to the protein molecular weight and the crosslinker density; increasing at lower protein molecular weight or crosslinker density. The preliminary findings presented in this article suggest that this class of biodegradable hydrogels could be an attractive avenue for drug delivery applications. The specific photoinduced crosslinking chemistry used would permit hydrogels to be synthesized in existence of the entrapped macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, and cells. In addition, the rapid feature of this polymerization procedure along with the ability to perform hydrogel synthesis and drug loading in an aqueous environment would offer great advantages in retaining drug activity during hydrogel synthesis. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 62: 14,21, 2002 [source]

Predictive and interpolative biplots applied to canonical variate analysis in the discrimination of vegetable oils by their fatty acid composition

M. Rui Alves
Abstract The fatty acid profiles of 120 commercial unblended peanut, corn, soybean and sunflower vegetable oils and 17 commercial brands of blended edible oils were determined by HRGC/FID/capillary column, including several cis and trans isomers of mono-, di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids as well as fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. Although many statistical techniques may show some usefulness in the description and analysis of the data obtained, predictive biplots applied to canonical variate analysis prove to be a very useful way of carrying out interpretations and an important aid in building up models, while interpolative biplots display great advantages in the utilization of models for classification purposes on a day-to-day basis. Furthermore, these biplots require only a modest understanding of statistical tools, since all judgements are made regarding original fatty acids and original measuring units. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Being that bit older: mature students' experience of university and healthcare education

Dip COT Senior Lecturer, Margaret Shanahan MSc, PG Dip Stats
Abstract This study used a phenomenological approach to gain insight into the lives of a small number of mature female students on healthcare programmes at university. The qualitative methods used sought to reveal aspects of that lived experience that would explain why mature students lack confidence in their academic abilities. Data were collected from participants using an in-depth interview, a diary/journal, an open questionnaire and group discussion. The emergent themes showed that mature students see education as a catalyst for change in their lives and feel a tremendous pressure to succeed. With the multiple roles they have to juggle there is not enough time in the day to accomplish all the tasks to the high standard they expect of themselves. These compromises leave the women experiencing feelings of guilt, which seems to be expressed as anxiety about the academic demands of the programme. However, experience of life and the world of work is stated as one of the great advantages of being a mature student, and one that adds to their level of confidence as they prepare to qualify and enter the workforce. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Antigenic Variation in Ciliates: Antigen Structure, Function, Expression,

ABSTRACT. In the past decades, the major focus of antigen variation research has been on parasitic protists. However, antigenic variation occurs also in free-living protists. The antigenic systems of the ciliates Paramecium and Tetrahymena have been studied for more than 100 yr. In spite of different life strategies and distant phylogenetic relationships of free-living ciliates and parasitic protists, their antigenic systems have features in common, such as the presence of repeated protein motifs and multigene families. The function of variable surface antigens in free-living ciliates is still unknown. Up to now no detailed monitoring of antigen expression in free-living ciliates in natural habitats has been performed. Unlike stochastic switching in parasites, antigen expression in ciliates can be directed, e.g. by temperature, which holds great advantages for research on the expression mechanism. Regulated expression of surface antigens occurs in an exclusive way and the responsible mechanism is complex, involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional features. The involvement of homology-dependent effects has been proposed several times but has not been proved yet. [source]

Detecting concealed information with reaction times: Validity and comparison with the polygraph

Bruno Verschuere
The Concealed Information Test is used to assess recognition of information that the examinee cannot or does not want to reveal. Physiological measures recorded with the polygraph have shown to be highly valid measures of concealed information. Research suggests that a reaction-time (RT) based test may also successfully reveal concealed information. Due to its simplicity, an RT-based test has great advantages for applied testing. In the present study, we assessed the validity of the RT-based test for concealed information detection, and compared its discriminative power with the polygraph. Thirty two participants in a feigned amnesia study were promised a financial reward when successfully concealing autobiographical information. Participants performed an RT-based test, and a polygraph test. The data support the validity of the RT-based test for concealed information detection, and indicate its discriminative power is similar to the polygraph. Our data confirm the potential of the RT-based test. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Measurement of von Willebrand factor binding to a recombinant fragment of glycoprotein Ib, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method: performances in patients with type 2B von Willebrand disease

Claudine Caron
Summary Type 2B von Willebrand disease (VWD) is characterised by an increased affinity of von Willebrand factor (VWF) for its platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib (GPIb). This feature is usually studied in vitro by a ristocetin-dependent VWF platelet-binding assay, which has some limitations as it requires [e.g. (radio)-labelled anti-VWF antibodies and normal formaldehyde-fixed platelets]. We, here, extended the applicability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method previously described for the measurement of ristocetin co-factor activity that used a recombinant fragment of GPIb (rfGPIb,) and horseradish peroxidase-labelled rabbit anti-human VWF antibodies for measuring the captured ristocetin-VWF complexes on the rfGPIb,. Thirty-one type 2B VWD patients from 15 families with eight different known mutations were studied. VWF in plasma from 28 of these patients bound better than normal VWF at 0·2 mg/ml ristocetin, with the ratio, optical density (OD) patient/OD normal pool plasma, higher than 1·8. For two of the three other patients with no enhanced response of plasma VWF, the platelet lysate VWF showed an enhanced binding capacity; for the last patient, the results in other members of the family are unequivocal. We conclude that, this new method for measurement of plasma or platelet VWF-binding capacity offers great advantages for correct type 2B VWD diagnosis. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Oxazolidin-2-one as Efficient Ligand for the Copper-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Pyrrole, Imidazole and Indole.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 39 2010
Hengchang Ma
Abstract The easy preparation, broad substrate applicability and substituent compatibility of this catalyst system renders the oxazolidine-2-one system great advantages over previous Cu-catalyzed N-arylation methods. [source]

Promoted H2 Generation from NH3BH3 Thermal Dehydrogenation Catalyzed by Metal,Organic Framework Based Catalysts

Dr. Yaoqi Li
Abstract The application of ammonium borane (AB) as a hydrogen storage material is limited by the sluggish kinetics of H2 release. Two catalysts based on metal,organic frameworks (MOFs) have been prepared either by applying MOF as precursors or by the in situ reduction method. In the release of H2 from AB, the high H2 content of the whole system, the remarkably lower reaction onset temperature, the significantly increased H2 release rates at ,90,°C, and the decreased reaction exothermicity have all been achieved with only 1.0,mol,% MOF-based catalyst. Moreover, the clear catalytic diversity of three catalysts has been observed and discussed. The in situ synthesized Ni0 sites and the MOF supports in the catalysts were proven to show significant and different effects to promote the catalytic activities. With MOF-based catalysts, both the enhanced kinetics and the high H2 capacity of the AB system present great advantages for future use. [source]