Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Great

  • great advance
  • great advantage
  • great amount
  • great ape
  • great artery
  • great attention
  • great barrier reef
  • great barrier reef marine park
  • great basin
  • great benefit
  • great britain
  • great bustard Oti tarda
  • great cardiac vein
  • great care
  • great caution
  • great challenge
  • great change
  • great concern
  • great deal
  • great degree
  • great demand
  • great depression
  • great depth
  • great detail
  • great difference
  • great difficulty
  • great distance
  • great diversity
  • great dividing range
  • great effect
  • great efficacy
  • great efficiency
  • great effort
  • great enhancement
  • great expectation
  • great extent
  • great flexibility
  • great help
  • great heterogeneity
  • great impact
  • great importance
  • great improvement
  • great increase
  • great influence
  • great interest
  • great lake
  • great lake basin
  • great lake region
  • great leader
  • great length
  • great loss
  • great majority
  • great need
  • great number
  • great opportunity
  • great part
  • great possibility
  • great potential
  • great potential application
  • great power
  • great progress
  • great promise
  • great reduction
  • great reed warbler
  • great relevance
  • great risk
  • great salt lake
  • great sensitivity
  • great significance
  • great similarity
  • great stress
  • great stride
  • great sturgeon
  • great success
  • great therapeutic potential
  • great tit
  • great tit parus major
  • great toe
  • great uncertainty
  • great use
  • great utility
  • great value
  • great variability
  • great variation
  • great variety
  • great versatility
  • great vessel
  • great war

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. Pogroms in the Russian Pale in 1881 set off a wave of immigration of Russian Jews to the United States. Most went to the cities, but an important group, with the support of philanthropic organizations, became part of an experiment in Jewish agricultural colonies. South Jersey's Alliance and Woodbine were the most successful. Both were established on undeveloped land, and the landscape that emerged suggests the importance the funders placed on using landscape as a means of Americanization. [source]

    Insulin-like 3 signalling in testicular descent

    Ibrahim M. Adham
    Summary Undescended testis is one of the most common congenital defects in the newborn boys and the common cause of cryptorchidism. If left untreated, this condition is strongly associated with infertility and drastically increased risk of testicular cancer in adulthood. Testis position in developing males is defined by sexual dimorphic differentiation of two gonadal ligaments, gubernaculum and cranial suspensory ligament. Recent transgenic mouse studies identified testicular hormone insulin-like 3 (INSL3), and its receptor, GREAT/LGR8, as the critical regulators of the gubernacular differentiation. Mutation analysis of the two genes in patients with undescended testis revealed functionally deleterious mutations, which may be responsible for the abnormal phenotype in some of the patients. [source]

    Exercise of royal power in early medieval Europe: the case of Otto the Great 936,73

    David Bachrach
    Current scholarly orthodoxy holds that the German kingdom under the Ottonians (c.919,1024) did not possess an administration, much less an administrative system that relied heavily upon the ,written word'. It is the contention of this essay that the exercise of royal power under Otto the Great (936,73) relied intrinsically on a substantial royal administrative system that made very considerable use of documents, particularly for the storage of crucial information about royal resources. The focus of this study is on Otto I's use of this written information to exercise royal power in the context of confiscating and requisitioning property from both laymen and ecclesiastical institutions. [source]

    The temptations of cult: Roman martyr piety in the age of Gregory the Great

    Conrad Leyser
    Pope Gregory the Great (590,604) was arguably the most important Roman writer and civic leader of the early middle ages; the Roman martyrs were certainly the most important cult figures of the city. However modern scholarship on the relationship between Gregory and the Roman martyrs remains curiously underdeveloped, and has been principally devoted to comparison of the gesta martyrum with the stories of Italian holy men and women (in particular St Benedict) told by Gregory in his Dialogues; in the past generation the Dialogues have come to be understood as a polemic against the model of sanctity proposed by the Roman martyr narratives. This paper explores Gregory's role in the development of Roman martyr cult in the context of the immediate social world of Roman clerical politics of the sixth and seventh centuries. Gregory's authority as bishop of Rome was extremely precarious: the Roman clerical hierarchy with its well-developed protocols did not take kindly to the appearance of Gregory and his ascetic companions. In the conflict between Gregory and his followers, and their opponents, both sides used patronage of martyr cult to advance their cause. In spite of the political necessity of engaging in such ,competitive generosity', Gregory was also concerned to channel martyr devotion, urging contemplation on the moral achievements of the martyrs , which could be imitated in the present , as opposed to an aggressive and unrestrained piety focused on their death. Gregory's complex attitude to martyr cult needs to be differentiated from that which was developed over a century later, north of the Alps, by Carolingian readers and copyists of gesta martyrum and pilgrim guides, whose approach to the Roman martyrs was informed by Gregory's own posthumous reputation. [source]

    Dating the Gesta martyrum: a manuscript-based approach

    Clare Pilsworth
    The gesta martyrum are an anonymous and disparate group of texts celebrating saints venerated in early medieval Rome as having been martyred in that city. This paper investigates the problems involved in placing these texts in their early medieval contexts. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, when scholarship moved away from attempts to identify a core of authentic ancient tradition in these early medieval narratives, most work on the corpus has concentrated on dating the composition of the accounts of individual martyrs. Given the sparsity of absolute chronological markers through references or citations in other written sources, this has inevitably rested on circumstantial evidence and the reconstruction of probable contexts for the redaction of specific works. This paper argues that much new light can be shed on the development of the cult of Roman martyrs if we shift the focus of our investigation from the origin and composition of the Urtexts to the surviving manuscript witnesses , all bar one eighth century or later , and the complex process of transmission which they document. The earliest copies of gesta martyrum, in both legendaries and other manuscripts, reveal surprisingly diverse contexts of transmission. Detailed investigation of Vienna National bibliothek 357, which Dufourcq argued contains a copy of a collection of martyr-narratives available to Gregory the Great, shows that in fact this manuscript sheds light on interest in Roman martyrs north of the Alps in the late Carolingian period, and the networks of contact and communication through which information about the Roman martyrs was transmitted across time and space. [source]

    A Geographic Information Systems,based, weights-of-evidence approach for diagnosing aquatic ecosystem impairment

    Katherine E. Kapo
    Abstract A Geographic Information Systems,based, watershed-level assessment using Bayesian weights of evidence (WOE) and weighted logistic regression (WLR) provides a method to determine and compare potential environmental stressors in lotic ecosystems and to create predictive models of general or species-specific biological impairment across numerous spatial scales based on limited existing sample data. The WOE/WLR technique used in the present study is a data-driven, probabilistic approach conceptualized in epidemiological research and both developed for and currently used in minerals exploration. Extrapolation of this methodology to a case-study watershed assessment of the Great and Little Miami watersheds (OH, USA) using archival data yielded baseline results consistent with previous assessments. The method additionally produced a quantitative determination of physical and chemical watershed stressor associations with biological impairment and a predicted comparative probability (i.e., favorability) of biological impairment at a spatial resolution of 0.5 km2 over the watershed study region. Habitat stressors showed the greatest spatial association with biological impairment in low-order streams (on average, 56% of total spatial association), whereas water chemistry, particularly that of wastewater effluent, was associated most strongly with biological impairment in high-order reaches (on average, 79% of total spatial association, 28% of which was attributed to effluent). Significant potential stressors varied by land-use and stream order as well as by species. This WOE/WLR method provides a highly useful "tier 1" watershed risk assessment product through the integration of various existing data sources, and it produces a clear visual communication of areas favorable for biological impairment and a quantitative ranking of candidate stressors and associated uncertainty. [source]

    The International Relations of Middle-earth: Learning from The Lord of the Rings

    Abigail E. Ruane
    This article demonstrates how by using J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings (LOTR) as a text in the classroom instructors can relay the international relations (IR) "Great Debates" and feminist "waves" to students through the framework of "where you stand depends on where you sit." It overviews how J.R.R. Tolkien's acclaimed trilogy is relevant to learning about IR and then presents a number of "cuts" into using LOTR to inform IR teaching of both problem solving and critical theory. It begins by parsing the three "Great Debates" of IR theory and three "waves" of feminist theory in terms of different worldviews by relating them to characters from the trilogy. Next, the paper suggests that a critical evaluation of this analysis conveys that concerns, goals, and understandings of problems and insecurities are influenced (although not determined) by context, such as gender, race, class, sexuality, and postcolonial position. It concludes by suggesting that further use of popular culture and the humanities can help IR teaching both illustrate and critically reflect on IR scholarship. [source]

    Systematic review: non-invasive methods of fibrosis analysis in chronic hepatitis C

    J. O. SMITH
    Summary Background, Accurate determination of the presence and degree of liver fibrosis is essential for prognosis and for planning treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Non-invasive methods of assessing fibrosis have been developed to reduce the need for biopsy. Aim, To perform a review of these non-invasive measures and their ability to replace biopsy for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV. Methods, A systematic review of PUBMED and EMBASE was performed through 2008 using the following search terms: HCV, liver, elastography, hepatitis, Fibroscan, SPECT, noninvasive liver fibrosis, ultrasonography, Doppler, MRI, Fibrotest, Fibrosure, Actitest, APRI, Forns and breath tests, alone or in combination. Results, We identified 151 studies: 87 using biochemical, 57 imaging and seven breath tests either alone or in combination. Conclusions, Great strides are being made in the development of accurate non-invasive methods for determination of fibrosis. Although no single non-invasive test or model developed to date can match that information obtained from actual histology (i.e. inflammation, fibrosis, steatosis), combinations of two modalities of non-invasive methods can reliably differentiate between minimal and significant fibrosis, and thereby avoid liver biopsy in a significant percentage of patients. [source]

    Systematic review: applications and future of gastric electrical stimulation

    J. ZHANG
    Summary Background, Over the past 20 years, gastric electrical stimulation has received increasing attention among researchers and clinicians. Aim, To give a systematic review on the effects, mechanisms and applications of gastric electrical stimulation. Methods, Medline was used to identify the articles to be included in this review. Key words used for the search included gastric electrical stimulation, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, stomach, gastrointestinal motility, central nervous system, gastroparesis, nausea and vomiting; obesity and weight loss. Combinational uses of these keywords were made to identify relevant articles. Most of the articles included in this review ranged from 1985 to 2006. Results, Based on the general search, the review was structured as follows: (i) peripheral and central effects and mechanisms of gastric electrical stimulation; (ii) clinical applications of gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis and obesity and (iii) future development of gastric electrical stimulation. Conclusions, Great progress has been made during the past decades. Gastric electrical stimulation has been shown to be effective in normalizing gastric dysrhythmia, accelerating gastric emptying and improving nausea and vomiting. Implantable device has been made available for treating gastroparesis as well as obesity. However, development of a new device and controlled clinical studies are required to further prove clinical efficacy of gastric electrical stimulation. [source]

    "A Discovered Dissembler Can Achieve Nothing Great"; Or, Four Theses on the Death of Presidential Rhetoric in an Age of Empire

    Because of the explosion of mass media, we have entered a new age of white noise; because of the disastrous extension of U.S. imperial ambitions, we have entered a new age of political deception; when these two historical factors are combined with the peculiar communicative habits of President George W. Bush, Americans are left with what we call a post-rhetorical presidency. This is an anti-democratic condition wherein presidential discourse is not meant to mobilize, educate, and uplift the masses; rather, by marshaling ubiquitous public chatter, waves of disinformation, and cascades of confusion-causing misdirection, post-rhetorical presidential discourse attempts to confuse public opinion, prevent citizen action, and frustrate citizen deliberation. Under these new conditions, the president defines fantasy, not reality; he numbs citizens rather than energizing them; instead of informing and teaching, he chooses to dumb down and stupefy. We pursue this thesis by offering four philosophical theses and three rhetorical case studies of the president's public speaking, thus combining critical theory and rhetorical criticism to help map what may represent the death of democracy. [source]

    Reform in Lieu of Change: Tastes Great, Less Filling

    Jonathan Koppell
    In this response to Light, Koppell argues that the increasing frequency of reform may reflect Congress's inability to make significant changes to the substance of entrenched government programs. Moreover, he observes that the more profound evolution in government has been the movement toward market-based provision of services, which has created demand for new competencies in the public sector. [source]

    The Soteriology of Leo the Great , By Bernard Green

    James K. Lee
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Catherine the Great: Love, Sex, and Power , By Virginia Rounding

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 3 2008
    Gregory L. Freeze
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Commentary on "Pandemic Human Viruses Cause Decline of Endangered Great Apes," by Köndgen et al., 2008, Current Biology 18: 260,264

    Tony L. Goldberg
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    From Tastes Great to Cool: Children's Food Marketing and the Rise of the Symbolic

    Juliet B. Schor
    Children's exposure to food marketing has exploded in recent years, along with rates of obesity and overweight. Children of color and low-income children are disproportionately at risk for both marketing exposure and becoming overweight.Comprehensive reviews of the literature show that advertising is effective in changing children's food preferences and diets. This paper surveys the scope and scale of current marketing practices, and focuses on the growing use of symbolic appeals that are central in food brands to themes such as finding an identity and feeling powerful and in control. These themes are so potent because they are central to children in their development and constitution of self. The paper concludes that reduction of exposure to marketing will be a central part of any successfu anti-obesity strategy. [source]

    "What You Seek Is Here": Alexander the Great

    Carol G. Thomas

    Gender and Hmong Women's Handicrafts in Fenghuang's ,Tourism Great Leap Forward,' China

    Xianghong Feng
    Abstract Fenghuang County in rural Hunan Province started its "Tourism Great Leap Forward" in 2002, when the county government granted a 50-year lease for development rights over eight local major tourist sites to Yellow Dragon Cave Corporation (YDCC) headquartered in Changsha City, the capital of Hunan. Based on ethnographic research in 2002 and 2005,2006, this article explores the sociocultural impacts of Fenghuang's tourism development on local Hmong women's gender roles and their traditional handicrafts. According to the official state development discourse, local Hmong communities' traditional ethnic culture is associated with both poverty and the solution to poverty. Local Hmong women's handicraft practice in the context of tourism is used in this article to illustrate how local people react to this dilemma, and how ethnic minorities and rural residents are being drawn into the widening orbit of contemporary China's neoliberal economic development. [source]

    Digital Solipsisim and the Paradox of the Great ,Forgetting'

    Neil Spiller
    Abstract Neil Spiller counters the main theme of this issue by questioning the dominant focus on production and new technologies in architectural culture, which places a premium on the generation of ,ever more gratuitous complex surfaces and structures'. Could this inward-looking emphasis on process and obsessive love of new technologies be at the expense of the final product? Are we in danger of producing artefacts that lose sight of human expression and poetics in the competitive drive for greater complexity? Are we, in fact, heading towards a great ,forgetting' in which humanity is subtracted from the architectural product? [source]

    ,Great and Noble Ideas of the Moral Kind': Wright of Derby and the Scientific Sublime

    ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2010
    Paul Duro
    First page of article [source]

    Sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2007
    Results of the IVDK, review of the literature
    To study the frequency of sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation. During 4 periods of 6 months, from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004, 26 fragrances were patch tested additionally to the standard series in a total of 21 325 patients; the number of patients tested with each of the fragrances ranged from 1658 to 4238. Hydroxymethylpentylcyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPCC) was tested throughout all periods. The following frequencies of sensitization (rates in %, standardized for sex and age) were observed: tree moss (2.4%), HMPCC (2.3), oak moss (2.0), hydroxycitronellal (1.3), isoeugenol (1.1), cinnamic aldehyde (1.0), farnesol (0.9), cinnamic alcohol (0.6), citral (0.6), citronellol (0.5), geraniol (0.4), eugenol (0.4), coumarin (0.4), lilial (0.3), amyl-cinnamic alcohol (0.3), benzyl cinnamate (0.3), benzyl alcohol (0.3), linalool (0.2), methylheptin carbonate (0.2), amyl-cinnamic aldehyde (0.1), hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (0.1), limonene (0.1), benzyl salicylate (0.1), ,-methylionon (0.1), benzyl benzoate (0.0), anisyl alcohol (0.0). 1) Substances with higher sensitization frequencies were characterized by a considerable number of ,++/+++' reactions. 2) Substances with low sensitization frequencies were characterized by a high number of doubtful/irritant and a low number of stronger (++/+++) reactions. 3) There are obviously fragrances among the 26 which are, with regard to contact allergy, of great, others of minor, and some of no importance at all. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    We propose a model that integrates the extralegal consequences from conviction and impulsivity into the traditional deterrence framework. The model was tested with 252 college students, who completed a survey concerning drinking and driving. Key findings include the following: (1) Although variation in sanction certainty and severity predicted offending, variation in celerity did not; (2) the extralegal consequences from conviction appear to be at least as great a deterrent as the legal consequences; (3) the influence of sanction severity diminished with an individual's "present-orientation"; and (4) the certainty of punishment was far more robust a deterrent to offending than was the severity of punishment. [source]

    Discrepancy in measuring CD4 expression on T-lymphocytes using fluorescein conjugates in comparison with unimolar CD4-phycoerythrin conjugates,,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 6 2007
    Lili Wang
    Abstract Background: Numerous methods for quantitative fluorescence calibration (QFC) have been developed to quantify receptor expression on lymphocytes. However, the results from the use of these different QFC methods vary considerably in the literature. To better identify the causes of these discrepancies, we measured CD4 expression using FITC and phycoerythrin (PE) conjugates to stain CYTO-TROLÔ Control Cells and T-lymphocytes in whole blood and isolated cell preparations. We further examined pH of the cellular microenvironment as a cause of discordant results obtained with the FITC conjugate. Methods: Calibration with Quantibrite PE-labeled microspheres and the use of unimolar CD4-PE conjugates provided direct measurement of the antibody bound per cell value (ABC) for CD4 expression on normal T-lymphocytes. Calibration for CD4-FITC monoclonal antibody (Mab) labeled CYTO-TROL Control Cells and normal T-lymphocytes was based on molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF) as determined by FITC-labeled microspheres traceable to NIST RM 8640. The MESF value for CD4-FITC Mab was determined that enabled the conversion of the MESF values obtained for CYTO-TROL cells to ABC. We investigated the likely pH change in the fluorescein microenvironments within FITC-labeled Mab and cells stained with FITC-labeled Mab using a pH sensitive indicator. Results: The mean ABC value for T-lymphocytes prepared from fresh whole blood using CD4-PE conjugate (48,321) was consistent with previous results, and it was much higher than the mean ABC using CD4-FITC Mab (22,156). The mean ABC value for CYTO-TROL cells using CD4-PE conjugate (43,090) was also higher than that using CD4-FITC conjugate (34,734), although the discrepancy was not as great. Further studies suggested the discrepancy in CYTO-TROL results may be accounted for by the low pH of the membrane microenvironment, but the greater discrepancy in T-lymphocytes could not be fully explained. Conclusion: CD4 expression on fresh normal whole blood samples and CYTO-TROL cells can be consistently quantified in ABC units using Quantibrite PE quantification beads and unimolar CD4-PE conjugates. Quantification with CD4-FITC conjugate is not as consistent, but may be improved by the use of CD4 T-cells as biological calibrators. This approximation is valid only for surface receptors with consensus ABC values measured by different QFC methods serving as biological standards. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Capitalism and Climate Change: Can the Invisible Hand Adjust the Natural Thermostat?

    Servaas Storm
    Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I've tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice. (Robert Frost, ,Fire and Ice', New Hampshire,1923) ABSTRACT Can climate change be stopped while fossil fuel capitalism remains the dominant system? What has to be done and what has to change to avoid the worst-case consequences of global warming? These questions are debated in the six contributions which follow. This introduction to the debate sets the stage and puts the often widely diverging views in context, distinguishing two axes of debate. The first axis (,market vs. regulation') measures faith in the invisible hand to adjust the natural thermostat. The second axis expresses differences in views on the efficiency and equity implications of climate action. While the contributions do differ along these axes, most authors agree that capitalism's institutions need to be drastically reformed and made fundamentally more equitable. This means a much broader agenda for the climate movement (going beyond carbon trading and technocratic discussion of mitigation options). What is needed for climate stability is a systemic transformation based on growth scepticism, a planned transition to a non-fossil fuel economy, democratic reform, climate justice, and changed global knowledge and corporate and financial power structures. [source]

    From Urban to Rural: Lessons for Microfinance from Argentina

    Mark Schreiner
    The recent success of microfinance for the urban self-employed contrasts with decades of failure on the part of public development banks for small farmers. This article describes the ways in which rural microfinance organisations have tried to adapt the lessons of urban microfinance to manage the risks and control the costs of the supply of financial services in rural areas. It then asks whether the lessons of urban microfinance are likely to apply in the poorest rural areas of Argentina. The article concludes that microfinance is unlikely to improve access to small loans and small deposits for many of the rural poor in Argentina; distances are too great, farmers too specialised, and wages too high. Improved access depends not on targeting loans by government decree but on strengthening institutions that support financial markets. [source]

    PNET-like features of synovial sarcoma of the lung: A pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors

    Pascale Hummel M.D.
    Abstract Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of soft-tissue tumors is evolving. As more experience is gained, we are becoming aware of potential pitfalls. We describe 2 cases of synovial sarcoma of the lung, primary and metastatic, in patients who had FNA biopsy performed on a lung mass. The cytologic smears showed extremely cellular groups of malignant small round cells, intersected by small blood vessels, with numerous loose single cells, in a background of macrophages and mature lymphocytes. The tumors displayed monomorphic cells forming rosettes and displaying occasional mitoses. A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor/primitive neuroepithelial tumor (PNET) was suspected. Furthermore, this suspicion was supported by immunohistochemical stains, which showed positivity for a neuroendocrine marker, Leu 7 (case 1), and for a neural marker, CD 99 (O 13 or HBA 71) (both cases); and negativity for cytokeratins (case 1). The resection specimen of case 1 had mostly tightly packed small round cells, with occasional rosettes, similar to the FNA biopsy, and focal areas composed of spindle cells, organized in a focal fibrosarcoma-like and hemangiopericytoma-like pattern. A balanced translocation between chromosomes X and 18, demonstrated by both karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), enabled us to make a diagnosis of synovial sarcoma, which was histologically classified as poorly differentiated. Case 2 was a metastatic biphasic synovial sarcoma of the arm, with a prominent epithelial component. Synovial sarcoma, when composed mainly of small round cells on cytologic smears, is a great mimicker of neuroendocrine/PNET tumors, with light microscopic and immunohistochemical overlap. Awareness of this potential pitfall may aid in preventing a misdiagnosis. Its recognition is of major concern, especially for the poorly differentiated variant, because it is associated with a worse prognosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:283,288, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Misunderstanding Gödel: New Arguments about Wittgenstein and New Remarks by Wittgenstein

    DIALECTICA, Issue 3 2003
    Victor Rodych
    The long-standing issue of Wittgenstein's controversial remarks on Gödel's Theorem has recently heated up in a number of different and interesting directions [(Floyd and Putnam. 2000), (Steiner, 2001), (Floyd, 2001)]. In their (2000), Juliet Floyd and Hilary Putnam purport to argue that Wittgenstein's,notorious'(RFM App. III, §8) "Contains a philosophical claim of great interest," namely, "if one assumed. that ,P is provable in Russell's system one should, give up the "translation" of P by the English sentence ,P is not provable'," because if ,P is provable in PM, PM is , -inconsistent, and if PM is ,-inconsistent, we cannot translate ,P'as 'P is not provable in PM'because the predicate,NaturalNo.(x)'in ,P'"cannot be,interpreted" as "x is a natural number." Though Floyd and Putnam do not clearly distinguish the two tasks, they also argue for "The Floyd-Putnam Thesis," namely, that in the 1930's Wittgenstein had a particular (correct) understanding of Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem. In this paper, I endeavour to show, first, that the most natural and most defensible interpretation of Wittgenstein's (RFM App. III, §8) and the rest of (RFM App. III) is incompatible with the Floyd-Putnam attribution and, second, that evidence from Wittgenstein's Nachla (i.e., a hitherto unknown "proof sketch" of Gödel's reasoning, Wittgenstein's only mention of ,-inconsistency, and Wittgenstein's only mention of "K provable") strongly indicates that the Floyd- Putnam attribution and the Floyd-Putnam Thesis are false. By way of this examination, we shall see that despite a failure to properly understand Gödel's proof,perhaps because, as Kreisel says, Wittgenstein did not read Gödel's 1931 paper prior to 1942-Wittgenstein's 1937,38, 1941 and 1944 remarks indicate that Gödel's result makes no sense from Wittgenstein's own (idiosyncratic) perspective. [source]

    Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2008
    Flor Ma.
    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst,2 causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated. [source]

    The effect of short fire cycles on the cover and density of understorey sprouting species in South African mountain fynbos

    J. H. J. Vlok
    Abstract. Two South African mountain fynbos sites were studied to determine the effect of short fire cycles on the cover and density of understorey sprouting species and their subsequent effect on plant-species richness. Frequent fires (4,6 years between burns) increased the cover of sprouting species by 32% when compared to an adjacent site where the penultimate fire was 28 years previously. There was little or no effect of fire frequency on the densities of understorey sprouters; however, individuals were larger at sites with short fire cycles. The response of individual species of sprouters was variable with one species, Hypodiscus striatus, showing no response to fire frequency. The impact of sprouting species on the species richness of the plant community was great. The mean number of species recorded in quadrats with a high cover of sprouters was 60% lower in comparison to quadrats with low covers or under the burned skeletons of overstorey proteas. The effect of sprouters was consistent for all functional groups of species (i.e. sprouters, non-sprouters, short-lived and long-lived species), in each case reducing the number of species present. [source]

    All creatures great but mainly small

    John H. Lawton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A cross-ecosystem comparison of the strength of trophic cascades

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2002
    Jonathan B. Shurin
    Abstract Although trophic cascades (indirect effects of predators on plants via herbivores) occur in a wide variety of food webs, the magnitudes of their effects are often quite variable. We compared the responses of herbivore and plant communities to predator manipulations in 102 field experiments in six different ecosystems: lentic (lake and pond), marine, and stream benthos, lentic and marine plankton, and terrestrial (grasslands and agricultural fields). Predator effects varied considerably among systems and were strongest in lentic and marine benthos and weakest in marine plankton and terrestrial food webs. Predator effects on herbivores were generally larger and more variable than on plants, suggesting that cascades often become attenuated at the plant,herbivore interface. Top-down control of plant biomass was stronger in water than on land; however, the differences among the five aquatic food webs were as great as those between wet and dry systems. [source]