Graphics Hardware (graphics + hardware)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Graphics Hardware

  • programmable graphics hardware


  • Selected Abstracts


    Practical CFD Simulations on Programmable Graphics Hardware using SMAC,

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 4 2005
    Carlos E. Scheidegger
    Abstract The explosive growth in integration technology and the parallel nature of rasterization-based graphics APIs (Application Programming Interface) changed the panorama of consumer-level graphics: today, GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) are cheap, fast and ubiquitous. We show how to harness the computational power of GPUs and solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid equations significantly faster (more than one order of magnitude in average) than on CPU solvers of comparable cost. While past approaches typically used Stam's implicit solver, we use a variation of SMAC (Simplified Marker and Cell). SMAC is widely used in engineering applications, where experimental reproducibility is essential. Thus, we show that the GPU is a viable and affordable processor for scientific applications. Our solver works with general rectangular domains (possibly with obstacles), implements a variety of boundary conditions and incorporates energy transport through the traditional Boussinesq approximation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our solver in light of future GPU features, and possible extensions such as three-dimensional domains and free-boundary problems. [source]


    SIMD Optimization of Linear Expressions for Programmable Graphics Hardware

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 4 2004
    Chandrajit Bajaj
    Abstract The increased programmability of graphics hardware allows efficient graphical processing unit (GPU) implementations of a wide range of general computations on commodity PCs. An important factor in such implementations is how to fully exploit the SIMD computing capacities offered by modern graphics processors. Linear expressions in the form of, where A is a matrix, and and are vectors, constitute one of the most basic operations in many scientific computations. In this paper, we propose a SIMD code optimization technique that enables efficient shader codes to be generated for evaluating linear expressions. It is shown that performance can be improved considerably by efficiently packing arithmetic operations into four-wide SIMD instructions through reordering of the operations in linear expressions. We demonstrate that the presented technique can be used effectively for programming both vertex and pixel shaders for a variety of mathematical applications, including integrating differential equations and solving a sparse linear system of equations using iterative methods. [source]


    DiFi: Fast 3D Distance Field Computation Using Graphics Hardware

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2004
    Avneesh Sud
    We present an algorithm for fast computation of discretized 3D distance fields using graphics hardware. Given a set of primitives and a distance metric, our algorithm computes the distance field for each slice of a uniform spatial grid baly rasterizing the distance functions of the primitives. We compute bounds on the spatial extent of the Voronoi region of each primitive. These bounds are used to cull and clamp the distance functions rendered for each slice. Our algorithm is applicable to all geometric models and does not make any assumptions about connectivity or a manifold representation. We have used our algorithm to compute distance fields of large models composed of tens of thousands of primitives on high resolution grids. Moreover, we demonstrate its application to medial axis evaluation and proximity computations. As compared to earlier approaches, we are able to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the running time. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Distance fields, Voronoi regions, graphics hardware, proximity computations [source]


    Interactive Visualization with Programmable Graphics Hardware

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2002
    Thomas Ertl
    One of the main scientific goals of visualization is the development of algorithms and appropriate data models which facilitate interactive visual analysis and direct manipulation of the increasingly large data sets which result from simulations running on massive parallel computer systems, from measurements employing fast high-resolution sensors, or from large databases and hierarchical information spaces. This task can only be achieved with the optimization of all stages of the visualization pipeline: filtering, compression, and feature extraction of the raw data sets, adaptive visualization mappings which allow the users to choose between speed and accuracy, and exploiting new graphics hardware features for fast and high-quality rendering. The recent introduction of advanced programmability in widely available graphics hardware has already led to impressive progress in the area of volume visualization. However, besides the acceleration of the final rendering, flexible graphics hardware is increasingly being used also for the mapping and filtering stages of the visualization pipeline, thus giving rise to new levels of interactivity in visualization applications. The talk will present recent results of applying programmable graphics hardware in various visualization algorithms covering volume data, flow data, terrains, NPR rendering, and distributed and remote applications. [source]


    Hardware-Accelerated Rendering of Photo Hulls

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2004
    Ming Li
    This paper presents an efficient hardware-accelerated method for novel view synthesis from a set of images or videos. Our method is based on the photo hull representation, which is the maximal photo-consistent shape. We avoid the explicit reconstruction of photo hulls by adopting a view-dependent plane-sweeping strategy. From the target viewpoint slicing planes are rendered with reference views projected onto them. Graphics hardware is exploited to verify the photo-consistency of each rasterized fragment. Visibilities with respect to reference views are properly modeled, and only photo-consistent fragments are kept and colored in the target view. We present experiments with real images and animation sequences. Thanks to the more accurate shape of the photo hull representation, our method generates more realistic rendering results than methods based on visual hulls. Currently, we achieve rendering frame rates of 2,3 fps. Compared to a pure software implementation, the performance of our hardware-accelerated method is approximately 7 times faster. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): CR Categories: I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation; I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism. [source]


    GPU-based interactive visualization framework for ultrasound datasets

    COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 1 2009
    Sukhyun Lim
    Abstract Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medical areas. By transmitting ultrasound signals into the human body, their echoed signals can be rendered to represent the shape of internal organs. Although its image quality is inferior to that of CT or MR, ultrasound is widely used for its speed and reasonable cost. Volume rendering techniques provide methods for rendering the 3D volume dataset intuitively. We present a visualization framework for ultrasound datasets that uses programmable graphics hardware. For this, we convert ultrasound coordinates into Cartesian form. In ultrasound datasets, however, since physical storage and representation space is different, we apply different sampling intervals adaptively for each ray. In addition, we exploit multiple filtered datasets in order to reduce noise. By our method, we can determine the adequate filter size without considering the filter size. As a result, our approach enables interactive volume rendering for ultrasound datasets, using a consumer-level PC. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Real-time simulation of watery paint

    COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 3-4 2005
    Tom Van Laerhoven
    Abstract Existing work on applications for thin watery paint is mostly focused on automatic generation of painterly-style images from input images, ignoring the fact that painting is a process that intuitively should be interactive. Efforts to create real-time interactive systems are limited to a single paint medium and results often suffer from a trade-off between real-timeness and simulation complexity. We report on the design of a new system that allows the real-time, interactive creation of images with thin watery paint. We mainly target the simulation of watercolor, but the system is also capable of simulating gouache and Oriental black ink. The motion of paint is governed by both physically based and heuristic rules in a layered canvas design. A final image is rendered by optically composing the layers using the Kubelka,Munk diffuse reflectance model. All algorithms that participate in the dynamics phase and the rendering phase of the simulation are implemented on graphics hardware. Images made with the system contain the typical effects that can be recognized in images produced with real thin paint, like the dark-edge effect, watercolor glazing, wet-on-wet painting and the use of different pigment types. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Time-Adaptive Lines for the Interactive Visualization of Unsteady Flow Data Sets

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 8 2009
    N. Cuntz
    I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Line and Curve Generation; I.3.1 [Computer Graphics]: Parallel Processing Abstract The quest for the ideal flow visualization reveals two major challenges: interactivity and accuracy. Interactivity stands for explorative capabilities and real-time control. Accuracy is a prerequisite for every professional visualization in order to provide a reliable base for analysis of a data set. Geometric flow visualization has a long tradition and comes in very different flavors. Among these, stream, path and streak lines are known to be very useful for both 2D and 3D flows. Despite their importance in practice, appropriate algorithms suited for contemporary hardware are rare. In particular, the adaptive construction of the different line types is not sufficiently studied. This study provides a profound representation and discussion of stream, path and streak lines. Two algorithms are proposed for efficiently and accurately generating these lines using modern graphics hardware. Each includes a scheme for adaptive time-stepping. The adaptivity for stream and path lines is achieved through a new processing idea we call ,selective transform feedback'. The adaptivity for streak lines combines adaptive time-stepping and a geometric refinement of the curve itself. Our visualization is applied, among others, to a data set representing a simulated typhoon. The storage as a set of 3D textures requires special attention. Both algorithms explicitly support this storage, as well as the use of precomputed adaptivity information. [source]


    Wind projection basis for real-time animation of trees

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 2 2009
    Julien Diener
    This paper presents a real-time method to animate complex scenes of thousands of trees under a user-controllable wind load. Firstly, modal analysis is applied to extract the main modes of deformation from the mechanical model of a 3D tree. The novelty of our contribution is to precompute a new basis of the modal stress of the tree under wind load. At runtime, this basis allows to replace the modal projection of the external forces by a direct mapping for any directional wind. We show that this approach can be efficiently implemented on graphics hardware. This modal animation can be simulated at low computation cost even for large scenes containing thousands of trees. [source]


    Interaction-Dependent Semantics for Illustrative Volume Rendering

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2008
    Peter Rautek
    In traditional illustration the choice of appropriate styles and rendering techniques is guided by the intention of the artist. For illustrative volume visualizations it is difficult to specify the mapping between the 3D data and the visual representation that preserves the intention of the user. The semantic layers concept establishes this mapping with a linguistic formulation of rules that directly map data features to rendering styles. With semantic layers fuzzy logic is used to evaluate the user defined illustration rules in a preprocessing step. In this paper we introduce interaction-dependent rules that are evaluated for each frame and are therefore computationally more expensive. Enabling interaction-dependent rules, however, allows the use of a new class of semantics, resulting in more expressive interactive illustrations. We show that the evaluation of the fuzzy logic can be done on the graphics hardware enabling the efficient use of interaction-dependent semantics. Further we introduce the flat rendering mode and discuss how different rendering parameters are influenced by the rule base. Our approach provides high quality illustrative volume renderings at interactive frame rates, guided by the specification of illustration rules. [source]


    Lighting and Occlusion in a Wave-Based Framework

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 2 2008
    Remo Ziegler
    Abstract We present novel methods to enhance Computer Generated Holography (CGH) by introducing a complex-valued wave-based occlusion handling method. This offers a very intuitive and efficient interface to introduce optical elements featuring physically-based light interaction exhibiting depth-of-field, diffraction, and glare effects. Fur-thermore, an efficient and flexible evaluation of lit objects on a full-parallax hologram leads to more convincing images. Previous illumination methods for CGH are not able to change the illumination settings of rendered holo-grams. In this paper we propose a novel method for real-time lighting of rendered holograms in order to change the appearance of a previously captured holographic scene. These functionalities are features of a bigger wave-based rendering framework which can be combined with 2D framebuffer graphics. We present an algorithm which uses graphics hardware to accelerate the rendering. [source]


    Volume and Isosurface Rendering with GPU-Accelerated Cell Projection,

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 1 2008
    R. Marroquim
    Abstract We present an efficient Graphics Processing Unit GPU-based implementation of the Projected Tetrahedra (PT) algorithm. By reducing most of the CPU,GPU data transfer, the algorithm achieves interactive frame rates (up to 2.0 M Tets/s) on current graphics hardware. Since no topology information is stored, it requires substantially less memory than recent interactive ray casting approaches. The method uses a two-pass GPU approach with two fragment shaders. This work includes extended volume inspection capabilities by supporting interactive transfer function editing and isosurface highlighting using a Phong illumination model. [source]


    SIMD Optimization of Linear Expressions for Programmable Graphics Hardware

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 4 2004
    Chandrajit Bajaj
    Abstract The increased programmability of graphics hardware allows efficient graphical processing unit (GPU) implementations of a wide range of general computations on commodity PCs. An important factor in such implementations is how to fully exploit the SIMD computing capacities offered by modern graphics processors. Linear expressions in the form of, where A is a matrix, and and are vectors, constitute one of the most basic operations in many scientific computations. In this paper, we propose a SIMD code optimization technique that enables efficient shader codes to be generated for evaluating linear expressions. It is shown that performance can be improved considerably by efficiently packing arithmetic operations into four-wide SIMD instructions through reordering of the operations in linear expressions. We demonstrate that the presented technique can be used effectively for programming both vertex and pixel shaders for a variety of mathematical applications, including integrating differential equations and solving a sparse linear system of equations using iterative methods. [source]


    DiFi: Fast 3D Distance Field Computation Using Graphics Hardware

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2004
    Avneesh Sud
    We present an algorithm for fast computation of discretized 3D distance fields using graphics hardware. Given a set of primitives and a distance metric, our algorithm computes the distance field for each slice of a uniform spatial grid baly rasterizing the distance functions of the primitives. We compute bounds on the spatial extent of the Voronoi region of each primitive. These bounds are used to cull and clamp the distance functions rendered for each slice. Our algorithm is applicable to all geometric models and does not make any assumptions about connectivity or a manifold representation. We have used our algorithm to compute distance fields of large models composed of tens of thousands of primitives on high resolution grids. Moreover, we demonstrate its application to medial axis evaluation and proximity computations. As compared to earlier approaches, we are able to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the running time. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Distance fields, Voronoi regions, graphics hardware, proximity computations [source]


    Interactive Visualization with Programmable Graphics Hardware

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2002
    Thomas Ertl
    One of the main scientific goals of visualization is the development of algorithms and appropriate data models which facilitate interactive visual analysis and direct manipulation of the increasingly large data sets which result from simulations running on massive parallel computer systems, from measurements employing fast high-resolution sensors, or from large databases and hierarchical information spaces. This task can only be achieved with the optimization of all stages of the visualization pipeline: filtering, compression, and feature extraction of the raw data sets, adaptive visualization mappings which allow the users to choose between speed and accuracy, and exploiting new graphics hardware features for fast and high-quality rendering. The recent introduction of advanced programmability in widely available graphics hardware has already led to impressive progress in the area of volume visualization. However, besides the acceleration of the final rendering, flexible graphics hardware is increasingly being used also for the mapping and filtering stages of the visualization pipeline, thus giving rise to new levels of interactivity in visualization applications. The talk will present recent results of applying programmable graphics hardware in various visualization algorithms covering volume data, flow data, terrains, NPR rendering, and distributed and remote applications. [source]


    Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives?

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2001
    Markus Gross
    Since the early days of graphics the computer based representation of three-dimensional geometry has been one of the core research fields. Today, various sophisticated geometric modelling techniques including NURBS or implicit surfaces allow the creation of 3D graphics models with increasingly complex shape. In spite of these methods the triangle has survived over decades as the king of graphics primitives meeting the right balance between descriptive power and computational burden. As a consequence, today's consumer graphics hardware is heavily tailored for high performance triangle processing. In addition, a new generation of geometry processing methods including hierarchical representations, geometric filtering, or feature detection fosters the concept of triangle meshes for graphics modelling. Unlike triangles, points have amazingly been neglected as a graphics primitive. Although being included in APIs since many years, it is only recently that point samples experience a renaissance in computer graphics. Conceptually, points provide a mere discretization of geometry without explicit storage of topology. Thus, point samples reduce the representation to the essentials needed for rendering and enable us to generate highly optimized object representations. Although the loss of topology poses great challenges for graphics processing, the latest generation of algorithms features high performance rendering, point/pixel shading, anisotropic texture mapping, and advanced signal processing of point sampled geometry. This talk will give an overview of how recent research results in the processing of triangles and points are changing our traditional way of thinking of surface representations in computer graphics - and will discuss the question: Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives? [source]


    Drawing for Illustration and Annotation in 3D

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2001
    David Bourguignon
    We present a system for sketching in 3D, which strives to preserve the degree of expression, imagination, and simplicity of use achieved by 2D drawing. Our system directly uses user-drawn strokes to infer the sketches representing the same scene from different viewpoints, rather than attempting to reconstruct a 3D model. This is achieved by interpreting strokes as indications of a local surface silhouette or contour. Strokes thus deform and disappear progressively as we move away from the original viewpoint. They may be occluded by objects indicated by other strokes, or, in contrast, be drawn above such objects. The user draws on a plane which can be positioned explicitly or relative to other objects or strokes in the sketch. Our system is interactive, since we use fast algorithms and graphics hardware for rendering. We present applications to education, design, architecture and fashion, where 3D sketches can be used alone or as an annotation of an existing 3D model. [source]